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Beneficial Microbes

S Soldi, S Vasileiadis, S Lohner, F Uggeri, E Puglisi, P Molinari, E Donner, C Sieland, T Decsi, M Sailer, S Theis
Supplementing kindergarten children during a cold season with a prebiotic inulin-type fructans product with shorter and longer fructan chains has been shown to reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis. These beneficial effects may be connected to the specific modulation of children's gut microbiota. By applying quantitative and qualitative microbiota analysis this study aimed at characterising the gut microbiota composition and at exploring effects of prebiotic intervention on the gut microbiota during a 24-weeks intervention and during antibiotic treatment in healthy children...
February 19, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
S D Todorov, B D G de Melo Franco, J R Tagg
Bacteriocins are bacterially-produced antimicrobial peptides that have killing activity principally against other relatively closely-related bacteria. Some bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have for many years been extensively applied in food biopreservation. However, especially during the last decade, a number of reports have appeared about unanticipated extensions to the generally rather narrow anti-bacterial activity spectrum of some of the LAB bacteriocins and novel applications have been proposed for bacteriocins ranging from controlling the growth of an increasingly-heterogeneous variety of pathogens, including Gram-negative multidrug resistant bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and in particular, difficult to control Mycobacterium spp...
February 18, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
W F van Zyl, S M Deane, L M T Dicks
Probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy and stable intestinal microbiota, primarily by preventing infection. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to be inhibitory to many bacterial enteric pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains. Whilst the positive role that probiotics have on human physiology, specifically in the treatment or prevention of specific infectious diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) is known, the precise mechanistic basis of these effects remains a major research goal...
February 18, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
L W J van den Elsen, S Tims, A M Jones, A Stewart, B Stahl, J Garssen, J Knol, E E Forbes-Blom, B Van't Land
Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time...
February 18, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
D Keller, S Verbruggen, H Cash, S Farmer, K Venema
The aim of this study was to assess the germination, survival and metabolic activity of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 [GanedenBC30 ] (BC30) in a dynamic, computer controlled in vitro model of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, simulating human adults. Experiments were performed in the presence of a meal to maximise germination, due to the presence of germination-triggers. Both an upper GI tract (stomach and small intestine; TIM-1) and a colon model (TIM-2) were used, where material exiting TIM-1 was added to TIM-2...
January 29, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
V Stadlbauer, A Horvath, I Komarova, B Schmerboeck, N Feldbacher, I Klymiuk, M Durdevic, F Rainer, A Blesl, P Stiegler, B Leber
The gut is hypothesised to play an important role in the development and progression of sepsis. It is however unknown whether the gut microbiome and the gut barrier function is already altered early in sepsis development and whether it is possible to modulate the microbiome in early sepsis. Therefore, a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to examine the alterations of the microbiome and the gut barrier in early sepsis and the influence of a concomitant probiotic intervention on dysbiosis at this early stage of the disease was conducted...
January 29, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
P D Kusumo, B Bela, H Wibowo, Z Munasir, I S Surono
The immature intestinal immune system in young children develops as it comes into contact with dietary and microbial antigens in the gut. Intestinal microbiota plays a significant role in host defence mechanisms as shown by inflammatory responses towards potential pathogens. We investigated the probiotic function of Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 of ' dadih'origin in modulating immune response in young children. We aimed to assess its effect on their immune response by assessing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) responses and faecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) titre in a randomised, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial in 12-24-month-old children (n=38)...
January 29, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
S S Kara, B Volkan, I Erten
Malnutrition affects virtually all organ systems, and malnourished children are more prone to infections. These children have dysbiosis, but probiotics can restore the disrupted gut microbiome. We investigated the protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in malnourished children in terms of incidence of infection, and anthropometric and metabolic parameters. 50 intervention and 50 control patients, aged 6 months to 5 years, with body weight and height below -2 SD, were randomly and prospectively recruited...
January 14, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
Y Horii, Y Fujisaki, R Fuyuki, Y Misonou, K Nagai
Various lactobacilli have been suggested to exert beneficial effects in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of intraduodenal (ID) administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus delbrueckii LAB4 (LAB4) on activities of efferent sympathetic nerves innervating the liver and pancreas. Consequently, it was observed that ID administration of LAB4 significantly reduced either the efferent hepatic sympathetic nerve activity (hepatic-SNA) or pancreatic sympathetic nerve activity (pancreatic-SNA) in urethane-anaesthetised rats...
January 14, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
M Ratna Sudha, N Jayanthi, D C Pandey, A K Verma
Acute diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of mortality in infants and young children. Evidence suggests that probiotics can reduce diarrhoea duration. As the effects of probiotics are strain specific, the effect of Bacillus clausii UBBC-07, a safe probiotic strain in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children was studied. The double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group multicentric study was conducted at two outpatient facility sites in Lucknow, India. Children aged six months to five years suffering from acute diarrhoea, were randomly assigned to receive either probiotic (B...
January 14, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
M Padilha, J M Iaucci, V P Cabral, E M A Diniz, C R Taddei, S M I Saad
Human milk is an important source of microorganisms for infant gut colonisation. Although the maternal antibiotic prophylaxis is an important strategy to prevent maternal/neonatal sepsis, it has to be investigated how it may affect the human milk microbiota, especially the genus Bifidobacterium, which has been associated to health benefits. Here, we investigated the impact of the maternal antibiotic prophylaxis on the human milk Bifidobacterium spp. and total bacteria counts, in the first week (short-term) and first month (medium-term) after delivery...
December 21, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
E Gómez, F Martín, A M Nogacka, N Salazar, L Aláez, E Alcorta, M Gueimonde, C G De Los Reyes-Gavilán
In vitro models are frequently used in probiotic research. However, such models often fail to predict in vivo functionality and efficacy. This fact complicates the screening process for selecting the most suitable strains, prior to accomplish expensive animal studies and clinical intervention trials. Therefore, additional sensitive, discriminating and cost-effective models are needed to conduct preliminary assays before undertaking human intervention studies definitely proving efficacy. With this purpose in mind, we explored the potential of axenic Drosophila melanogaster populations as well as of these axenic flies treated with probiotic microbial strains as a model to test the effects of probiotics on a subset of developmental and behavioural traits...
December 21, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
R Murphy, X C Morgan, X Y Wang, K Wickens, G Purdie, P Fitzharris, A Otal, B Lawley, T Stanley, C Barthow, J Crane, E A Mitchell, G W Tannock
Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 given in early life has been shown to reduce infant eczema risk, but its effect on gut microbiota development has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early life probiotic exposure on the composition and functional capacity of infant gut microbiota from birth to 2 years considering the effects of age, delivery mode, antibiotics, pets and eczema. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis of 650 infant faecal samples, collected at birth, 3, 12, and 24 months, as part of a randomised, controlled, 3-arm trial assessing the effect of L...
December 21, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
G Riezzo, G Chimienti, A Orlando, B D'Attoma, C Clemente, F Russo
Accumulated evidence shows that some probiotic strains ameliorate functional constipation (FC) via the modulation of specific gastrointestinal peptide pathways. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) the effects of long-term administration of Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) DSM 17938 on the serum levels of serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); (2) the possible link between 5-HT, BDNF, and specific constipation-related symptoms; (3) whether genetic variability at the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met loci could be associated with serum 5-HT and BDNF variations...
December 21, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
J Piatek, H Sommermeyer, M Bernatek, A Ciechelska-Rybarczyk, B Oleskow, L Sommer Mikkelsen, K Bundvig Barken
Little is known about the prevalence of persistent human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS). Recently published study results indicate that a small fraction (at least 2.2%) of NTS-infected patients continue to shed Salmonella for an extended period of time (up to years). Despite the recommendation not to use antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated NTS-Salmonella infection, little treatment guidance is available. Clinical findings from a NTS-patient indicate that administration of synbiotics (probiotic bacteria plus prebiotic) might be considered as a treatment option...
December 21, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
M Russo, A Marquez, M C Abeijón-Mukdsi, A Santacruz, A López-Malo, P Gauffin-Cano, R Medina
The effect of oral administration of spray-dried microcapsules of feruloyl esterase (FE) producing Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 (Lf) and Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1231 (Lj) on high fat diet-induced obese mice was investigated to evaluate whether these strains could be used as a biotherapeutic for obesity. Swiss albino mice were divided into a normal diet fed group receiving empty microcapsules (control), a high fat diet plus empty microcapsules (HFD group), HFD plus microcapsules with Lf (HFD-Lf group) and HDF plus microcapsules with Lj (HFD-Lj group)...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
L Kleinjans, D H Veening-Griffioen, T Wehkamp, J van Bergenhenegouwen, J Knol, J Garssen, L M J Knippels, C Belzer, P V Jeurink
Non-breastfed infants at-risk of allergy are recommended to use a hydrolysed formula before the age of 6 months. The addition of prebiotics to this formula may reduce the allergy development in these infants, but clinical evidence is still inconclusive. This study evaluates (1) whether the exposure duration to different prebiotics alongside a partially hydrolysed whey protein (pHP) influences its' effectiveness to prevent allergy development and (2) whether the gut microbiota plays a role in this process. Mice orally sensitised with whey and/or cholera toxin were orally treated for six days before sensitization with phosphate buffered saline, whey or pHP to potentially induce tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
R Russo, E Karadja, F De Seta
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discomfort in women. It is characterised by abnormal vaginal microbiota with a depletion of lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic microorganisms, mainly Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. Although antibiotics represent an effective therapeutic option in the short-term, recurrent infections still remain a serious problem. Nowadays, evidence exists about the efficacy of probiotics for the management of BV. The aim of the current double blind, randomised clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of a probiotic mixture, including Lactobacillus acidophilus GLA-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, in combination with bovine lactoferrin, as adjuvant therapy to metronidazole in women with recurrent BV...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
C Panebianco, F Bou Nasser Eddine, G Forlani, G Palmieri, L Tatangelo, A Villani, L Xu, R Accolla, V Pazienza
The incidence of asthma and allergic diseases of the airways is constantly increasing, both in the industrialised and developing countries, due to harmful and excessive quantities of air pollution. Although some studies have shown an effect of dietary supplementation of specific nutrients (especially with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties) in reducing airways inflammatory response, the results are not yet conclusive and the science is still at its infancy. Our hypothesis is that combining such nutrients could provide more benefits than using them alone...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Z F Ma, N Yusof, N Hamid, R M Lawenko, W M Z Wan Mohammad, M T Liong, H Sugahara, T Odamaki, J Xiao, Y Y Lee
Individuals in a community who developed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after major floods have significant mental health impairment. We aimed to determine if Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 was effective in improving symptoms, psychology and quality of life measures in flood-affected individuals with IBS and if the improvement was mediated by gut microbiota changes. Design was non-randomised, open-label, controlled before-and-after. Of 53 participants, 20 with IBS were given B. infantis M-63 (1×109 cfu/sachet/day) for three months and 33 were controls...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
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