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Cognitive Computation

W Joseph MacInnes, Amelia R Hunt, Alasdair D F Clarke, Michael D Dodd
The early eye tracking studies of Yarbus provided descriptive evidence that an observer's task influences patterns of eye movements, leading to the tantalizing prospect that an observer's intentions could be inferred from their saccade behavior. We investigate the predictive value of task and eye movement properties by creating a computational cognitive model of saccade selection based on instructed task and internal cognitive state using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). Understanding how humans generate saccades under different conditions and cognitive sets links recent work on salience models of low-level vision with higher level cognitive goals...
October 2018: Cognitive Computation
Jiri Mekyska, Zoltan Galaz, Tomas Kiska, Vojtech Zvoncak, Jan Mucha, Zdenek Smekal, Ilona Eliasova, Milena Kostalova, Martina Mrackova, Dagmar Fiedorova, Marcos Faundez-Zanuy, Jordi Solé-Casals, Pedro Gomez-Vilda, Irena Rektorova
Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) and freezing of gait (FOG) are both axial symptoms that occur in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It is assumed they have some common pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore that speech disorders in PD can predict FOG deficits within the horizon of some years. The aim of this study is to employ a complex quantitative analysis of the phonation, articulation and prosody in PD patients in order to identify the relationship between HD and FOG, and establish a mathematical model that would predict FOG deficits using acoustic analysis at baseline...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Paulo V Klaine, João P B Nadas, Richard D Souza, Muhammad A Imran
Due to the unpredictability of natural disasters, whenever a catastrophe happens, it is vital that not only emergency rescue teams are prepared, but also that there is a functional communication network infrastructure. Hence, in order to prevent additional losses of human lives, it is crucial that network operators are able to deploy an emergency infrastructure as fast as possible. In this sense, the deployment of an intelligent, mobile, and adaptable network, through the usage of drones-unmanned aerial vehicles-is being considered as one possible alternative for emergency situations...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Ajaz A Bhat, Vishwanathan Mohan
From social dining in households to product assembly in manufacturing lines, goal-directed reasoning and cooperation with other agents in shared workspaces is a ubiquitous aspect of our day-to-day activities. Critical for such behaviours is the ability to spontaneously anticipate what is doable by oneself as well as the interacting partner based on the evolving environmental context and thereby exploit such information to engage in goal-oriented action sequences. In the setting of an industrial task where two robots are jointly assembling objects in a shared workspace, we describe a bioinspired neural architecture for goal-directed action planning based on coupled interactions between multiple internal models, primarily of the robot's body and its peripersonal space...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Newton Howard, Amir Hussain
This paper discusses the problems arising from the multidisciplinary nature of cognitive research and the need to conceptually unify insights from multiple fields into the phenomena that drive cognition. Specifically, the Fundamental Code Unit (FCU) is proposed as a means to better quantify the intelligent thought process at multiple levels of analysis. From the linguistic and behavioral output, FCU produces to the chemical and physical processes within the brain that drive it. The proposed method efficiently model the most complex decision-making process performed by the brain...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Sibel Toprak, Nicolás Navarro-Guerrero, Stefan Wermter
In computational systems for visuo-haptic object recognition, vision and haptics are often modeled as separate processes. But this is far from what really happens in the human brain, where cross- as well as multimodal interactions take place between the two sensory modalities. Generally, three main principles can be identified as underlying the processing of the visual and haptic object-related stimuli in the brain: (1) hierarchical processing, (2) the divergence of the processing onto substreams for object shape and material perception, and (3) the experience-driven self-organization of the integratory neural circuits...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Carlos Alonso-Martinez, Marcos Faundez-Zanuy, Jiri Mekyska
Existing literature about online handwriting analysis to support pathology diagnosis has taken advantage of in-air trajectories. A similar situation occurred in biometric security applications where the goal is to identify or verify an individual using his signature or handwriting. These studies do not consider the distance of the pen tip to the writing surface. This is due to the fact that current acquisition devices do not provide height formation. However, it is quite straightforward to differentiate movements at two different heights (a) short distance: height lower or equal to 1 cm above a surface of digitizer, the digitizer provides x and y coordinates; (b) long distance: height exceeding 1 cm, the only information available is a time stamp that indicates the time that a specific stroke has spent at long distance...
2017: Cognitive Computation
Jeroen H M Bergmann, Joan Fei, David A Green, Amir Hussain, Newton Howard
Multitasking is common in everyday life, but its effect on activities of daily living is not well understood. Critical appraisal of performance for both healthy individuals and patients is required. Motor activities during meal preparation were monitored in healthy individuals with a wearable sensor network during single and multitask conditions. Motor performance was quantified by the median frequencies ( f m ) of hand trajectories and wrist accelerations. The probability that multitasking occurred based on the obtained motor information was estimated using a Naïve Bayes Model, with a specific focus on the single and triple loading conditions...
2017: Cognitive Computation
Nazmul Siddique, Hojjat Adeli
Nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithms have dominated the scientific literature in the areas of machine learning and cognitive computing paradigm in the last three decades. Chemical reaction optimisation (CRO) is a population-based meta-heuristic algorithm based on the principles of chemical reaction. A chemical reaction is seen as a process of transforming the reactants (or molecules) through a sequence of reactions into products. This process of transformation is implemented in the CRO algorithm to solve optimisation problems...
2017: Cognitive Computation
Kyriacos Nikiforou, Pedro A M Mediano, Murray Shanahan
Continuous-time recurrent neural networks are widely used as models of neural dynamics and also have applications in machine learning. But their dynamics are not yet well understood, especially when they are driven by external stimuli. In this article, we study the response of stable and unstable networks to different harmonically oscillating stimuli by varying a parameter ρ, the ratio between the timescale of the network and the stimulus, and use the dimensionality of the network's attractor as an estimate of the complexity of this response...
2017: Cognitive Computation
M W Spratling
Predictive coding has been proposed as a model of the hierarchical perceptual inference process performed in the cortex. However, results demonstrating that predictive coding is capable of performing the complex inference required to recognise objects in natural images have not previously been presented. This article proposes a hierarchical neural network based on predictive coding for performing visual object recognition. This network is applied to the tasks of categorising hand-written digits, identifying faces, and locating cars in images of street scenes...
2017: Cognitive Computation
Pablo Gervás
The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Kia Dashtipour, Soujanya Poria, Amir Hussain, Erik Cambria, Ahmad Y A Hawalah, Alexander Gelbukh, Qiang Zhou
With the advent of Internet, people actively express their opinions about products, services, events, political parties, etc., in social media, blogs, and website comments. The amount of research work on sentiment analysis is growing explosively. However, the majority of research efforts are devoted to English-language data, while a great share of information is available in other languages. We present a state-of-the-art review on multilingual sentiment analysis. More importantly, we compare our own implementation of existing approaches on common data...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Saliha Minhas, Amir Hussain
Despite legislative attempts to curtail financial statement fraud, it continues unabated. This study makes a renewed attempt to aid in detecting this misconduct using linguistic analysis with data mining on narrative sections of annual reports/10-K form. Different from the features used in similar research, this paper extracts three distinct sets of features from a newly constructed corpus of narratives (408 annual reports/10-K, 6.5 million words) from fraud and non-fraud firms. Separately each of these three sets of features is put through a suite of classification algorithms, to determine classifier performance in this binary fraud/non-fraud discrimination task...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Florian Damerow, Andreas Knoblauch, Ursula Körner, Julian Eggert, Edgar Körner
Most current approaches to scene understanding lack the capability to adapt object and situation models to behavioral needs not anticipated by the human system designer. Here, we give a detailed description of a system architecture for self-referential autonomous learning which enables the refinement of object and situation models during operation in order to optimize behavior. This includes structural learning of hierarchical models for situations and behaviors that is triggered by a mismatch between expected and actual action outcome...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Kevin Warwick, Huma Shah
In this paper we look at the phenomenon that is the Turing test. We consider how Turing originally introduced his imitation game and discuss what this means in a practical scenario. Due to its popular appeal we also look into different representations of the test as indicated by numerous reviewers. The main emphasis here, however, is to consider what it actually means for a machine to pass the Turing test and what importance this has, if any. In particular does it mean that, as Turing put it, a machine can "think"...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Hussein A Abbass, Eleni Petraki, Kathryn Merrick, John Harvey, Michael Barlow
This paper considers two emerging interdisciplinary, but related topics that are likely to create tipping points in advancing the engineering and science areas. Trusted Autonomy (TA) is a field of research that focuses on understanding and designing the interaction space between two entities each of which exhibits a level of autonomy. These entities can be humans, machines, or a mix of the two. Cognitive Cyber Symbiosis (CoCyS) is a cloud that uses humans and machines for decision-making. In CoCyS, human-machine teams are viewed as a network with each node comprising humans (as computational machines) or computers...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Maria Teresa Llano, Simon Colton, Rose Hepworth, Jeremy Gow
The invention of fictional ideas (ideation) is often a central process in the creative production of artefacts such as poems, music and paintings, but has barely been studied in the computational creativity community. We present here a general approach to automated fictional ideation that works by manipulating facts specified in knowledge bases. More specifically, we specify a number of constructions which, by altering and combining facts from a knowledge base, result in the generation of fictions. Moreover, we present an instantiation of these constructions through the use of ConceptNet, a database of common sense knowledge...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Nazmul Siddique, Hojjat Adeli
This paper presents an overview of significant advances made in the emerging field of nature-inspired computing (NIC) with a focus on the physics- and biology-based approaches and algorithms. A parallel development in the past two decades has been the emergence of the field of computational intelligence (CI) consisting primarily of the three fields of neural networks, evolutionary computing and fuzzy logic. It is observed that NIC and CI intersect. The authors advocate and foresee more cross-fertilisation of the two emerging fields...
2015: Cognitive Computation
Chenghua Lin, Dong Liu, Wei Pang, Zhe Wang
In this paper, we present a semi-automatic system (Sherlock) for quiz generation using linked data and textual descriptions of RDF resources. Sherlock is distinguished from existing quiz generation systems in its generic framework for domain-independent quiz generation as well as in the ability of controlling the difficulty level of the generated quizzes. Difficulty scaling is non-trivial, and it is fundamentally related to cognitive science. We approach the problem with a new angle by perceiving the level of knowledge difficulty as a similarity measure problem and propose a novel hybrid semantic similarity measure using linked data...
2015: Cognitive Computation
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