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Nature Reviews. Urology

Channa Amarasekera, Vincent Wong, Emily Yura, Adarsh Manjunath, Edward Schaeffer, Shilajit Kundu
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men in the USA, but the effect of prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment on men in a sexual minority group, including men who have sex with men and transgender women, is poorly understood. Efforts to study this population are complicated, as cancer registries do not routinely collect information on sexual orientation. As a result, epidemiological data regarding this population have come from small studies that have included disparate rates of prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment...
May 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Sarah S Dinges, Annika Hohm, Lindsey A Vandergrift, Johannes Nowak, Piet Habbel, Igor A Kaltashov, Leo L Cheng
Urinary tests have been used as noninvasive, cost-effective tools for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diseases since ancient times. As we progress through the 21st century, modern analytical platforms have enabled effective measurement of metabolites, with promising results for both a deeper understanding of cancer pathophysiology and, ultimately, clinical translation. The first study to measure metabolomic urinary cancer biomarkers using NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) was published in 2006 and, since then, these techniques have been used to detect cancers of the urological system (kidney, prostate and bladder) and nonurological tumours including those of the breast, ovary, lung, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, bone and blood...
May 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
S Larry Goldenberg, Guy Nir, Septimiu E Salcudean
Artificial intelligence (AI) - the ability of a machine to perform cognitive tasks to achieve a particular goal based on provided data - is revolutionizing and reshaping our health-care systems. The current availability of ever-increasing computational power, highly developed pattern recognition algorithms and advanced image processing software working at very high speeds has led to the emergence of computer-based systems that are trained to perform complex tasks in bioinformatics, medical imaging and medical robotics...
May 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Andrea Garretto, Taylor Miller-Ensminger, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
The discovery of bacteria in the female urinary bladder has fundamentally changed current dogma regarding the urinary tract and related urinary disorders. Previous research characterized many of the bacterial components of the female urinary tract, but the viral fraction of this community is largely unknown. Viruses within the human microbiota far outnumber bacterial cells, with the most abundant viruses being those that infect bacteria (bacteriophages). Similar to observations within the microbiota of the gut and oral cavity, preliminary surveys of the urinary tract and bladder microbiota indicate a rich diversity of uncharacterized bacteriophage (phage) species...
May 9, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Gordan M Vujanić, Manfred Gessler, Ariadne H A G Ooms, Paola Collini, Aurore Coulomb-l'Hermine, Ellen D'Hooghe, Ronald R de Krijger, Daniela Perotti, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Christian Vokuhl, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Norbert Graf
In the version of this article initially published online it was not open access, this has now been corrected.
May 1, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Celestia Higano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Yair Lotan, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Tracy Downs, William Huang, Jeffrey Jones, Ashish M Kamat, Badrinath Konety, Per-Uno Malmström, James McKiernan, Michael O'Donnell, Sanjay Patel, Kamal Pohar, Matthew Resnick, Alexander Sankin, Angela Smith, Gary Steinberg, Edouard Trabulsi, Michael Woods, Siamak Daneshmand
Blue light cystoscopy (BLC) with hexaminolevulinate (HAL) during transurethral resection of bladder cancer improves detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and reduces recurrence rates. Flexible BLC was approved by the FDA in 2018 for use in the surveillance setting and was demonstrated to improve detection. Results of a phase III prospective multicentre study of blue light flexible cystoscopy (BLFC) in surveillance of intermediate-risk and high-risk NMIBC showed that 20.6% of malignancies were identified only by BLFC...
April 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Neus Martínez-Bosch, Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Núria Juanpere, Josep Lloreta, Ana Rovira, Joan Albanell, Joaquim Bellmunt, Pilar Navarro
Advanced prostate and bladder cancer are two outstanding unmet medical needs for urological oncologists. The high prevalence of these tumours, lack of effective biomarkers and limited effective treatment options highlight the importance of basic research in these diseases. Galectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding proteins that are frequently altered (upregulated or downregulated) in a wide range of tumours and have roles in different stages of tumour development and progression, including immune evasion...
April 23, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Annette Fenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Kevin M Koo, Paul N Mainwaring, Scott A Tomlins, Matt Trau
The accurate identification and stratified treatment of clinically significant early-stage prostate cancer have been ongoing concerns since the outcomes of large international prostate cancer screening trials were reported. The controversy surrounding clinical and cost benefits of prostate cancer screening has highlighted the lack of strategies for discriminating high-risk disease (that requires early treatment) from low-risk disease (that could be managed using watchful waiting or active surveillance). Advances in molecular subtyping and multiomics nanotechnology-based prostate cancer risk delineation can enable refinement of prostate cancer molecular taxonomy into clinically meaningful and treatable subtypes...
April 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Sangeet Ghai, John Trachtenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Alexa R Meyer, Michael A Gorin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Mark S Litwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Benjamin Abelson, Steve Majerus, Daniel Sun, Bradley C Gill, Eboo Versi, Margot S Damaser
Urodynamic studies are a key component of the clinical evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction and include filling cystometry, pressure-flow studies, uroflowmetry, urethral function tests and electromyography. However, pitfalls of traditional urodynamics include physical and emotional discomfort, artificial test conditions with catheters and rapid retrograde filling of the bladder, which result in variable diagnostic accuracy. Ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AUM) uses physiological anterograde filling and, therefore, offers a longer and more physiologically relevant evaluation...
April 1, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
Daniel Z Sun, Benjamin Abelson, Paurush Babbar, Margot S Damaser
The extensive arsenal of bioactive molecules secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), known as the secretome, has demonstrated considerable therapeutic benefit in regenerative medicine. Investigation into the therapeutic potential of the secretome has enabled researchers to replicate the anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and trophic effects of stem cells without the need for the cells themselves. Furthermore, treatment with the MSC secretome could circumvent hurdles associated with cellular therapy, including oncogenic transformation, immunoreactivity and cost...
March 28, 2019: Nature Reviews. Urology
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