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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030764/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Lijuan Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030763/use-of-fucoidan-to-treat-renal-diseases-a-review-of-15-years-of-clinic-studies
#2
Jing Wang, Lihua Geng, Yang Yue, Quanbin Zhang
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Studies have shown that fucoidan has curative effects on the chronic renal failure, acute kidney injury, and diabetic nephropathy both in vitro and in vivo. Saccharina japonica is the most economically important brown seaweed cultivated in China and is consumed as a marine vegetable in East Asia. Over the past thousand years, Chinese people have traditionally used this plant to cure edema, a symptom of kidney diseases. The fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica is composed primarily of fucose and galactose with smaller amounts of other monosaccharides...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030762/efficacy-of-heparinoid-pss-in-treating-cardiovascular-diseases-and-beyond-a-review-of-31-years-clinical-experiences-in-china
#3
Ming Shan, Ningchuan Feng, Lijuan Zhang
Heparin is a life-saving drug with multiple molecular targets and mostly well known for its anticoagulant and antithrombotic pharmacological effects in treating cardiovascular diseases. All the heparin-like polysaccharides that mimic the biological activities of heparin are called heparinoids. However, heparin has no pharmacological effect if taken orally and has to be used by injection in hospital settings. Thus, heparinoids that can be taken orally are critically needed. Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) is the world's first oral heparinoid used in treating cardiovascular diseases approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration in 1987...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030761/heparinoids-danaparoid-and-sulodexide-as-clinically-used-drugs
#4
Huaiqian Dou, Aiqin Song, Shaoyou Jia, Lijuan Zhang
Heparin is the first glycosaminoglycan ever identified. All the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans that are also isolated from animal tissues or any polysaccharides that mimic the biological activities of heparin are called heparinoids. Heparin is the mostly sulfated glycosaminoglycan made by mast cells and an essential anticoagulant drug in modern medicine. Heparin inhibits both thrombin generation and thrombin activity, releases tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-angiogenesis, anti-neoplastic, and anti-metastatic properties though high affinity interactions with a variety of proteins in the blood circulation...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030760/clinical-applications-of-the-naturally-occurring-or-synthetic-glycosylated-low-molecular-weight-drugs
#5
Jing Fu, Zhongyuan Wu, Lijuan Zhang
Four major types of biomacromolecules are nucleic acids (DNAs and RNAs), proteins, lipids, and glycans. Only carbohydrates or glycans are a universal existence in all types of the biomacromolecules. The monosaccharides deoxyribose and ribose are an integral part of DNA and RNA structures. Glycosylated proteins and glycosylated lipids are common in all life forms. As expected, many well-known glycosylated low molecular weight drugs (GLMWDs) that target biomacromolecules, such as antibiotics, anticancer, steroids, and antidiabetic therapeutics, are naturally made glycosylated products...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030759/glycosylation-dependent-antitumor-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies
#6
Yiran Zhang, Chun Fan, Lijuan Zhang, Xuexiao Ma
The therapeutic market for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has grown exponentially since 2000. It is expected that the world-wide market for MAbs could reach $125 billion in 2020. For cancer treatment alone, more than 30 MAbs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since 1997. Unlike structure-defined small molecule-based anti-cancer drugs, the expensive MAb is a mixture of heterogeneously glycosylated proteins. All MAbs typically have a single N-glycosylation site on each of the Fc region. The clinical efficacy of the MAbs depends on the N-glycan structures...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030758/biological-mechanisms-of-glycan-and-glycosaminoglycan-based-nutraceuticals
#7
Yang Tang, Yidi Cui, Ariane De Agostini, Lijuan Zhang
A nutraceutical is defined as a standardized pharmaceutical-grade nutrient. Among hundreds of nutraceuticals, polysaccharide or glycan-based products such as those containing chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan isolated from animal cartilage have been on the top nutraceutical selling list for many years. It is expected that the nutraceutical market will reach $250 billion dollars worldwide by 2018. Glycans are most abundant biopolymers on earth those are synthesized by bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, and animals...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030757/the-structures-and-biological-functions-of-polysaccharides-from-traditional-chinese-herbs
#8
Pengjiao Zeng, Juan Li, Yulong Chen, Lijuan Zhang
Most of traditional Chinese medicine substances come from herbal plants. The medicinal quality of herbal plants varies with the locations of cultivation, the parts of the herb collected, the season of the herb collected, and the herb processing method. Polysaccharides are major components of the herb plants and their biosynthesis is partly controlled by the genes but mostly influenced by the availability of the nutrition and determined by the various environmental factors. In recent decades, polysaccharides isolated from different kinds of Chinese herbs have received much attention due to their important biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, radiation protecting, antiviral, hypolipidemic, and immunomodulatory activities...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030756/the-clinical-use-of-fondaparinux-a-synthetic-heparin-pentasaccharide
#9
Yiran Zhang, Meng Zhang, Lijuan Tan, Nana Pan, Lijuan Zhang
Fondaparinux is a synthetic heparin pentasaccharide with a sequence identical to that found in anticoagulant heparin. It is a pure compound with a molecular weight of 1728Da. Fondaparinux catalyzes the conformational change of a serpin or serine protease inhibitor antithrombin III to accelerate the suicidal inactivation of factor Xa over 340-fold, which in turn inhibits thrombin generation in the coagulating signal transduction pathway. Fondaparinux does not inhibit thrombin activity, release tissue factor pathway inhibitor, or possess other properties of heparin such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-angiogenesis, anti-neoplastic, and anti-metastatic effects though high affinity interactions with a variety of proteases, protease inhibitors, chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and their respective receptors...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030755/tremella-polysaccharide-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-its-drug-action
#10
Dandan Yang, Yong Liu, Lijuan Zhang
Tremella fuciformis is an edible medicinal mushroom well known as "Yiner" or "Baimuer" in China and has been used as a Chinese herb for many years. T. fuciformis polysaccharide (TFPS) has been identified as a major bioactive component. Different experimental conditions can obtain different TFPS fractions, which makes TFPS a mixture of different polysaccharides with the molecular weight ranging from 5.82×105 Da to 3.74×106 Da. The monosaccharides detected in TFPS include mannose, xylose, fucose, glucuronic acid, glucose, and galactose...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030754/coriolus-versicolor-polysaccharopeptide-as-an-immunotherapeutic-in-china
#11
Huaiqian Dou, Yajing Chang, Lijuan Zhang
Coriolus versicoloris is one of the well-known traditional medicinal mushrooms used in China for over 2000 years. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is identified as the major bioactive component, which can be obtained from the mycelium or fermentation broth of Coriolus versicolor. The polysaccharide content in PSP is ~60% and the peptide content in PSP is ~10-30%. The main monosaccharides found in PSP include glucose, mannose, and a small amount of galactose, xylose, and fucose. β-Glucan is one of the identified components in PSP with the established immunomodulatory function...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030753/the-efficacy-of-polyporus-umbellatus-polysaccharide-in-treating-hepatitis-b-in-china
#12
Zhihua Guo, Yunjin Zang, Lijuan Zhang
Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide (PUPS) has been identified as the major bioactive component in the mushroom Polyporus umbellatus that has immuno-enhancing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. Both PUPS capsule and injection are Chinese Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) approved drugs, which have been used alone or in combination with a variety of clinical drugs for treating Hepatitis B, lung and liver cancers in China since 1990. Our aim was to review both the efficacy and problem associated with PUPS mono- and combination therapy conducted in China and the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030752/mushroom-polysaccharide-lentinan-for-treating-different-types-of-cancers-a-review-of-12-years-clinical-studies-in-china
#13
Meng Zhang, Yiran Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Qingwu Tian
Lentinula edodes has been used to improve general health for thousands of years in Asia. It is the second largest cultivated and the most popular edible mushroom in the world known as "Xianggu" in China and "Shiitake" in Japan. Lentinan is a polysaccharide extracted from Lentinula edodes. β-Glucan is the major bioactive component in lentinan with immunostimulatory effect. The antitumor property of lentinan was reported in 1960s. Biochemical studies indicate that immunocytes can be activated by lentinan through multiple signaling pathways, such as TLR4/Dectin1-MAPK and Syk-PKC-NFκB pathways...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030751/molecular-basis-for-poria-cocos-mushroom-polysaccharide-used-as-an-antitumor-drug-in-china
#14
Xiulian Li, Lina Ma, Lijuan Zhang
Poria cocos is an edible mushroom known as "Fuling" in Chinese, which belongs to the fungus family of Polyporaceae. Poria cocos has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for >2000 years. Indications for using it include promoting urination, to invigorate the spleen function, and to calm the mind. The bioactive components in Poria cocos include polysaccharides, triterpenoids, fatty acids, sterols, enzymes, etc. Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) accounts for 84% by weight among all constituents in the dried sclerotium...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030750/the-biological-activities-of-the-antitumor-drug-grifola-frondosa-polysaccharide
#15
Yanli He, Lijuan Zhang, Hua Wang
Grifola frondosa, a polypore fungus that grows at the base of trees, is an edible and medicinal mushroom with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. Japanese scholars found that Grifola frondosa polysaccharide or D-fraction is the major biologically active ingredient, which is a protein-bound glucan or proteoglucan, consisting of β-glucan (either β-1,6-linked glucan with β-1,3 branches or β-1,3-linked glucan branched with β-1,6 glucosides, but it also contains d-xylose, d-fucose, d-mannose, l-arabinose, uronic acid, and galactose with largely unknown linkages...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030749/low-molecular-weight-heparins-and-their-clinical-applications
#16
Cui Hao, Mojian Sun, Hongmei Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Wei Wang
Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that was discovered in 1917 and used in clinic since 1935. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) represent a refined use of heparin as anticoagulant medications that were developed in 1980s. LMWHs are obtained by cleaving heparin with different chemical or enzymatic methods. Eight chemically distinct and officially approved LMWHs are Bemiparin, Certoparin, Dalteparin, Enoxaparin, Nadroparin, Parnaparin, Reviparin, and Tinzaparin. LMWHs are mainly used for preventing blood clots, for treating deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and for treating myocardial infarction...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030748/ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharide-used-for-treating-physical-frailty-in-china
#17
Pengjiao Zeng, Yulong Chen, Lijuan Zhang, Maoqing Xing
Ganoderma lucidum is an edible medicinal mushroom known as "Lingzhi" in China and "Reishi or Manetake" in Japan. It is a highly prized vitality-enhancing herb for >2000 years. G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) has been identified as one of the major bioactive components and developed into a drug named "Ji 731 Injection" in China since 1973. The large-scale production of the drug began in 1985 and approved by the Chinese FDA as "Polysacharidum of G. lucidum Karst Injection in 2000, which is applied intramuscularly...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030747/ganoderma-sinense-polysaccharide-an-adjunctive-drug-used-for-cancer-treatment
#18
Yiran Zhang, Yifei Jiang, Meng Zhang, Lijuan Zhang
Ganoderma sinense is one of well-known herb medicine and has been used for 2000 years in China. G. lucidum and G. sinense are two family members of Ganoderma, a genus of polypore fungi. In Chinese, "Lingzhi" is designated as G. lucidum or red "Lingzhi" whereas "Zizhi" as G. sinense or purple "Lingzhi." The polysaccharides or glycans extracted from both G. lucidum and G. sinense have been developed into clinical drugs and recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia. G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) is one of a few non-hormonal drugs used for treating neurosis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, atrophic myotonia and muscular dystrophy in China during the past 40 years...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030746/an-overview-of-fungal-glycan-based-therapeutics
#19
Dandan Yang, Zijing Zhou, Lijuan Zhang
Edible medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used for health promotion and longevity in China and other East Asian countries for centuries. Structural and pharmacological studies revealed that fungal glycans show multiple physiological and healthy promoting effects including immunomodulation, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-oxidation, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-radiation, and other effects. Fungal glycans isolated from different kinds of medicinal mushrooms are partially purified and clinically tested...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31030745/marine-glycan-derived-therapeutics-in-china
#20
Yanyun Gao, Lijuan Zhang, Wenjie Jiao
A large proportion of all life on Earth lives in the ocean. Marine life includes microscopic life, plants, algae, invertebrates, fungi, and vertebrates. Due to the high salinity, high pressure, hypoxic and low temperature of the marine environment, the polysaccharides or glycans synthesized by marine life have diverse structures and unique biological activities that are not found in glycans in terrestrial life. Moreover, the glycans are the most abundant biopolymers made by the marine life. The reported activities of marine glycans include but not limit to anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, and antibacterial activities...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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