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Nature Reviews. Endocrinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760847/function-and-mechanisms-of-enteroendocrine-cells-and-gut-hormones-in-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Gut hormones have many key roles in the control of metabolism, as they target diverse tissues involved in the control of intestinal function, insulin secretion, nutrient assimilation and food intake. Produced by scattered cells found along the length of the intestinal epithelium, gut hormones generate signals related to the rate of nutrient absorption, the composition of the luminal milieu and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Gut hormones already form the basis for existing and developing therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, exemplified by the licensed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors that enhance GLP1 receptor activation...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737487/islets-form-as-peninsulas
#2
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733616/molecular-pathways-linking-adipose-innervation-to-insulin-action-in-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Adilson Guilherme, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H Bedard, Michael P Czech
Adipose tissue comprises adipocytes and many other cell types that engage in dynamic crosstalk in a highly innervated and vascularized tissue matrix. Although adipose tissue has been studied for decades, it has been appreciated only in the past 5 years that extensive arborization of nerve fibres has a dominant role in regulating the function of adipose tissue. This Review summarizes the latest literature, which suggests that adipocytes signal to local sensory nerve fibres in response to perturbations in lipolysis and lipogenesis...
February 7, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718862/a-healthy-lifestyle-reducing-t2dm-risk-in-shift-workers
#4
Céline Vetter, Frank A J L Scheer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710099/development-of-melanocortin-circuits
#5
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692653/anxiety-induced-weight-loss
#6
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692652/gdf15-signals-nutritional-stress
#7
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683897/treating-t2dm-by-ensuring-insulin-access-is-a-global-challenge
#8
Margrethe F Horlyck-Romanovsky, Anne E Sumner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679784/individual-response-to-diabetes-therapy
#9
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675023/motilin-from-gastric-motility-stimulation-to-hunger-signalling
#10
REVIEW
Eveline Deloose, Wout Verbeure, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack
After the discovery of motilin in 1972, motilin and the motilin receptor were studied intensely for their role in the control of gastrointestinal motility and as targets for treating hypomotility disorders. The genetic revolution - with the use of knockout models - sparked novel insights into the role of multiple peptides but contributed to a decline in interest in motilin, as this peptide and its receptor exist only as pseudogenes in rodents. The past 5 years have seen a major surge in interest in motilin, as a series of studies have shown its relevance in the control of hunger and regulation of food intake in humans in both health and disease...
January 23, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670819/gut-microbial-metabolites-in-obesity-nafld-and-t2dm
#11
REVIEW
Emanuel E Canfora, Ruth C R Meex, Koen Venema, Ellen E Blaak
Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiome is involved in the aetiology of obesity and obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The gut microbiota is able to ferment indigestible carbohydrates (for example, dietary fibre), thereby yielding important metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and succinate. Numerous animal studies and a handful of human studies suggest a beneficial role of these metabolites in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities...
January 22, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670818/the-obesity-paradox-in-action-with-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
Joanne Lysaght
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664676/a-new-class-of-ar-antagonists
#13
Annette Fenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664675/potential-treatment-strategy-for-nash
#14
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655625/circadian-rhythms-and-exercise-re-setting-the-clock-in-metabolic-disease
#15
REVIEW
Brendan M Gabriel, Juleen R Zierath
Perturbed diurnal rhythms are becoming increasingly evident as deleterious events in the pathology of metabolic diseases. Exercise is well characterized as a crucial intervention in the prevention and treatment of individuals with metabolic diseases. Little is known, however, regarding optimizing the timing of exercise bouts in order to maximize their health benefits. Furthermore, exercise is a potent modulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, and it is clear that skeletal muscle has a strong circadian profile...
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655624/mechanisms-of-weight-regain-after-weight-loss-the-role-of-adipose-tissue
#16
REVIEW
Marleen A van Baak, Edwin C M Mariman
One of the biggest challenges in the management of obesity is the prevention of weight regain after successful weight loss. Weight regain after weight loss has large interindividual variation. Although many factors probably contribute to this variation, we hypothesize that variability in biological responses associated with weight loss-induced shrinking of subcutaneous adipocytes has an important role. In this Review, we show that weight loss-induced variations in cellular stress, extracellular matrix remodelling, inflammatory responses, adipokine secretion and lipolysis seem to be associated with the amount of weight that is regained after successful weight loss...
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655623/drivers-of-islet-inflammation
#17
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651635/a-new-shade-of-beige
#18
Anna Kriebs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30647468/unravelling-the-genetics-of-osteoporosis
#19
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622369/post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-solid-organ-transplants
#20
REVIEW
Trond Jenssen, Anders Hartmann
Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is a life-saving procedure and an established treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. However, transplantation is also accompanied by associated cardiovascular risk factors, of which post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the most important. PTDM develops in 10-20% of patients with kidney transplants and in 20-40% of patients who have undergone other SOT. PTDM increases mortality, which is best documented in patients who have received kidney and heart transplants...
January 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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