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Environmental Health Insights

Phylis Jepkorir Busienei, George Morara Ogendi, Millicent A Mokua
Background: As of the year 2014, about 2.5 billion people globally lacked access to improved sanitation. The situation is even worse in the sub-Saharan African countries including Kenya. The practice of open defecation (OD) peaks beyond 72% of the population in Turkana County, Kenya, despite various interventions to end it. Methods: This article reports on both qualitative and quantitative aspects of a cross-sectional study. A partially mixed sequential dominant (quantitative) status was used to understand various socioeconomic factors associated with OD practice in Lodwar's human settlements, Turkana County...
2019: Environmental Health Insights
Leslie London, Erik Jørs, Dinesh Neupane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Environmental Health Insights
Man Young Park, Choul-Gyun Chai, Hae-Kyung Lee, Hani Moon, Jai Sung Noh
Background and Purpose: While providing medical services, hospitals generate many data about patients. Such medical data could contribute to better treatments once their associations or patterns have been identified. With properly analyzed medical data, traditional knowledge at an individual level could be further extended to broader populations. This comprehensive study was performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of light using medical data accumulated over 15 years. Methods: Patients who were admitted to the window or door side of a six-bedded room were included...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Samantha Chadee, Valerie Stoute
The built environment encompasses the physical components of the environment, inclusive of infrastructure, households, buildings, streets, and open spaces, within which individuals reside and carry out their daily activities. It affects both indirectly and directly on the outdoor and indoor physical environment as well as the socio-economic environment. The elements which comprise the built environment and those of the physical and socio-economic environments, which are affected by it, are recognised as key determinants of health...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Anke Maria Weber, Jörg Trojan
Background: Stress poses a major issue in our modern society, making restoration an important research focus. Restoration likelihood has mostly been observed in nature, which was compared with urban environments that have little restorative potential, eg, industrial areas. However, many people reside in and need to find restoration in cities. The main aim of this review is to summarize research that has focused on investigating restoration possibilities in urban environments and the environmental elements interacting with the restoration likelihood of an urban environment...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Richard Olawoyin
This commentary presents a summarized discussion of key findings and relevant ideas from previously published study, index analysis, and human health risk model application for evaluating ambient air-heavy metal contamination in Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS). The CVS study provides previously unavailable data in the CVS area which evaluates the adverse effects on air quality due to nearby anthropogenic activities. The study provided an assessment of environmental pollutants, finding that carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances are present in trace quantities...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Mohan Ananth, Reghunath Rajesh, Rajeevan Amjith, Achu A L, Mathew J Valamparampil, M Harikrishnan, M S Resmi, K B Sreekanth, Varghese Sara, S Sethulekshmi, V Prasannakumar, S K Deepthi, Aby Jose Jemin, D S Krishna, T S Anish, Ilyas Selene Insija, Zinia T Nujum
Objective: To assess the sanitary condition and water quality of household wells and to depict it spatially using Geographic Information System (GIS) in an urban area of Trivandrum, Kerala state, India. Study design: A community-based cross-sectional census-type study. Methods: Study was conducted in an urban area of Trivandrum. All households (n = 449) residing in a 1.05 km2 area were enrolled in the study. Structured questionnaire and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) device were used for data collection...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Brenda L Jacklitsch, Keith A King, Rebecca A Vidourek, Ashley L Merianos
Heat-related illness (HRI), injury, and death among oil spill cleanup responders can be prevented through training and educational materials. This study assessed heat-related training and educational materials currently used and desired by oil spill cleanup responders. A needs assessment was completed by 65 oil spill cleanup responders regarding their occupational heat-related experiences and training needs. Oil spill cleanup responders reported participating on average in 37 oil spill cleanup activities per year...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Sabino Maldonado-Torres, Rubi Gurung, Hom Rijal, Andrew Chan, Shishir Acharya, Snezna Rogelj, Menake Piyasena, Gayan Rubasinghege
With the growth of the human population, a greater quantity of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have been released into the environment. Although research has addressed the levels and the impact of PPCPs in the environment, the fate of these compounds in surface waters is neither well known nor characterized. In the environment, PPCPs can undergo various transformations that are critically dependent on environmental factors such as solar radiation and the presence of soil particles. Given that the degradation products of PPCPs are poorly characterized, these "secondary residues" can be a significant environmental health hazard due to their drastically different toxicologic effects when compared with the parent compounds...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Amit Kumar Gorai, Paul B Tchounwou, S S Biswal, Francis Tuluri
Rising concentration of air pollution and its associated health effects is rapidly increasing in India, and Delhi, being the capital city, has drawn our attention in recent years. This study was designed to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in a mega city, Delhi. The daily PM2.5 concentrations monitored by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi during November 2016 to October 2017 in different locations distributed in the region of the study were used for the analysis...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Michael Eddleston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Justin E Harbison, Amy B Runde, Marlon Henry, Bridget Hulsebosch, Alka Meresh, Haley Johnson, Roger S Nasci
Effectiveness in controlling mosquitoes in storm water catch basins in the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (northeastern Cook County, Illinois) was determined for 3 formulations of methoprene-based larvicides (Altosid XR 150-day Briquets, Altosid 30-day Pellets, Altosid 30-day Granules) in 2017 using a pass/fail evaluation criterion, in which emergence of a single adult from pupae collected from the basin constituted a control failure. Over the course of the 16-week study, basins receiving the 150-day briquets were treated once and basins receiving the pellet and granular formulations were treated every 4 weeks, with the first treatment occurring during the last week of May...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Tim Kelley, Gregory D Kearney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Brittany Corley, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Eleanor Rogan, Donald Coulter, John Sparks, Lorena Baccaglini, Madeline Howell, Sidra Liaquat, Rex Commack, Alan S Kolok
In 2009, a paper was published suggesting that watersheds provide a geospatial platform for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, the health of the environment, and human health. This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Erik Jørs, Dinesh Neupane, Leslie London
Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Kathleen Ward Brown, Bemnet Gessesse, Lindsey J Butler, David L MacIntosh
Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Dinesh Neupane, Erik Jørs, Lars Peter Andreas Brandt
Background: Farmers in developing countries use highly toxic organophosphate pesticides. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare plasma cholinesterase (PChE) enzyme activity before and after exposure to organophosphate pesticides in a real-life setting. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 25 farmers spraying organophosphate pesticide in their farm. The PChE level was measured and clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity were asked before and immediately after spraying...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Devoun R Stewart, Emily Saunders, Roberto A Perea, Rosa Fitzgerald, David E Campbell, William R Stockwell
Proposed emission control strategies for reducing ozone and particulate matter are evaluated better when air quality and health effects models are used together. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is the US Environmental Protection Agency's model for determining public policy and forecasting air quality. CMAQ was used to forecast air quality changes due to several emission control strategies that could be implemented between 2008 and 2030 for the South Coast Air Basin that includes Los Angeles...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Joab Odhiambo Okullo, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, George Morara Ogendi
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
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