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Advances in Virology

Gunisha Pasricha, Sanjay Mukherjee, Alok K Chakrabarti
PB1-F2 is a multifunctional protein and contributes to the pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. PB1-F2 is known to have strain and cell specific functions. In this study we have investigated the apoptotic and inflammatory responses of PB1-F2 protein from influenza viruses of diverse pathogenicities in A549 lung epithelial cells. Overexpression of PB1-F2 resulted in apoptosis and heightened inflammatory response in A549 cells. Comparison revealed that the response varied with each subtype. PB1-F2 protein from highly pathogenic H5N1 virus induced least apoptosis but maximum inflammatory response...
2018: Advances in Virology
Muhammad Bashir Bello, Khatijah Mohd Yusoff, Aini Ideris, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Ben P H Peeters, Abdurrahman Hassan Jibril, Farouk Muhammad Tambuwal, Abdul Rahman Omar
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important avian diseases with considerable threat to the productivity of poultry all over the world. The disease is associated with severe respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological lesions in chicken leading to high mortality and several other production related losses. The aetiology of the disease is an avian paramyxovirus type-1 or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), whose isolates are serologically grouped into a single serotype but genetically classified into a total of 19 genotypes, owing to the continuous emergence and evolution of the virus...
2018: Advances in Virology
Luca Mercuri, Emma C Thomson, Joseph Hughes, Peter Karayiannis
The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome contains the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a highly conserved RNA structure essential for cap-independent translation of the viral polyprotein. HCV, apart from the liver, is thought to be associated with lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in lymph nodes and brain tissue. In this study, RT-PCR, cloning, and sequence analysis were employed to investigate the quasispecies nature of the 5'UTR following extraction of viral RNA from PBMCs and plasma of HCV infected individuals...
2018: Advances in Virology
Mpho Magwalivha, Jean-Pierre Kabue, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Natasha Potgieter
Background: Sapovirus (SV) infection is a public health concern which plays an important role in the burden of diarrhoeal diseases, causing acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages in both outbreaks and sporadic cases worldwide. Objective/Study Design: The purpose of this report is to summarise the available data on the detection of human SV in low and middle income countries. A systematic search on PubMed and ScienceDirect database for SV studies published between 2004 and 2017 in low and middle income countries was done...
2018: Advances in Virology
Andrey A Ayginin, Ekaterina V Pimkina, Alina D Matsvay, Anna S Speranskaya, Marina V Safonova, Ekaterina A Blinova, Ilya V Artyushin, Vladimir G Dedkov, German A Shipulin, Kamil Khafizov
Advances in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have significantly increased our ability to detect new viral pathogens and systematically determine the spectrum of viruses prevalent in various biological samples. In addition, this approach has also helped in establishing the associations of viromes with many diseases. However, unlike the metagenomic studies using 16S rRNA for the detection of bacteria, it is impossible to create universal oligonucleotides to target all known and novel viruses, owing to their genomic diversity and variability...
2018: Advances in Virology
Ekaterina Donchenko, Ekaterina Trifonova, Nikolai Nikitin, Joseph Atabekov, Olga Karpova
Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a typical member of the Potexvirus genus in its morphology and genome structure; still it exhibits a number of unique features. They allow this virus to be considered a promising object for biotechnology. Virions and virus-like particles (VLPs) of AltMV are stable in a wide range of conditions, including sera of laboratory animals. AltMV VLPs can assemble at various pH and ionic strengths. Furthermore, AltMV virions and VLPs demonstrate high immunogenicity, enhancing the immune response to the target antigen thus offering the possibility of being used as potential adjuvants...
2018: Advances in Virology
Samuel I Anyanwu, Akins Doherty, Michael D Powell, Chamberlain Obialo, Ming B Huang, Alexander Quarshie, Claudette Mitchell, Khalid Bashir, Gale W Newman
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane bound, secreted by cells, and detected in bodily fluids, including urine, and contain proteins, RNA, and DNA. Our goal was to identify HIV and human proteins (HPs) in urinary EVs from HIV+ patients and compare them to HIV- samples. Methods: Urine samples were collected from HIV+ ( n = 35) and HIV- ( n = 12) individuals. EVs were isolated by ultrafiltration and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
2018: Advances in Virology
R Eberle, L Jones-Engel
Monkey B virus ( Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus Macaca, which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. However, BV is notorious for its neurovirulence since zoonotic infections are serious, usually involving the central nervous system, and are frequently fatal...
2018: Advances in Virology
Nafi'u Lawal, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi)...
2017: Advances in Virology
Carolina de la Guardia, Mario Quijada, Ricardo Lleonart
Dengue virus is a growing public health threat that affects hundreds of million peoples every year and leave huge economic and social damage. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and the incidence of the disease is increasing, among other causes, due to the geographical expansion of the vector's range and the lack of effectiveness in public health interventions in most prevalent countries. So far, no highly effective vaccine or antiviral has been developed for this virus. Here we employed phage display technology to identify peptides able to block the DENV2...
2017: Advances in Virology
K H Chan, K K W To, P T W Li, T L Wong, R Zhang, K K H Chik, G Chan, C C Y Yip, H L Chen, I F N Hung, J F W Chan, K Y Yuen
This study evaluated a new multiplex kit, Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel, for respiratory pathogens and compared it with xTAG RVP Fast v2 and FilmArray Respiratory Panel using nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and culture isolates of different swine/avian-origin influenza A subtypes (H2N2, H5N1, H7N9, H5N6, and H9N2). NxTAG RPP gave sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 99.6%, PPV of 93.5%, and NPV of 99.7%. NxTAG RPP, xTAG RVP, and FilmArray RP had highly concordant performance among each other for the detection of respiratory pathogens...
2017: Advances in Virology
Kayode O Afolabi, Benson C Iweriebor, Anthony I Okoh, Larry C Obi
Globally, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recognized viral pathogen of great economic value in pig farming. It is the major cause of ravaging postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and many other disease syndromes generally regarded as Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) in Europe. PCV2 infections, specifically PMWS, had impacted huge economic loss on swine production at different regions of the world. It has been studied and reported at different parts of the globe including: North and South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, Middle East, and the Caribbean...
2017: Advances in Virology
Ahmed A Abdulhaq, Vinod Kumar Basode, Anwar M Hashem, Ahmed S Alshrari, Nassrin A Badroon, Ahmed M Hassan, Tagreed L Alsubhi, Yahia Solan, Saleh Ejeeli, Esam I Azhar
We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time). Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2%) of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV) was the most detected pathogen (40...
2017: Advances in Virology
Jay C Brown
Like all herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is able to produce lytic or latent infections depending on the host cell type. Lytic infections occur in a broad range of cells while latency is highly specific for neurons. Although latency suggests itself as an attractive target for novel anti-HSV1 therapies, progress in their development has been slowed due in part to a lack of agreement about the basic biochemical mechanisms involved. Among the possibilities being considered is a pathway in which DNA repair mechanisms play a central role...
2017: Advances in Virology
Olusesan Adeyemi Adelabu, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, U U Nwodo, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV...
2017: Advances in Virology
Pam D Luka, Joseph Erume, Bitrus Yakubu, Olajide A Owolodun, David Shamaki, Frank N Mwiine
Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b) infection is present in pig herds worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b infections in domestic pigs from some slaughterhouses in Nigeria as well as coinfection with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and described the phylogeny in relation to global strains. One hundred and eighty-one (181) blood samples from four slaughterhouses were used for the study and viral nucleic acid detection was carried out by PCR. Comparative sequence analysis was carried out to infer phylogeny...
2016: Advances in Virology
Erdal Eroglu, Ankur Singh, Swapnil Bawage, Pooja M Tiwari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Vida A Dennis, Shree R Singh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease leading to numerous hospitalizations and deaths among the infant and elderly populations worldwide. There is no vaccine or a less effective drug available against RSV infections. Natural RSV infection stimulates the Th1 immune response and activates the production of neutralizing antibodies, while earlier vaccine trials that used UV-inactivated RSV exacerbated the disease due to the activation of the allergic Th2 response...
2016: Advances in Virology
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects...
2016: Advances in Virology
Mohammed A Hamad, Ahmed M Al-Shammari, Shoni M Odisho, Nahi Y Yaseen
This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma...
2016: Advances in Virology
John F Arboleda, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Over the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the critical participation of vitamin D in the regulation of proinflammatory responses and protection against many infectious pathogens, including viruses. The activity of vitamin D is associated with microRNAs, which are fine tuners of immune activation pathways and provide novel mechanisms to avoid the damage that arises from excessive inflammatory responses. Severe symptoms of an ongoing dengue virus infection and disease are strongly related to highly altered production of proinflammatory mediators, suggesting impairment in homeostatic mechanisms that control the host's immune response...
2016: Advances in Virology
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