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Bioscience Trends

Xiaoming Chen, Qian Zhang, Jiye Wang, Zhenlong Xin, Jingyuan Chen, Wenjing Luo
Hypoxia exposure during high-altitude expedition cause psychomotor impairment. Neuroimaging studies indicated that the impairment may be significantly associated with neuron loss and decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo) in several brain regions, suggesting the neural functionality in these regions may be utilized to predict psychomotor impairment under exposure. In this study, 69 subjects come from Shaanxi-Tibet immigrant cohort. Reaction time (RT) tasks were performed to measure the subject's psychomotor function before and after 2-year high-altitude exposure...
February 27, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Yafei Zhang, Yuxuan Lu, Hong Ji, Yiming Li
Cholestasis is a pathological process in which bile drainage is poor for a variety of reasons. Many studies have shown that cholestatic liver injury is a neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response, and oxidative stress induced by neutrophils is the main mechanism of liver cell death. The literature summarizes the bile acid signaling pathway, the neutrophil chemotaxis recruitment process during cholestasis, and the oxidative stress damage produced by neutrophil activation, summarizes the latest research progress...
February 27, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Zhichuan Lin, Mingrui Han, Zhi Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) is rarely seen in clinical practice, and its treatment strategies and prognosis are still a subject of debate. To ascertain the characteristics of and prognosis for HCC with BDTT, 49 patients with HCC with BDTT were studied out of 763 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent surgical treatment from July 2004 to May 2018. The clinical characteristics of and prognosis for those 49 patients were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Of the 49 patients, 25 underwent radical resection, 7 underwent thrombectomy through a choledochotomy, and 17 underwent palliative internal and external bile duct drainage...
February 27, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Bing Han, Chuan Li, Hao Meng, Fernando Gomes Romeiro, Andrea Mancuso, Zhirui Zhou, Giovanni Battista Levi Sandri, Ying Xu, Tao Han, Lei Han, Lichun Shao, Xingshun Qi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. During the recent years, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been safely and effectively employed for the management of HCC. We overviewed the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of EBRT for HCC according to the different target population. PubMed database was searched for identifying English-language full-text articles regarding EBRT for the treatment of HCC. Search items were "hepatocellular carcinoma AND radiation therapy"...
February 24, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Lisha Li, Yan Sun, Na Zhang, Xuemin Qiu, Ling Wang, Qingyan Luo
Sufentanil is a type of opioid analgesic and is usually used to facilitate painless labor in combination with the local anesthetic ropivacaine. One aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sufentanil and ropivacaine on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). A second aim of this study was to determine whether sufentanil attenuated the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine in vitro. UCMSCs were divided into 3 groups: one was treated with ropivacaine at a concentration of 50, 100, 200, or 400 μg/mL, another was treated with sufentanil at a concentration of 0...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Fei Yu, Lei Gong, Zheng Mo, Wenran Wang, Meilong Wu, Jianghui Yang, Qiongqiong Zhang, Li Li, Jingjing Yao, Jiahong Dong
Immunotherapy might be an effective treatment in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA), a tumor with extremely limited therapeutic options. Our study is to characterize the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression and cancer microenvironment profiles in surgically resected eCCA samples. PD-L1 positivity was observed on tumor cells (32.3%) as well as on tumor-associated macrophages (74.2%). PD-L1 expression by eCCA correlated significantly with immune parameters such as intra-tumoral CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) density (P = 0...
February 15, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Xiaochen Chen, Xing Liu, Renhai Tang, Runhua Ye, Yuecheng Yang, Shitang Yao, Jibao Wang, Yingying Ding, Song Duan, Na He
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is among leading causes of death for people living with HIV and HCV. Little is known how liver fibrosis score predicts mortality in HIV/HCV co-infected population under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A retrospective cohort study of 691 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving cART in Yunnan, China from 2005 to 2016 was carried out to explore the association between Fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for FIB-4 and covariates...
February 5, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Yoshiki Oda, Kohsuke Saito, Munehiro Nakata
The current study determined the structure of a hemolytic compound found in an extract from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus when its pH was lowered. The hemolytic compound was purified using the modified Bligh and Dyer method followed by chromatography using reversed phase and silica gel columns. Structural analyses of the purified hemolytic compound were performed using NMR and ESI-MS. The deduced structure indicated a trans,trans-5,8-docosadienoic acid calcium salt. Although numerous proteinous hemolysins from various mushrooms have been described, the current study is the first to report on a low-molecular-weight hemolytic compound derived from an H...
January 30, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Norihiro Kokudo, Tetsuo Hara
"History, Tradition, and Progress", a grand ceremony in celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM) was held in Tokyo, Japan on December 3, 2018. Hundreds of distinguished guests from home and abroad attended the grand ceremony. The NCGM is a national research and development agency, which is a type of independent administrative entity. The NCGM originated from a temporary army hospital that was established in Tokyo in October 1868. After several rounds of restructuring and reorganization, the facility became the NCGM in April 2015...
January 25, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Qi Tang, Min Liu, Hongzhou Lu
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program offer a range of services for women of reproductive age living with or at risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in order to maintain their health and to protect their infants from acquiring HIV. The program has made significant progress in eliminating HIV. Thanks to the provision of PMTCT services, around 1.4 million HIV infections among children were prevented between 2010 and 2018. PMTCT program in China has developed substantially over the past few years, highlighting the national response to HIV/AIDS...
January 25, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Min Sun, Wenjie Bu, Yan Li, Jianliang Zhu, Jindong Zhao, Pingping Zhang, Lingling Gu, Wenna Zhang, Zhaohui Fang
Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule (DJC), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been used clinically in treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). We previously demonstrated that DJC is capable of improving renal function in patients and rats with DN, but the mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits of DJC are not quite clear yet. In this study, STZ-induced diabetic rats were orally administered DJC for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, renal function indicators in the serum, renal index, and the expression of proteins related to JAK-STAT signaling pathway were evaluated at the end of the experiment...
December 28, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Kazuo Minamikawa, Akiko Okumura, Norihiro Kokudo, Koji Kono
Since serious problematic cases regarding the technical safety of technically demanding operations were reported in Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued new regulations on June 10, 2016 requiring each hospital to check the status of informed consent, skill of surgery team and governance system of the surgical unit, when the highly difficult new medical technologies were introduced to a hospital. In order to firmly establish this new system for highly difficult new medical technologies, it is very important and informative to survey the current situation for guidelines and consensus regarding introduction of medical technology with special skills in Japan and overseas...
December 28, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Guojing Qu, Jinhua Chen, Xiuli Guo
Dietary polyphenols, a natural component in many kinds of foods such as fruits and vegetables, play essential roles in a wide range of plant functions. Importantly, the discovery of the functions of polyphenols including anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory has been appealing to researchers' attentions. Dietary polyphenols have shown protective effects on chronic degenerative diseases (CDD) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases by regulating gene expression...
December 28, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Yutaka Sawai, Takashi Kokudo, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Hidemasa Takao, Yusuke Kazami, Yujiro Nishioka, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Junichi Arita, Junichi Kaneko, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Benign portal vein stenosis is a rare complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Because a direct surgical approach to the portal vein is difficult due to severe adhesions following pancreaticoduodenectomy, portal vein stent placement is considered a good treatment option. Herein, we report 3 cases of severe portal vein stenosis following pancreaticoduodenectomy that were treated with portal venous stent placement in a hybrid operating room, combining a conventional operating room with an angiography suite...
January 22, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Chenru Zhao, Jianjun Gao, Li Zhang, Li Su, Yepeng Luan
In epigenetics, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are well validated targets for the development of anticancer drugs. In this work, we reported the design and synthesis of a series of twenty two novel (E)-N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDAC inhibitors with 4-aminopiperidine1-carboxamide as the core structure. Most newly synthesized compounds displayed high inhibition rates toward HDAC at the concentration of 1 μM. Among them, the inhibition rates of compounds LYP-2, LYP-3, LYP-6, and LYP-15 were more than 75%. Furthermore, compounds LYP-2, LYP-3, and LYP-6 potently inhibited the activity of HDAC6 with selectivity over HDAC1...
2019: Bioscience Trends
Wei Liu, Xiaosong Li, Weihong Zheng, Rucheng Yao, Jun Zheng
Evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is an important basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is meaningful to make a preoperative evaluation with non-invasive methods. In the current study, 12 commonly used preoperative serological indicators from 161 HCC patients with different degree of liver fibrosis were collected retrospectively, and 8 of the indicators (ALB, PA, TBil, INR, AST, GGT, ALP, and PT) were ultimately used in matter-element analysis to create a formula...
2019: Bioscience Trends
Huiqin Tian, Yu Zhang, Qianyun Zhang, Shuixian Li, Yang Liu, Xiuzhen Han
The small chemical compound 8-ethoxy-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-nitro-2H-chromene (S14161) was recently identified as an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and reported to inhibit tumor growth. However, its chiral structure and poor solubility prevent its further use. Compound 6-bromo-8-ethoxy-3-nitro-2H-chromene (BENC-511) is an analogue of S14161 produced by structural optimization. A previous study indicated that BENC-511 acted on multiple myeloma and that it had a toxicity by inhibiting the PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway...
2019: Bioscience Trends
Di Zhou, Jiandong Wang, Zhiwei Quan, Yong Yang, Fei Ma
Since the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) subdivided the T2 stage of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) into T2a and T2b, the diagnosis and treatment of those stages have been a subject of heated discussion and controversy. T2 is a stage of GBC that might be treatable. Based on the extent of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, T2 GBC can be classified into various pathological stages such as IIA, IIB, IIIB, and IVB, leading to controversy in clinical settings. This review aims to discuss the effectiveness of and controversies concerning S4b+5 resection, the acceptable extent of lymph node dissection, the timing for treatment of incidental gallbladder cancer, and adjuvant therapy...
2019: Bioscience Trends
Chenzhong Wang, Yi Yang, Yueqi Zhang, Jinyu Liu, Zhenjun Yao, Chi Zhang
Mitochondrial damage is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Metformin, one of the most common prescriptions for patients with type 2 diabetes, can reportedly activate Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression which protects mitochondria from oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory property of metformin on mitochondrial damage by focusing on the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated osteoarthritis model by using primary murine chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that SIRT3 was downregulated in chondrocytes under IL-1β stimulation, where its expression was positively correlated with mitochondrial damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
December 22, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Kenji Karako, Yu Chen, Wei Tang
Neural networks have garnered attention over the past few years. A neural network is a typical model of machine learning that is used to identify visual patterns. Neural networks are used to solve a wide variety of problems, including image recognition problems and time series prediction problems. In addition, neural networks have been applied to medicine over the past few years. This paper classifies the ways in which neural networks have been applied to medicine based on the type of data used to train those networks...
December 17, 2018: Bioscience Trends
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