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Biodemography and Social Biology

Meghan Healy, Heather Edgar, Carmen Mosley, Keith Hunley
This study examines associations between ethnic identity, regional history, and genomic ancestry in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMS). In structured interviews, we asked 507 NMS to select from a list of eight ethnic identity terms identified in previous research. We estimated genomic ancestry for each individual from 291,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and compared genomic ancestry, age, and birthplace between groups of individuals who identified using each ethnic identity term. Eighty-eight per cent of NMS who identified as "Hispanic," "Nuevomexicano/a," and "Spanish," on average, were born in New Mexico, as were the vast majority of their parents and grandparents...
April 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Connor Sheehan, Jennifer Karas Montez, Isaac Sasson
To understand the education-mortality association among U.S. adults, recent studies have documented its national functional form. However, the functional form of education-mortality relationship may vary across geographic contexts. The four U.S. Census regions differ considerably in their social and economic policies, employment opportunities, income levels, and other factors that may affect how education lowers the risk of mortality. Thus, we documented regional differences in the functional form of the education-mortality association and examined the role of employment and income in accounting for regional differences...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Alexis R Santos-Lozada, Jeffrey T Howard
This study evaluates the validity of subjective health measurement for racial/ethnic comparisons in the United States, by assessing whether allostatic load (AL) is equally associated with poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) for different racial/ethnic groups. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) for 2006-2010. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit and stratified by race/ethnicity to study the association between AL and poor/fair SRH. Higher levels of AL were associated with higher odds of reporting poor/fair SRH...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Duncan Thomas, Teresa Seeman, Alan Potter, Peifeng Hu, Eileen Crimmins, Elizabeth Henny Herningtyas, Cecep Sumantri, Elizabeth Frankenberg
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays with venous blood and dried blood spots (DBS) are compared for 143 paired samples collected in Aceh, Indonesia. Relative to gold-standard venous-blood values, DBS-based values reported by the HPLC are systematically upward biased for HbA1c<8% and the fraction diabetic (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) is overstated almost five-fold. Inspection of chromatograms from DBS assays indicates the % glycosylated calculated by the HPLC excludes part of the hemoglobin A which is misidentified as a hemoglobin variant...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Chantel L Martin, Mary N Haan, Lindsay Fernandez-Rhodes, Anne Lee, Allison E Aiello
Foreign-born Hispanics have better cardiometabolic health upon arrival in the US than their US-born counterparts, yet this advantage diminishes as duration of residence in the US increases. Underlying mechanisms explaining this paradox have been understudied. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), this study examined immigration history (immigrant generation and duration of US residence) in relation to biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble forms of type 1 and 2 receptors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin) in a sample of 1,290 predominantly Mexican-origin immigrants...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Antwan Jones
Using data from the 1986 to 2010 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child and Young Adult Supplement, this research explores how changes in parental socioeconomic status relate to child obesity over time. Results from linear mixed-effects models indicate that maternal educational gains and maternal employment transitions significantly increased their child's body mass index (BMI). This finding suggests that mothers who work may have less time to devote to monitoring their child's food intake and physical activity, which places their children at higher risks of becoming overweight or obese over time...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
Megan A Todd
Inflammation has been linked to clinical cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease. Less is known, however, about the relationship between inflammation and normal, age-associated cognitive decline. An understanding of the determinants of all types of cognitive decline is important for improving quality of life in an aging world. This study investigated whether biomarkers of inflammation were associated with cognitive function and decline in older Taiwanese adults. Data were from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Masanori Kuroki
This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Neal Krause, Kenneth I Pargament, Gail Ironson, R David Hayward
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between spiritual struggles and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) with a subsample (N = 943) of participants who took part in a nationwide survey. This study, which was completed in 2014, was conducted in the United States. Spiritual struggles refer to difficulties that a person may encounter with his or her faith and include having a troubled relationship with God, encountering difficulties with religious others, and being unable to find a sense of ultimate meaning in life...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Aniruddha Das
Despite accumulating small-sample and clinical evidence on "inflammaging," no population-representative longitudinal studies have specifically examined women's late-life inflammation trends. While a range of studies indicates estradiol's immunomodulation role, evidence is contradictory on whether its effects are pro- or antiinflammatory among older women. Using longitudinal data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project-a national probability sample of older U...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Tae Hyun Kim, Euna Han
It has previously been reported that an individual's body mass index (BMI) contemporaneously penalizes wages for women, but has no effect and sometimes rewards wages for men. In young adults, we estimate the association of BMI status with initial wages to assess whether initial BMI at the beginning of an individual's career affects initial and later earnings. We pooled data from 388 men and 305 women, aged 20-40 years, with BMI information for the first year of employment, using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Irma T Elo, Neil Mehta, Samuel Preston
This article examines the contribution of weight status to black-white (B-W) differences in mortality at ages 40-79 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We measured body mass index (BMI) based on the highest BMI attained and contrasted the contribution of BMI to that of smoking and educational attainment. We estimated both additive and multiplicative models. In addition to estimating regression coefficients we asked what would happen to B-W differences in mortality if blacks had the BMI distribution of whites, the smoking prevalence of whites, or the educational distribution of whites...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Belinda L Needham, Margaret T Hicken, Ishtar O Govia, Colter Mitchell, Cleopatra M Abdou
Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Short telomere length is associated with morbidity and mortality among adults and may mark the biological impact of social experiences. Using archived dried blood spots from the Michigan Neonatal Biobank, this study examined markers of maternal social disadvantage (educational attainment, receipt of public assistance, marital status, and race/ethnicity) from linked birth certificates as predictors of telomere length at birth in a sample of 192 singleton neonates born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Latina mothers aged 20-35 years...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Emily Bacon, Fernando Riosmena, Richard G Rogers
Hispanics in the United States (and foreign-born Hispanics in particular) have relatively favorable health given their lower socioeconomic status compared to, for example, non-Hispanic whites. This phenomenon is often called the Hispanic health paradox (HHP). This study examines whether the previously documented HHP in hypertension prevalence extends to its management using clinical and self-reported measures from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Multivariate models adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and sociobehavioral characteristics show an advantage among foreign-born Mexicans in hypertension prevalence relative to non-Hispanic whites (adjusted OR = 0...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Richard G Rogers, Elizabeth M Lawrence, Robert A Hummer, Andrea M Tilstra
U.S. early-life (ages 1-24) deaths are tragic, far too common, and largely preventable. Yet demographers have focused scant attention on U.S. early-life mortality patterns, particularly as they vary across racial and ethnic groups. We employed the restricted-use 1999-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files and hazard models to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life mortality. Our results reveal that these disparities are large, strongly related to differences in parental socioeconomic status, and expressed through different causes of death...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Roland J Thorpe, Lauren J Parker, Ryon J Cobb, Felicia Dillard, Janice Bowie
The objective of this study was to examine the association between discrimination and obesity among a U.S. nationally representative sample of African-American men. Data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL) were used to collect measures of everyday and major discrimination, and body mass index (BMI) taken from self-reports. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was applied to estimate the prevalence ratios of everyday and major discrimination as it relates to obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ), controlling for potential confounders...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Yusuf Ransome, Denise C Carty, Courtney D Cogburn, David R Williams
Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Yang Claire Yang, Karen Gerken, Kristen Schorpp, Courtney Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
A growing literature has demonstrated a link between early-life socioeconomic conditions and adult health at a singular point in life. No research exists, however, that specifies the life course patterns of socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to the underlying biological processes that determine health. Using an innovative life course research design consisting of four nationally representative longitudinal datasets that collectively cover the human life span from early adolescence to old age (Add Health, MIDUS, NSHAP, and HRS), we address this scientific gap and assess how SES pathways from childhood into adulthood are associated with biophysiological outcomes in different adult life stages...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Geeta N Eick, Paul Kowal, Tyler Barrett, Elizabeth A Thiele, J Josh Snodgrass
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of mortality in both higher and lower income countries. Here, we adapted an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) development kit for quantitative determination of ApoB levels in serum and plasma for use with dried blood spots (DBS). After confirming the dilution linearity of the assay for DBS, we measured ApoB in 208 venous DBS samples. Then, using Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis, we evaluated the correspondence in ApoB values between matched plasma and finger-prick DBS samples from 40 individuals who had ApoB values spanning the range of ApoB values observed in the 208 vDBS samples...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
Zhuoni Zhang, Shige Song, Xiaogang Wu
This article examines the long-term health consequences of China's 1959-1961 famine by comparing people who stayed in Guangdong and endured the famine with people who crossed the border to immigrate to Hong Kong and thus escaped the famine. Based on data from the Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD) and the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we focused on two health indicators-body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH)-of the cohort born before 1959. Our results show that the stayers who experienced the famine have a lower BMI than the emigrants, and they are likely to have a poor SRH...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
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