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Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

Jamie D Aten, Wendy R Smith, Edward B Davis, Daryl R Van Tongeren, Joshua N Hook, Don E Davis, Laura Shannonhouse, Cirleen DeBlaere, Jenn Ranter, Kari O'Grady, Peter C Hill
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the existing empirical psychology of religion/spirituality (R/S) and disaster research and offer a prospectus for future research. METHOD: Searches were conducted in PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Medline databases, and through personal communication with study authors covering a period from 1975 (from the earliest identified study meeting our criteria) to 2015. Studies that took an empirical approach to studying the impact of disasters on R/S phenomena, as well as the relationship between R/S phenomena, cognition, behavior, and well-being in disaster contexts were included...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz, Shai Shorer, Rachel Dekel
OBJECTIVE: The long-term consequences of military spousal grief have not been adequately studied. Although the literature emphasizes the widow's connection with the deceased as part of the grief process, the importance of the sharing patterns of such grief has been overlooked. This study aimed to add to the understanding of remarried military widows' long-term grief, via 2 main processes: The first was to explore their grief processes, and the second was to reveal whether and how their grief processes were shared with others...
February 4, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lisa Coyle, Donncha Hanna, Kevin F W Dyer, John Read, David Curran, Ciaran Shannon
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to traumatic events is prevalent, with the impact of trauma and its relationship with other conditions widely documented. Research suggests that clinicians do not routinely ask about trauma history in clinical settings. Trauma-related training has been recommended as a means of addressing this. Neither the impact of training on clinician behavior (i.e., frequency of asking about or detection of trauma history) nor the relationship between training and these variables have been formally reviewed...
February 4, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Kimberly Van Nieuwenhove, Femke Truijens, Reitske Meganck, Shana Cornelis, Mattias Desmet
OBJECTIVE: Adult interpersonal difficulties are considered 1 of the core consequences of childhood trauma exposure. However, research concerning the nature of interpersonal patterns associated with childhood trauma is scarce. The aim of this case study of a supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy with a woman with a traumatic background, is to provide a detailed understanding of the nature of interpersonal patterns at the beginning and throughout therapy, and to provide an in-depth investigation of the therapeutic process...
February 4, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Leia Y Saltzman
OBJECTIVE: This article explores the universal concept of time with the aim of enhancing our ability to help those affected by loss and trauma as well as those who study and treat them. The help comes in the form of a new framework that focuses on how we think about, and represent, time in scholarship and practice. METHOD: In this conceptual article, I outline traditional approaches to incorporating time in psychological research and discuss the many related concepts, such as anniversary reactions...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Meredith E Charney, Louis Chow, Rafaella J Jakubovic, Lydia E Federico, Elizabeth M Goetter, Allison L Baier, David Riggs, Jennifer Phillips, Eric Bui, Naomi M Simon
OBJECTIVE: Extensive research supports the use of prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans and service members. PE and CPT have been disseminated nationally across the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Many service members and veterans receive care outside the VA where access to these gold standard psychotherapies can be limited. This paper presents a novel program developed to train community providers in the use of PE and CPT and their application to veterans with PTSD through the use of a medium-touch approach to consultation...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Allison Dornbach-Bender, Camilo J Ruggero, Keke Schuler, Ateka A Contractor, Monika Waszczuk, Christopher S Kleva, Evelyn Bromet, Benjamin Luft, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: The ability to experience positive affect (PA) has clinical and quality of life implications, particularly in vulnerable populations such as trauma-exposed disaster responders. Low PA is included in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however evidence for PA reduction in PTSD has been mixed. In contrast, negative affect (NA) has consistently been found to be elevated among individuals with PTSD. Multiday, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can provide more ecologically valid evidence about experiences of affect; however, no such studies have been conducted in traumatized individuals with PTSD to date...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Anke Weidmann, Laura Richert, Maximilian Bernecker, Miriam Knauss, Kathlen Priebe, Benedikt Reuter, Martin Bohus, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Thomas Fydrich
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found evidence of an attentional bias for trauma-related stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using eye-tracking (ET) technlogy. However, it is unclear whether findings for PTSD after traumatic events in adulthood can be transferred to PTSD after interpersonal trauma in childhood. The latter is often accompanied by more complex symptom features, including, for example, affective dysregulation and has not yet been studied using ET. The aim of this study was to explore which components of attention are biased in adult victims of childhood trauma with PTSD compared to those without PTSD...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Helen Valenstein-Mah, Shannon Kehle-Forbes, David Nelson, Elisheva R Danan, Dawne Vogt, Michele Spoont
OBJECTIVE: Most veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who receive care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) do not receive individual psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in initiation and completion of a sufficient course (defined as attending 8 or more sessions) of individual psychotherapy among male and female VHA users recently diagnosed with PTSD. METHOD: Participants (N = 7,218) were veterans in a prospective national cohort survey of VHA users diagnosed with PTSD; oversampling was used to increase representation of women and minority veterans...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Noga Tsur, Ruth Defrin, Yafit Levin, Liat Itzhaky, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings have demonstrated that torture survivors exhibit chronic pain and alterations in pain perception. However, not much is known regarding the characteristics of the torture experience and its contribution to these long-term ramifications. The current study examined the unique role of objective severity and subjective suffering in torture in predicting chronic pain and acute pain perception and pain modulation. METHOD: Eighteen years after war, 59 former prisoners of war who were subjected to severe torture in captivity were assessed for subjective suffering in torture and estimated weight loss during captivity (an indication of torture severity) using self-administered questionnaires...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Karina P M Zorzella, Robert T Muller, Robert A Cribbie, Veerpal Bambrah, Catherine C Classen
OBJECTIVE: Alexithymia is a personality trait that reflects deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions (Taylor & Bagby, 2013). It has been closely linked to childhood trauma and reported by individuals presenting with other trauma-related conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociation, and interpersonal problems (Powers, Etkin, Gyurak, Bradley, & Jovanovic, 2015). Addressing the emotional deficits associated with alexithymia is fundamental to resolving issues of childhood trauma and, therefore, is at the core of many trauma therapy models (e...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Zoe Morris Trainor, Jonathan Jong, Matthias Bluemke, Jamin Halberstadt
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown contradictory evidence for the relationship between religiosity and trauma; exposure to traumatic life events has been associated with both increases and decreases in religiosity over time. On the basis of a long theoretical tradition of linking death and religious belief and recent empirical evidence that thoughts of death may increase religiosity, we tested whether one determinant of trauma's influence on religion is the degree to which it makes death salient...
January 28, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Laura R Shannonhouse, Jacquelyn A Bialo, Aaron R Majuta, Melissa R Zeligman, Don E Davis, Stacey E McElroy-Heltzel, Jamie D Aten, Edward B Davis, Daryl R Van Tongeren, Joshua N Hook
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the trauma symptoms of those who have endured a multiyear drought in Botswana, an arid, pastoral, and primarily Christian Southern African nation. Particularly, this study used conservation of resources theory to consider the effects of disaster-related resource loss (DRL) and the psychology of religion literature to investigate the roles of religious or spiritual (R/S) and meaning-focused coping. METHOD: Three hundred undergraduates in Botswana completed culturally adapted measures of their DRL, positive and negative R/S coping, search for meaning in life (meaning-focused coping), lifetime trauma exposure, and current trauma symptoms...
January 3, 2019: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Edward B Davis, Cynthia N Kimball, Jamie D Aten, Chase Hamilton, Benjamin Andrews, Austin Lemke, Jenn Ranter Hook, Laura Captari, Pehr Granqvist, Joshua N Hook, Don E Davis, Daryl R Van Tongeren, Emilie L Cattrell, Andrew D Cuthbert, Joyce Chung
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal qualitative study explores the impact of natural disasters on religious attachment (perceived relationship with God). We sought to validate and conceptually extend the religion-as-attachment model in a postdisaster context. METHOD: At 4 weeks (T1; n = 36) and 6 months postdisaster (T2; n = 29), survivors of the 2016 Louisiana flood completed a disaster-adapted version of the Religious Attachment Interview (Granqvist & Main, 2017)...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Monika Dargis, Miranda Sitney, Brendan Caldwell, Michael Caldwell, Bethany G Edwards, Carla Harenski, Nathaniel E Anderson, Gregory Van Rybroek, Michael Koenigs, Kent A Kiehl
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to childhood trauma is particularly prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Although there is a growing understanding of the detrimental impact trauma exposure can have on child and adolescent development, childhood maltreatment can be very difficult to accurately measure. Integration of self-report trauma histories as well as supplemental file reports of trauma exposure may provide the most accurate estimate of experienced trauma among youth in correctional settings...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marleen Wildschut, Sanne Swart, Willemien Langeland, Adriaan Hoogendoorn, Jan H Smit, Nel Draijer
OBJECTIVE: Profiling patients who report early childhood trauma and emotional neglect may be useful for treatment planning. This study attempts to quantify a two-dimensional "trauma-neglect model" (Draijer, 2003) proposed to distinguish clinical profiles in terms of trauma-related, dissociative, and personality pathology. METHOD: A sample of patients referred to a trauma program ( n = 49) and a personality disorders program ( n = 101) was extensively assessed...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Joseph R Cohen, Shiesha L McNeil, Ryan C Shorey, Jeff R Temple
OBJECTIVE: Maltreatment exposure is a robust predictor of adolescent depression. Yet despite this well-documented association, few studies have simultaneously examined how maltreatment subtypes relate to qualitatively distinct depressive symptoms. The present multiwave longitudinal study addressed this gap in the literature by examining how different maltreatment subtypes independently impact depressed mood and anhedonia over time in a diverse adolescent sample. METHOD: Adolescents ( N = 673, M age = 14...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Dunja Tutus, Lutz Goldbeck, Elisa Pfeiffer, Cedric Sachser, Paul L Plener
OBJECTIVE: Trauma-therapy in children and adolescents often involves the inclusion of their parents. A multi-informant approach was used to investigate whether trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) changes dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs) in participating parents. This, in turn, may mediate their child's posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) posttreatment. METHOD: Children and adolescents (6-17 years old) were assigned to either a TF-CBT ( n = 57) or a waitlist ( n = 56) condition, within a multisite randomized controlled trial conducted in Germany...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Crystal L Park, Shane J Sacco, Mary Alice Mills
OBJECTIVE: Religious coping has been shown to relate to psychological adjustment in survivors of disasters months or even years afterward. However, because very few studies have assessed coping and well-being during the immediate crisis, little is known about the role of religiousness at this critical time. METHOD: We studied a sample of 132 Hurricane Katrina evacuees (56% male, 74.2% African American, mean age of 43 years) relocated to a Red Cross emergency shelter in Austin, Texas, within 19 days of Hurricane Katrina's landfall...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Megan M Kelly, Bryann B DeBeer, Eric C Meyer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience difficulties with social reintegration after deployment. Experiential avoidance, the tendency to avoid unwanted thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations (including in response to interactions with others) may be a key factor that explains the association between PTSD symptoms and postdeployment social support. The present study evaluated whether experiential avoidance mediates the association between PTSD symptoms and perceptions of postdeployment social support...
December 10, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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