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Journal of Infection and Public Health

Mohamed A Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Felwa A Thagfan, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Murad A Mubaraki, Mona Khalil, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Saleh Al-Quraishy
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, transmitted by blood-sucking insects and can affect humans and animals, depending on the species of Trypanosoma parasite. Trypanosoma has acquired resistance to the majority of drugs used; hence, alternative medicines are required. Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract (IOE) has been shown to treat blood stage malaria. Here, IOE was used to demonstrate its effect on Trypanosoma evansi-infected mice. METHODS: Analysis of IOE by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of many active components like flavonoids and phenolics...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Frank Houghton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Zenewton A da Silva Gama, Pedro J Saturno Hernández, Marise Reis de Freitas, Maria Clara Padoveze, Cecília O Paraguai de Oliveira Saraiva, Laiane G Paulino, Sibele Ferreira de Araújo
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a serious patient safety problem. There are effective preventive practices, but little information on adherence in Brazilian hospitals. This study aims at assessing adherence to good HAI prevention practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 3 different types of hospitals (public-federal, public-state and private) in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. A total of 19 structure and process indicators were measured based on 7 National Quality Forum Patient Safety Practices...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Emily Gunawan, Takako Utsumi, Rury M Wahyuni, Zayyin Dinana, Subijanto M Sudarmo, Ikuo Shoji, Soetjipto, Maria I Lusida
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis accounts for significant childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination using RotarixTM (GSK) and RotaTeq® (Merck) was introduced due to the tremendous disease burden. The possibility of asymptomatic infections following vaccinations was poorly understood. This study examined rotavirus cases in post-vaccinated children, their clinical manifestations and the genotypes of isolated strains. METHODS: Stool samples of healthy, vaccinated children under 5 years of age in Surabaya were collected monthly for 1 year between January 2016 and February 2017...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Mehmet Demirci, Özge Ünlü, Ayşe İstanbullu Tosun
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 is an important multidrug resistant clone responsible from more than half of ESBL-producing E.coli isolates. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of O25b-ST131 clone, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-1 genes in the E. coli strains isolated from both hospital and community acquired UTIs by real-time PCR and to reveal molecular epidemiological data. METHODS: Non-duplicate E. coli (n = 101) strains isolated from UTI patients were included...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Asha Kaul, Prerna Bali, Shadab Anwar, Ajay K Sharma, Birendra K Gupta, Om P Singh, Tridibes Adak, Mohammad Sohail
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for 80% of the malaria cases in Delhi, India. The gene merozoite surface protein 3 alpha (MSP3α) is highly polymorphic and has been used as marker in many P. vivax population studies. METHODS: MSP3α has been used to assess the genetic diversity of P. vivax samples from Delhi (India) having more than one malaria episode (s) i.e. clinically identified relapse cases using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. RESULTS: Three major genotypes 2...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Yu Lv, Lan Chen, Wu Yu J, Qian Xiang, Qiong S Tang, Feng D Wang, Hong M Cai, Kun Zou, Qiong D Wei, Hua Z Zhou, Hui Wang, Chen Wang, Jing Chen, Ting L Li, Ying Fang, Huan Wang
BACKGROUND: In 2018, diagnosis-related group-based prospective payment system (DRG-PPS) was implemented nationwide by China that did not fully consider the additional costs caused by healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs can increase hospitalization costs, but only a few studies have been conducted in China. We aimed to assess the additional costs caused by HAIs. METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control (1:1) study was performed in one of the largest tertiary hospitals in Sichuan Province, China...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ding-Yun Feng, Yu-Qi Zhou, Xiao-Ling Zou, Mi Zhou, Wen-Bin Wu, Xiao-Xia Chen, Yan-Hong Wang, Tian-Tuo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. The emergence of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is of major concern. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, and predictors of infection-related 30-day mortality in HAP with GNB. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis of HAP patients with GNB occurring from January 2014 and December 2017...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Fatma AlQahtani, Mohamad S AlSalhi, Karuppaiah Jeyaprakash, Vadivel Masilamani
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobinopathies (HgP) are prevalent in certain regions of the world. The World Health Organization estimated that 5% of the world's population is a carrier of the potentially pathological hemoglobin (Hb) gene. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the performance of fluorescence spectroscopy, a simple and inexpensive method, with that of conventional techniques for diagnosing thalassemia. The red blood cell (RBC) counts and levels of Hb, HbA, HbA2 , and HbS were estimated via conventional methods of complete blood count and Hb electrophoresis to diagnose thalassemia...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Aishwarya S Ambat, Sabah M Zubair, Neha Prasad, Prachi Pundir, Eti Rajwar, Divya S Patil, Praveen Mangad
The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and outbreak of NiV infection and to discuss the preventive and control measures across different regions. We searched PubMed and Scopus for relevant articles from January 1999 to July 2018 and identified 927 articles which were screened for titles, abstracts and full texts by two review authors independently. The screening process resulted in 44 articles which were used to extract relevant information. Information on epidemiology of NiV, outbreaks in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, India and Philippines, including diagnosis, prevention, treatment, vaccines, control, surveillance and economic burden due to NiV were discussed...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Anis Khan, Mohammed A AlBalwi, Ibraheem AlAbdulkareem, Abdulrahman AlMasoud, Abdulrahman AlAsiri, Wardah AlHarbi, Faisal AlSehile, Aiman El-Saed, Hanan H Balkhy
BACKGROUND: The triple assortment influenza A(H1N1) virus emerged in spring 2009 and disseminated worldwide, including Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out to characterize Saudi influenza isolates in relation to the global strains and to evaluate the potential role of mutated residues in transmission, adaptation, and the pathogenicity of the virus. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples (n = 6492) collected between September 2009 to March 2011 from patients with influenza-like illness were screened by PCR for influenza A(H1N1)...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Suvajit Saha, Madhumanti Halder, Subham Mookerjee, Anup Palit
BACKGROUND: Environmental diarrheagenic enteropathogens, effect of surrounding attributes and disease dynamicity remains far from being conclusively explored. Population flux, poor sanitation and hygienic practice poses potential health threat in diarrhoea endemic tropical countries like India. We aim to identify environmental attributes, seasonality of water-borne enteropathogens and health risk assessment off the river Ganges. METHODS: A yearlong sampling data generated from three sites on either sides of the River was analysed and implications have been reported...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Maria Fernandes, Maria L Vieira, Teresa Carreira, Rosa Teodósio
Leptospires are spirochetes of Leptospira genus. Infection in humans occurs by penetration into the mucous membranes, or into the skin (small wounds or abrasions). Humans are infected when they contact with urine of rodents, the main reservoirs. We aimed to evaluate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp antibodies and leptospiral DNA in sanitation workers (occupational group with increased risk) from Lisbon and Tagus Valley Region (Portugal). Blood samples were collected from 347 sanitation workers, being applied a questionnaire to analyze exposure to rodents and preventive measures...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Zoran Dakic, Predrag Duric, Milotka Fabri, Fiona O'May
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 257 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection and an estimated 71 million people with the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The true public health dimensions and impact of hepatitis epidemics are poorly understood. Case definitions are fundamental parts of disease surveillance, representing sets of standardised criteria used to assess whether or not a person has a certain disease. The study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of hepatitis B and hepatitis C case definitions, current at the time of data collection, recommended by the European Commission (EC) and the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Abdul-Kareem Mohammed Ghilan, Galal Ali Esmail, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Karuppiah Ponmurugan
BACKGROUND: Metabolites obtained from the marine microorganisms were known for their important role in microbial inhibition. Interestingly, bioprospecting of secondary metabolites from marine derived actinomycetes has huge demand especially in the treatment of multi drug resistant clinical pathogens. The present study subjected towards the identification of promising antimicrobial actinomycetes from the Arabian Gulf regions and metabolic profiling of the crude organic solvent extract by chromatographic techniques...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Aytekin Cikman, Merve Aydin, Baris Gulhan, Faruk Karakecili, Muhammet G Kurtoglu, Serife Yuksekkaya, Mehmet Parlak, Bilge S Gultepe, Aysegul C Cicek, Fulya B Bilman, Ihsan H Ciftci, Murat Kara, Selahattin Atmaca, Tuncer Ozekinci
BACKGROUND: mecA is a predefined gene causing methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates; however, it has been shown that some methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains do not carry this gene. Recently, in isolates found to be MRSA-positive but mecA-negative, a new resistance gene called mecC, which is a homolog of mecA, has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the mecC and mecA genes in MRSA strains isolated from different geographic regions in Turkey...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Giancarlo Ripabelli, Angelo Salzo, Andrea Mariano, Michela L Sammarco, Manuela Tamburro
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are a major public health concern both in acute hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs), considering the clinical presentations and related costs. The study describes the first regional experience on HAIs and antimicrobials consumption obtained through point prevalence survey (PPS) 2016-2017 in the "Antonio Cardarelli" acute hospital, and in the LTCF of Larino municipality (Healthcare-associated infections and Antimicrobial use in European Long-Term care facilities, HALT-3) of Molise Region, Central Italy, both coordinated by the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Wasiq Khan
Like other low-income countries, limited data are available on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in Pakistan. We conducted a systematic review of studies on PPE use for respiratory infections in healthcare settings in Pakistan. MEDLINE, Embase and Goggle Scholar were searched for clinical, epidemiological and laboratory-based studies in English, and 13 studies were included; all were observational/cross-sectional studies. The studies examined PPE use in hospital (n=7), dental (n=4) or laboratory (n=2) settings...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Nasir Mahmood, Shahzada N Abbas, Neelam Faraz, Saman Shahid
BACKGROUND: The MDR (multidrug resistance) tuberculosis is a serious public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are in use to treat tuberculosis, but M. tuberculosis strains have now become resistant due to several mutations in different genes. We evaluated mutations in gyrB gene at amino acid positions G481A and D505A of M. tuberculosis by semi-multiplex allele specific (MAS) PCR. METHODS: The information on gender, age, type of tuberculosis (TB), positive/negative for MDR-TB and HIV infection was gathered...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Khaled El Omari, Monzer Hamze, Saer Alwan, Marwan Osman, Charafeddine Jama, Nour-Eddine Chihib
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium spp. are responsible for several diseases, particularly in immunocompromised populations. The spreading of the resistance to antimycobacterial drugs is a significant problem to the public health and requires to find out a new and innovative alternative for the treatment of drug resistant mycobacterial strains. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of Micromeria barbata, Eucalyptus globulus and Juniperus excelsa essential oils extracted from Lebanese plants was investigated against selected Mycobacterium spp...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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