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Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711032/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Ya-Xiong Tao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711031/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor
#2
Li-Kun Yang, Ya-Xiong Tao
The β3 -adrenergic receptor (β3 -AR) is an important regulator of various physiological functions, such as thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, lipolysis in white adipose tissue, negative inotropic effect in cardiomyocyte, and relaxation in blood vessel. The activation of β3 -AR by its agonists is shown to have metabolic (antiobesity and antidiabetic) and cardiovascular effects in animal models, highlighting β3 -AR as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of several human diseases. Moreover, a substantial number of studies performed on different populations have identified some β3 -AR polymorphic variants associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other disorders...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711030/diseases-caused-by-mutations-in-luteinizing-hormone-chorionic-gonadotropin-receptor
#3
Jie Qiao, Bing Han
Accumulating evidence showed that the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is an essential regulator of sexual development and reproduction from zebrafish to human. Activating and inactivating mutations of LHCGR gene have been identified from patients of different phenotypes. Familial male-limited precocious puberty, Leydig cell hypoplasia, and empty follicle syndrome are caused by LHCGR mutations. More than 50 mutations have been reported from subjects of different ethnic backgrounds...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711029/mutations-in-gpr101-as-a-potential-cause-of-x-linked-acrogigantism-and-acromegaly
#4
Zhi-Shuai Hou, Ya-Xiong Tao
X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a recently described early-onset gigantism due to GPR101 duplication that induces growth hormone (GH) oversecretion. GPR101, which belongs to Family A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors, is predominantly expressed in hypothalamus and pituitary, suggesting that GPR101 might be important in regulating diverse functions such as energy balance and reproduction. Most mammalian GPR101s have extremely long third intracellular loops (ICL3); however, zebrafish GPR101 has a much shorter ICL3, but a longer C-terminus...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711028/arrestin-mutations-some-cause-diseases-others-promise-cure
#5
Vsevolod V Gurevich, Eugenia V Gurevich
Arrestins play a key role in homologous desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and regulate several other vital signaling pathways in cells. Considering the critical roles of these proteins in cellular signaling, surprisingly few disease-causing mutations in human arrestins were described. Most of these are loss-of-function mutations of visual arrestin-1 that cause excessive rhodopsin signaling and hence night blindness. Only one dominant arrestin-1 mutation was discovered so far. It reduces the thermal stability of the protein, which likely results in photoreceptor death via unfolded protein response...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711027/therapeutic-strategies-for-diseases-caused-by-loss-of-function-mutations-in-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#6
Wei Wang, Dong-Yu Guo, Ya-Xiong Tao
As one of the largest families of cell membrane proteins, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in regulating almost all physiological processes by transducing extracellular signals into the cytoplasm. Since the first discovery of naturally occurring mutations in Rhodopsin gene in 1990, hundreds of loss-of-function mutations in multiple GPCRs have been identified to be pathogenic for more than 30 diverse human diseases, making these defective receptors important drug targets for personalized medicine...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711026/prokineticins-and-their-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-health-and-disease
#7
Yaguang Zhao, Jiayu Wu, Xinying Wang, Hong Jia, Dan-Na Chen, Jia-Da Li
Prokineticins are two conserved small proteins (~8kDa), prokineticin 1 (PROK1; also called EG-VEGF) and prokineticin 2 (PROK2; also called Bv8), with an N-terminal AVITGA sequence and 10 cysteines forming 5 disulfide bridges. PROK1 and PROK2 bind to two highly related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2). Prokineticins and their receptors are widely expressed. PROK1 is predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues, especially steroidogenic organs, whereas PROK2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and nonsteroidogenic cells of the testes...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711025/physiology-pharmacology-and-pathophysiology-of-neuropeptide-s-receptor
#8
Zheng-Rui Zhang, Ya-Xiong Tao
Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1), originally named G protein-coupled receptor 154 (GPR154), was deorphanized in 2002 with neuropeptide S identified as the endogenous ligand. NPSR1 is primarily expressed in bronchus, brain as well as immune cells. It regulates multiple physiological processes, including immunoregulation, locomotor activity, anxiety, arousal, learning and memory, and food intake and energy balance. SNPs of NPSR1 are significantly associated with several diseases, including asthma, anxiolytic and arousal disorders, and rheumatoid arthritis...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711024/mutations-in-chemokine-receptors-and-aids
#9
Jing Kou, Yi-Qun Kuang
Chemokines are a class of chemotactic small molecule peptides whose receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 play important role in the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into immune cells. Chemokines belong to G protein-coupled receptor superfamily containing seven hydrophobic transmembrane helices, causing physiological effects such as chemotaxis, immune regulation, antiviral immunity, regulation of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, as well as cell growth and metabolism, through certain signaling pathways. Earlier studies have shown that HIV infects the human immune cells by binding to the CD4 receptor...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711023/diseases-associated-with-mutations-in-cnga3-genotype-phenotype-correlation-and-diagnostic-guideline
#10
Wenmin Sun, Qingjiong Zhang
Along with the molecular and functional characterization of CNGA3, knowledge about diseases associated with CNGA3 mutations has made great progress. So far, CNGA3 mutations are not only one of the most common causes of achromatopsia and cone dystrophy or cone-rod dystrophy but also one of the most commonly mutated genes among various forms of retinopathy. Understanding the clinical characteristics of CNGA3-associated retinal diseases may help clinical practice of infants or children with related diseases. Recognizing the importance of CNGA3 in inherited retinal diseases may enhance related research in searching for functional restoration or repair of CNGA3 defects...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470294/preface
#11
EDITORIAL
David B Teplow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470293/analysis-of-biased-agonism
#12
Frederick J Ehlert
Agonists and most natural ligands bind to receptors in their inactive state and quickly induce an active receptor conformation that initiates cell signaling. The active receptor state initiates signaling because of its structural complementariness with coupling proteins that activate signaling pathways, such as G proteins and G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Agonist bias refers to the propensity of an agonist to direct receptor signaling through one pathway relative to another. Thus, if the agonist exhibits much higher affinity for active state 1 compared to active state 2, it will cause a robust activation of receptor coupling protein 1 but not 2, and ultimately, a preferential stimulation of signaling pathway 1...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470292/arrestins-introducing-signaling-bias-into-multifunctional-proteins
#13
Vsevolod V Gurevich, Qiuyan Chen, Eugenia V Gurevich
Arrestins were discovered as proteins that bind active phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and block their interactions with G proteins, i.e., for their role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. Mammals express only four arrestin subtypes, two of which are largely restricted to the retina. Two nonvisual arrestins are ubiquitous and interact with hundreds of different GPCRs and dozens of other binding partners. Changes of just a few residues on the receptor-binding surface were shown to dramatically affect GPCR preference of inherently promiscuous nonvisual arrestins...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470291/fluorescent-proteins-as-sensors-for-cellular-behavior-in-mice
#14
Robert M Hoffman
Imaging of cancer cells in mice expressing fluorescent proteins has allowed the real-time tracing of cancer growth and metastasis and determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents, especially in mouse orthotopic models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm can visualize the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo, including mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position, and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm that occurs during cancer cell deformation, migration, and extravasation...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470290/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#15
Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
The hair follicle has been known, since 1990, to contain stem cells located in the bulge area. In 2003, we reported a new type of stem cell in the hair follicle that expresses the brain stem-cell marker nestin. We have termed these cells as hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells can differentiate into neuronal and glial cells, beating cardiac-muscle cells, and other cell types in culture. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair such that locomotor activity is recovered...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470289/effects-of-estrogens-on-central-nervous-system-neurotransmission-implications-for-sex-differences-in-mental-disorders
#16
Kristen N Krolick, Qi Zhu, Haifei Shi
Nearly one of every five US individuals aged 12 years old or older lives with certain types of mental disorders. Men are more likely to use various types of substances, while women tend to be more susceptible to mood disorders, addiction, and eating disorders, all of which are risks associated with suicidal attempts. Fundamental sex differences exist in multiple aspects of the functions and activities of neurotransmitter-mediated neural circuits in the central nervous system (CNS). Dysregulation of these neural circuits leads to various types of mental disorders...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470288/adult-stem-cells-for-regenerative-therapy
#17
Narasimman Gurusamy, Abdulrhman Alsayari, Sheeja Rajasingh, Johnson Rajasingh
Cell therapy has been identified as an effective method to regenerate damaged tissue. Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells or resident stem cells, are a rare population of undifferentiated cells, located within a differentiated organ, in a specialized structure, called a niche, which maintains the microenvironments that regulate the growth and development of adult stem cells. The adult stem cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent in nature, and their main role is to maintain the tissue homeostasis...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30340791/preface
#18
EDITORIAL
David B Teplow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30340790/group-i-intron-based-therapeutics-through-trans-splicing-reaction
#19
Chang Ho Lee, Seung Ryul Han, Seong-Wook Lee
In 1982, the Cech group discovered that an intron structure in an rRNA precursor of Tetrahymena thermophila is sufficient to complete splicing without assistance from proteins. This was the first moment that scientists recognized RNAs can have catalytic activities derived from their own unique three-dimensional structures and thus play more various roles in biological processes than thought before. Several additional catalytic RNAs, called ribozymes, were subsequently identified in nature followed by intense studies to reveal their mechanisms of action and to engineer them for use in fields such as molecular cell biology, therapeutics, imaging, etc...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30340789/global-aquatic-hazard-assessment-of-ciprofloxacin-exceedances-of-antibiotic-resistance-development-and-ecotoxicological-thresholds
#20
Kaitlyn R Kelly, Bryan W Brooks
Rapid urbanization represents a global megatrend that is resulting in an increasingly urban water cycle frequently contaminated by human medicines and other chemicals. Concentration of chemical consumption is occurring faster than implementation of environmental health systems and interventions, particularly in megacities of developing countries, while 80% of global sewage production remains untreated. In these urban areas, antibiotics in the environment influence development of antibiotic resistance (ABR) by pathogens...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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