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Journal of Oncology

Jesse A Stoff
Over the years, the treatment of patients with cancer has varied widely as much because of recent advancements in science and medicine as the philosophies that belie their use. This paper briefly describes many of the prevailing approaches in use today with an attempt to offer some perspective of how to apply these disparate methodologies so that they may be more effectively integrated, resulting in consistently better clinical responses.
2019: Journal of Oncology
Heena Saini, Ifrah Hakeem, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Shibasish Chowdhury, Rajdeep Chowdhury
Mutations in p53, especially gain of function (GOF) mutations, are highly frequent in lung cancers and are known to facilitate tumor aggressiveness. Yet, the links between mutant GOF-p53 and lung cancers are not well established. In the present study, we set to examine how we can better sensitize resistant GOF-p53 lung cancer cells through modulation of cellular protein degradation machineries, proteasome and autophagy. H1299 p53 null lung cancer cells were stably transfected with R273H mutant GOF-p53 or wild-type (wt) p53 or empty vectors...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Bibek Aryal, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Toshiaki Shimizu, Jun Kadono, Akira Furoi, Kentaro Gejima, Teruo Komokata, Chihaya Koriyama, Teruto Hashiguchi, Yutaka Imoto
Purpose: Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) has emerged as one of the key cytokines in malignant transformation of different cells. PDGF-BB also exhibits a potent mitogenic effect on liver cells; studies have advocated clinical implications of monitoring serum PDGF-BB (sPDGF-BB) in patients with liver disease. We thus investigated the predictive relevance of perioperative sPDGF-BB after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: We evaluated perioperative sPDGF-BB in a prospective homogenous cohort of 40 patients diagnosed with HCC...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Assaf Moore, Ido Stav, Robert B Den, Noa Gordon, Michal Sarfaty, Victoria Neiman, Eli Rosenbaum, Daniel A Goldstein
Background: Until recently, dose intensified radiotherapy was the standard radiation method for localized prostate cancer. Multiple studies have demonstrated similar efficacy and tolerability with moderate hypofractionation. In recent years there has been an increasing focus placed on understanding the cost and value of cancer care. In this study we aimed to assess the economic impact of moderate hypofractionation for payers in the United States. Methods: We performed a population-based analysis of the total cost of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer in the US annually...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Yan Wu, Dan Jin, Xiaohong Wang, Jing Du, Weihua Di, Jiajia An, Cuijie Shao, Jiwei Guo
Objectives: Cisplatin (DDP) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for several cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to DDP eventually develops, limiting its further application. New therapy targets are urgently needed to reverse DDP resistance. Methods: The mRNA expression of UBE2C , ZEB1/2 , ABCG2 , and ERCC1 was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of these molecules were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Shinji Miwa, Toshiharu Shirai, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Kentaro Igarashi, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Although outcomes of patients with osteosarcoma have improved since the introduction of chemotherapy, outcomes of metastatic or unresectable osteosarcomas are still unsatisfactory. To improve osteosarcoma outcomes, the development of novel systemic therapies for osteosarcoma is needed. Since the 1880s, various immunotherapies have been utilized in patients with osteosarcoma and some patients have shown response to the treatment. Based on recent studies about the role of the immune system in malignancies, immunotherapies including immune modulators such as interleukin-2 and muramyl tripeptide, dendritic cells, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and engineered T cells have been utilized in patients with malignancies...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Rana G Zaini, Amani A Al-Rehaili
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are considered one of the main dynamic cell types within the immune system. Because Treg cells suppress immune responses, they have potential roles in immunological self-tolerance and may help to maintain immune homeostasis. Promoting Treg cell function and increasing their numbers might be useful in treating autoimmune disorders, as well as preventing allograft rejection. However, studies of mice and humans demonstrate that Treg cells promote cancer progression and suppress antitumor immunity...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Susu Han, Tao Huang, Xing Wu, Xiyu Wang, Shanshan Liu, Wei Yang, Qi Shi, Hongjia Li, Fenggang Hou
Background: The prognostic value of CD133 and SOX2 expression in advanced cancer remains unclear. This study was first conducted to investigate the association between CD133 or SOX2 positivity and clinical outcomes for advanced cancer patients. Methods: Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the correlation between CD133 or SOX2 positivity and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), or recurrence-free survival (RFS) from multivariable analysis...
2019: Journal of Oncology
Chengkun Yang, Chuangye Han, Xiangkun Wang, Xiwen Liao, Xiaoguang Liu, Wei Qin, Long Yu, Guangzhi Zhu, Hao Su, Sicong Lu, Zhiwei Chen, Tingdong Yu, Zhen Liu, Ketuan Huang, Zhengtao Liu, Yu Liang, Jianlu Huang, Tao Peng
NM23 expression is closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, but the hereditary factors influencing NM23 levels are unknown. Using public database, the diagnostic value of NM23 in HCC was investigated. A total of 424 hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related HCC patients were enrolled to perform a genome-wide association study for identifying candidate variants associated with NM23 expression level. Additionally, a logistic regression model, haplotypes, and survival analysis were performed in the subsequent analysis...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Jun Xu, Xin Zhao, Shanwen Sun, Peng Ni, Chujun Li, Anjing Ren, Wei Wang, Lingjun Zhu
Background: Homocysteine, a key component in one-carbon metabolism, is of great importance in remethylation. Many epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between homocysteine and risk of digestive tract cancer, but the results are inconsistent. Objective: The objective of our meta-analysis is to assess the association between homocysteine and digestive tract cancer risk. Methods: Comprehensive searches were performed on the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases up to September 25, 2018, to identify relevant studies...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Sung Han Kim, Eun Young Park, Jungnam Joo, Jinsoo Chung
Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether baseline blood inflammatory markers can predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods: The study included 158 patients with mRCC treated with first-line targeted therapy between 2002 and 2016. A multivariable cox proportional hazards model identified inflammatory factors that predict PFS and OS. Using bootstrap method, new prognostic model compared with Heng and modified MSKCC risk model (mMSKCC)...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Matthew P Humphries, Sean Hynes, Victoria Bingham, Delphine Cougot, Jacqueline James, Farah Patel-Socha, Eileen E Parkes, Jaine K Blayney, Michael A O'Rorke, Gareth W Irwin, Darragh G McArt, Richard D Kennedy, Paul B Mullan, Stephen McQuaid, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Niamh E Buckley
The role of PD-L1 as a prognostic and predictive biomarker is an area of great interest. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to deliver PD-L1 as a clinical biomarker. At the heart of this conundrum is the subjective scoring of PD-L1 IHC in most studies to date. Current standard scoring systems involve separation of epithelial and inflammatory cells and find clinical significance in different percentages of expression, e.g., above or below 1%. Clearly, an objective, reproducible and accurate approach to PD-L1 scoring would bring a degree of necessary consistency to this landscape...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Thitinee Vanichapol, Wararat Chiangjong, Jirawan Panachan, Usanarat Anurathapan, Somchai Chutipongtanate, Suradej Hongeng
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial tumor of childhood with poor prognosis in a high-risk group. An obstacle in the development of treatment for solid tumors is the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a T cell subset with specialized function in immune suppression and maintaining self-tolerance. Tregs resident within the tumor milieu is believed to play an important role in immune escape mechanisms. The role of the NB microenvironment in promoting Treg phenotype has never been elucidated...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Stefanie Löffek
Significant breakthroughs have been achieved in the fields of oncogenic signaling inhibition and particularly immune-checkpoint blockade has triggered substantial enthusiasm during the last decade. Antibody-mediated blockade of negative immune-checkpoint molecules (e.g., PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4) has been shown to achieve profound responses in several of solid cancers. Unfortunately, these responses only occur in a subset of patients or, after initial therapy response, these tumors eventually relapse. Thus, elucidating the determinants of intrinsic or therapy-induced resistance is the key to improve outcomes and developing new treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Xin Zhou, Xiaomin Ou, Youqi Yang, Tingting Xu, Chunying Shen, Jianhui Ding, Chaosu Hu
Purpose: Quantitative lymph node burden has been demonstrated to be a critical prognosticator in various malignancies, yet it was seldom explored in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to investigate the impact of the number of metastatic lymph node regions (LRN) on prognosis of NPC and to establish a new N classification system based on LRN. Methods and Materials: The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 354 nondisseminated NPC patients before radical treatment were retrospectively evaluated...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Miles E Cameron, Anastasiya Yakovenko, Jose G Trevino
Membrane transporters fulfill essential roles in maintaining normal cellular function in health. In cancer, transporters likewise facilitate the aberrant characteristics typical of proliferating tumor cells. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is remarkable in its aggressiveness, and its metabolism is supported by a variety of membrane transporters. Glucose transporter 1 is upregulated in pancreatic cancer, enables rapid cellular uptake of glucose, and contributes to the invasiveness and metastatic ability of the disease...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Mengyuan Li, Zhixian Liu, Xiaosheng Wang
Background: PLK1 overexpression is oncogenic and is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. However, the current PLK1 inhibitors have achieved limited clinical successes. On the other hand, although immunotherapies are demonstrating efficacy in treating many refractory cancers, a substantial number of patients do not respond to such therapies. The potential of combining PLK1 inhibition with immunotherapy for cancer treatment is worthy of exploration. Methods: We analyzed the associations of PLK1 expression with tumor immunity in 33 different cancer types...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Claire Mignard, Aurélie Deschamps Huvier, André Gillibert, Anne Bénédicte Duval Modeste, Caroline Dutriaux, Amir Khammari, Marie-Françoise Avril, Nora Kramkimel, Laurent Mortier, Pierre Marcant, Thierry Lesimple, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Candice Lesage, Laurent Machet, François Aubin, Nicolas Meyer, Nathalie Beneton, Géraldine Jeudy, Henri Montaudié, Jean-Philippe Arnault, Laetitia Visseaux, Sabiha Trabelsi, Mona Amini-Adle, Eve Maubec, Yannick Le Corre, Dan Lipsker, Ewa Wierzbicka-Hainaut, Noémie Litrowski, Andreea Stefan, Florence Brunet-Possenti, Marie-Thérèse Leccia, Pascal Joly
Background: The objective was to assess the response rate and survival of patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma (MM) and uveal melanoma (UM) treated with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed in 25 dermatology departments in France. All patients with stage III-C to IV MM or UM who were treated with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 mAbs between 2008 and 2016 were included and compared after adjustment for main prognostic factors with a second cohort of patients treated with chemotherapy...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Xinzhe Yu, Jichun Gu, Haoxuan Wu, Deliang Fu, Ji Li, Chen Jin
Purpose: Nonsurgical therapies, including biotherapy, chemotherapy, and liver-directed therapy, provided a limit survival benefit for PNET patients with hepatic metastases. With the development of liver resection technique, there was a controversy on whether to perform a liver resection for these patients. Methods: A computerized search was made of the Medline/PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and SinoMed (CBM) before March 2018. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the differences in the efficacy of liver resection and nonliver resection treatments based on the evaluation of morbidity, 30-day mortality, symptom relief rate, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Anelise Russo, Patrícia M Biselli-Chicote, Rosa S Kawasaki-Oyama, Márcia M U Castanhole-Nunes, José V Maniglia, Dalísio de Santi Neto, Érika C Pavarino, Eny M Goloni-Bertollo
Introduction: Differential expression of genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other oxygenases enzymes involved in biotransformation mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous compounds can lead to oral tumor development. Objective: We aimed to identify the expression profile of these genes, searching for susceptibility biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Sixteen oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were included in this study (eight tumor and eight adjacent non-tumor tissues)...
2018: Journal of Oncology
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