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Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics

Yanka D Karamalakova, Galina D Nikolova, Tzvetelin K Georgiev, Veselina G Gadjeva, Anna N Tolekova
Curcuma longa L. (CLL) extract has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. The current study examined the antioxidant activity of CLL by which the extract protects the liver against bleomycin (BLM)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The hypothesis was that CLL extract would protect the liver by reducing oxidative stress (induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity), inhibiting lipid peroxidation, lowering biochemical parameters, and decreasing ROS production. Hepatic toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of mice once daily with BLM (0...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Talakola Naveen, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Manish Soneja, Pankaj Jorwal, Chitikela Sindhura Durga, Paras Singla, Charusmita Chaudhary, Upendra Baitha
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a form of primary hyperlipoproteinemia characterized by the presence of high concentrations of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increased tendency to form xanthomas and early onset of coronary artery disease. This disease is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by defects in the gene that encode for the LDL receptor. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare occurrence and here we report a case of an 18-year-old girl with familial hypercholesterolemia treated with anti-lipidemic drugs and controlled only with LDL apheresis...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mohammad M Rahman, Mayra A Machuca, Anna Roujeinikova
Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) of Gram-negative bacteria sense essential nutrients and mediate their uptake by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The gene for a PBP of H. pylori SS1, annotated as GlnH, is located within the glnPQH operon encoding an ABC importer system. In this study, GlnH has been expressed in E. coli and purified to > 98% homogeneity. The recombinant protein was folded according to the circular dichroism (CD) analysis and behaved as a monomer in solution. Crystals of GlnH have been grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 as a precipitating agent...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sho Nishiguchi, Nagisa Sugaya, Masahiko Inamori
End-of-life (EOL) care conferences have an important role in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. However, the details of the conferences remain poorly understood. A Japanese prefecture-wide survey was conducted to investigate the factors involved in such conferences that contribute to an increase in the amount of EOL care. One hundred fifty-three nursing homes performed the conferences. The outcome was the amount of EOL care provided in nursing homes after adjusting for the facility beds in 2014. We investigated the factors of staff experience with EOL care, frequency of the conferences, years the conferences were conducted, review conferences after EOL care, and professional participants in the conferences...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mochamad Ali Sobirin, Yan Herry, Sefri Noventi Sofia, Ilham Uddin, Sodiqur Rifqi, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without an established treatment. Diastolic dysfunction, the hallmark of HFpEF, is associated with altered myocardial bioenergetics. No previous study has examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on left ventricle (LV) diastolic function in patients with HFpEF. We investigated whether CoQ10 could improve LV diastolic function in patients with HFpEF. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using pretest and posttest control groups of 30 patients with HFpEF...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Megha Panwar, Archana Kumari, Anand Hp, Rashmi Arora, Vishwajeet Singh, Reeta Bansiwal
Early detection and prediction of preeclampsia (PE) may avert serious materno-fetal complications. This prospective nested study was conducted to evaluate the role of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting the development and severity of PE. Four hundred and forty primigravidas, between 16 to 18 weeks of gestation, were recruited in the study. Serum beta-hCG and NLR were measured at the time of recruitment and they were followed and monitored for the development of PE and severe PE...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Manabu Nakano, Motofumi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Kazumi Hayama, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Shigeru Abe
Candida albicans is a commensal fungus in human mucosal surfaces, including the oral cavity. Lactoferrin (LF) and the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system, which are host protection components in exocrine secretions, each exhibit weak anti-candida activity. We herein examined the effects of the combination of LF and the LPO system on C. albicans. Morphological observations indicated that the combination of LF and the LPO system reduced the mycelial volume of C. albicans and changed the size and shape of cells more than each agent alone...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Anup Singh, Manish Kumar Gupta, Surendra Pratap Mishra
This study was done with aim to assess the serum sclerostin and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) level in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to correlate their level with disease activity and bone mineral density. Fifty patients of RA and equal age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated with routine blood tests along with rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibody (anti-CCP2 ), radiographs and bone mineral density (BMD). Serum sclerostin and DKK-1 levels of both cases and controls was assayed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay [RayBio® , Georgia, USA with coefficient of variation percent (CV %), < 10%] and compared with disease activity and bone mineral density...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Huina Wu, Wenyan Jiang, Baijian Li, Hanlin Yang, Xin Zhao, Hongan Zhang, Sensen Wang, Lili Peng, Lihua Wang, Xuejian Wang, Gong Dai, Chunyan Fang
The expression of leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3) is associated with the prognosis for and malignant transformation of many types of tumors. Therefore, a LAP3 inhibitor may represent a new strategy for cancer therapy. Evaluating the suppression of enzyme activity by an LAP3 inhibitor is essential. Right now, leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) purified from the porcine kidneys are the only enzymes that can be used to evaluate the suppression of enzyme activity by an LAP3 inhibitor. This approach cannot accurately reflect the suppression of human LAP3 by an inhibitor...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Wasim Akram, Navneet Garud, Ramakant Joshi
The present review is focused on the prebiotic impact of inulin on the management of the gastrointestinal disorder. Prebiotics can be described as "non-digestible food ingredient stimulating the growth of a certain number of bacteria in the colon, which can improve the host health". In 2004 this definition was modernized to include other areas that may benefit from selective targeting of particular microorganisms: "selectively fermented ingredients that alter the configuration and activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer positive effect"...
2019: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Diabetes and obesity result from sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. Prevention of hyperglycemia contributes to inhibit the onset of these life-related diseases. Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. Among 24 samples obtained from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani, Cupriavidus sp...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Fuki Kurimoto, Satoko Hori, Yasufumi Sawada
Patients' experience of adverse reactions (ADR) and usability of drugs is important for proper use and post-marketing development of drugs, but it remains unclear whether and how patients are transmitting such information to others. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the ways in which bronchial asthma (BA) patients transmit experience of ADR to inhaled corticosteroids and usability of inhalers to others, including the reasons for these differences. A qualitative study involving focus-group interviews was conducted...
September 18, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Seyda Ignak, Ozlem Unay Demirel, Sevda Soydan, Erkan Esen
We present Shewanella algea infection in a chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patient with cholesteatoma in terms of clinical course and treatment. This is the first time S. algea is found as solely pathogen in a CSOM patient without history of contact with seawater in Turkey. The patient admitted to the hospital several times with complaints of otorrhoea, was diagnosed as otitis media and treated. He was hospitalized to the otorhinolaryngology department for further evaluation of recurrent infections...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Rabih Tabet, Youssef Shammaa, Boutros Karam, Harout Yacoub, James Lafferty
Thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-known complications that can occur after prothrombin complex concentrate therapy. However, acute myocardial infarction is a very rare but potentially life-threatening complication that was exclusively described in patients with bleeding disorders who received chronic and recurrent concentrate infusions. We report the case of a 70 year-old male patient with cholangiocarcinoma who was admitted to our hospital with worsening fatigue and weakness...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Masashi Ohe, Haruki Shida, Tetsuya Horita, Ken Furuya, Satoshi Hashino
Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects including anti-inflammatory effects as well as antibacterial activity. In consideration of these immunomodulatory effects, we report a patient with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, followed by prednisolone (PSL). A 78-year-old man with thrombocytopenia was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Initial laboratory data showed reduced platelet counts (1.7 × 104 /μL). Finally, we diagnosed the patient as having primary ITP...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nitin Gupta, Manish Soneja, Yogiraj Ray, Monalisa Sahu, Kutty Sharada Vinod, Arti Kapil, Ashutosh Biswas, Naveet Wig, Rita Sood
The clinical practice guidelines on nosocomial pneumonia recommends an empirical regimen that would work in 95% of the patients based on the local antibiogram. The aim of the study was development of an antibiogram for guiding empiric therapy in settings with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms. A retrospective review of electronic health records (e-hospital portal) was done to analyze all respiratory isolates from patients admitted in medical wards and intensive care unit between May 2016 and May 2017...
May 13, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Sudeshna Ghosh, Himanshu Narang, Pawan Goel, Prabhat Kumar, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Yuko Wada, Miyuki Kumazawa, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2 , and those of the generic products ranged from 42...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Takahiro Fujii, Takashi Oka, Shintaro Dobashi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Takanori Ikeda
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed...
March 19, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
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