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Seon-Hee Kim, Sang-Yoon Park, Myong Cheol Lim, Eun Sook Lee, Eun Gyeong Lee, Seoung-Eun Han, Young-Ho Kim, Byoung S Kwon, Beom K Choi
AIM: We previously reported a simple and practical procedure to generate peptide-specific CD8+ T cells using peptide and IL-2, which is applied to produce human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-specific CD8+ T cells for clinical use. We have modified the procedure to enhance the amplification of peptide-specific CD8+ T cells adding IL-21. MATERIALS & METHODS: Using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted cytomegalovirus/pp65-specific CD8+ T cells of healthy volunteers, we optimized the culture conditions by adjusting the dose and timing of IL-21 treatment...
February 14, 2019: Immunotherapy
Maiko Asai, Yasuhiro Kato, Shoko Kawai, Kageaki Watanabe, Makiko Yomota, Yusuke Okuma, Yukio Hosomi, Tsunekazu Hishima, Tatsuru Okamura
Immuno-checkpoint inhibitor response and immune-related adverse events remain controversial issues. Managing pericardial effusion during programmed cell death 1 inhibitor treatment is challenging. Here, we report a case of successfully managed cardiac tamponade caused by nivolumab-induced pseudoprogression. A 62-year-old male diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma started on nivolumab. Seven days later, he experienced cardiac tamponade and required pericardiocentesis, and other lesions were larger on computed tomography...
February 7, 2019: Immunotherapy
Andrew M Frederickson, Stella Arndorfer, Ina Zhang, Maria Lorenzi, Ralph Insinga, Ashwini Arunachalam, Thomas A Burke, George R Simon
AIM: A systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pembrolizumab + pemetrexed + platinum relative to other regimens in metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSq-NSCLC). PATIENTS & METHODS: Eligible studies evaluated first-line regimens in NSq-NSCLC patients without known targetable mutations. Relative treatment effects were synthesized with random effects proportional hazards Bayesian network meta-analyses...
February 4, 2019: Immunotherapy
Ni Zhang, Jingyao Tu, Xue Wang, Qian Chu
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors are widely used in many types of solid tumors, and are often considered to be in the same immunotherapy subclass. This review explores whether specific agents in these two categories exhibit differences in their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy and safety. Due to the complicated functional pathways in the immune checkpoint system, the epitopes, interfaces and signal pathways between PD-1: PD-L1/PD-L2, PD-L1/CD28/CTLA-4: B7-1 axes often overlap and affect each other...
January 30, 2019: Immunotherapy
Tian Liu, Qi Xiong, Lingling Li, Yi Hu
AIM: Previous studies showed that some patients after the treatment of anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies experienced immune-related diarrhea. In this study, we aim to explore the association between intestinal microbiota and immune-related diarrhea. METHODS: We obtained the fecal samples of 26 advanced lung cancer patients before the first dose of anti-PD-1 antibodies. RESULTS: Eight of 26 patients experienced diarrhea after the treatment of anti-PD-1 antibodies...
January 29, 2019: Immunotherapy
Kenneth Paris, Elie Haddad, Michael Borte, Nicholas Brodszki, Beáta Dérfalvi, Laszlo Maródi, Iftikhar Hussain, Amy Darter, Werner Engl, Heinz Leibl, Barbara McCoy, Leman Yel
AIM: To assess Ig20Gly tolerability in pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies. PATIENTS & METHODS: Infusion parameters and tolerability were analyzed in pediatric patients (aged 2-5 years [n = 6], 6-11 years [n = 22] and 12-17 years [n = 22]) receiving Ig20Gly in two Phase II/III trials. RESULTS: Of 2624 Ig20Gly infusions, >99% did not require any rate reduction, interruption or discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs)...
January 9, 2019: Immunotherapy
Qing Li, Jingcao Huang, Yang Ou, Yan Li, Yu Wu
We attempted to explore novel treatment options for progressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with TP53 mutation that has a poor response to rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. Herein, we report the case of a patient with DLBCL having TP53 mutation who showed progression following four cycles of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy but achieved sustained partial remission following chidamide-based chemotherapy. In vitro experiments performed using the DLBCL cell lines OCI-ly1 (LY1; mutant TP53), OCI-ly10 (LY10; wild-type TP53) and OCI-ly19 (LY19, wild-type TP53) demonstrated that chidamide is more potent against cells with mutant TP53 mutant than those with wild-type TP53...
January 4, 2019: Immunotherapy
Teresa Amaral, Ioanna Tampouri, Thomas Eigentler, Ulrike Keim, Bernhard Klumpp, Vanessa Heinrich, Daniel Zips, Frank Paulsen, Irina Gepfner-Tuma, Marco Skardelly, Marcos Tatagiba, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Claus Garbe, Andrea Forschner
AIM: Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) are associated with a dismal prognosis. Few clinical trials evaluated the impact of immunotherapy (IT) and targeted therapy (TT) alone or in combination with surgery and radiotherapy in this population. PATIENTS & METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from 163 patients diagnosed with MBM between January 2014 and December 2016. Prognostic factors of overall survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, classification and regression tree and multivariate Cox regression analysis...
January 4, 2019: Immunotherapy
Ahmad Tarhini, David McDermott, Apoorva Ambavane, Komal Gupte-Singh, Valerie Aponte-Ribero, Corey Ritchings, Agnes Benedict, Sumati Rao, Meredith M Regan, Michael Atkins
AIM: The cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences in BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma. MATERIALS & METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate total costs and health outcomes over a patient's lifetime (30 years). Efficacy was based on the CheckMate 067/069 trials and a matching-adjusted-indirect comparison between immuno-oncology and targeted therapies. Safety, cost (in US dollars; US third-party payer perspective) and health-related quality-of-life inputs were based on published literature...
December 19, 2018: Immunotherapy
Lingdi Zhao, Tiepeng Li, Yonghao Yang, Yong Zhang, Wei Li, Lu Han, Yiman Shang, Hongwei Lin, Xiubao Ren, Quanli Gao
AIM: To assess the impact of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) and explore the value of NLR as an indicator in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with RetroNectin® -activated cytokine-induced killer (R-CIK) cells. PATIENTS & METHODS: Using data gathered from a single center between January 2010 and June 2015, 201 patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC receiving at least four cycles of R-CIK cell therapy were included...
December 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Hui Wang, Xiangjie Lin, Yuan Luo, Shaoxing Sun, Xiaoli Tian, Yingming Sun, Shimin Zhang, Jing Chen, Junhong Zhang, Xuefeng Liu, Huan Liu, Yan Gong, Conghua Xie
AIM: We investigated a promising cooperative combination of radiotherapy (RT) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in both local and abscopal tumors. MATERIALS & METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly grouped and received RT, α-PD-L1 mAb or combination therapy 13 days after implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analyses demonstrated CD8+ T-cell infiltration and PD-L1 expression in tumor issue...
December 4, 2018: Immunotherapy
Yong Zhang, Xiaomin Fu, Yalong Qi, Quanli Gao
AIM: To investigate the characteristics and prognosis of melanoma in a Chinese population. MATERIALS & METHODS:  Total of 162 advanced melanoma patients were analyzed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis. RESULTS: The median progression-free survival of mucosal and cutaneous melanoma patients was 13 versus 8 months (p = 0.005), 14 versus 10 months in immunotherapy group (p = 0.022), 6 versus 4 months in chemotherapy group (p = 0...
December 4, 2018: Immunotherapy
Shashikant Apte, Jordi Navarro-Puerto, Sharat Damodar, Vijay Ramanan, Joseph John, Giraldo Kato, Cecil Ross, Chirag Shah, Marcela Torres, Chieh-Lin 'Kathy' Fu, Karen Rucker, Paul Pinciaro, Gladis Barrera, Maria Esperança Aragonés, Jaume Ayguasanosa
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 10% intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG; Flebogamma®  10% DIF) in individuals with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). PATIENTS & METHODS: Patients aged 3-70 years, diagnosed with chronic ITP, received 1 g/kg IVIG over two consecutive days. RESULTS:  64 evaluable patients (51 adults, 13 children) with chronic ITP received IVIG. The primary efficacy end point (increased platelet counts from ≤20 × 109 /l to ≥50 × 109 /l by day 8) was achieved by 81...
November 30, 2018: Immunotherapy
Anna Schurich, Isabelle Magalhaes, Jonas Mattsson
The field of immunometabolism has attracted growing attention as an area at the heart of immune regulation. Upon activation, T cells undergo significant metabolic changes allowing them to mediate effector responses. The advent of chimeric antigen receptor T cell-adoptive therapy has shown some striking clinical efficacy but fails to induce sufficient antitumor response in many patients. Solid tumors put up significant opposition creating a microenvironment deficient of oxygen and glucose, depriving T cells of energy and pushing them to exhaustion...
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Garry M Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Xiao-Jian Wang, Jia-Zhou Lin, Shu-Han Yu, Sheng-Xi Wu, He-San Luo, Ze-Sen Du, Xu-Yuan Li
AIM: To estimate efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors and rank treatment effects in non-small-cell lung cancer. MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective randomized trials were included. p-score was used to rank treatment effects. RESULTS: A total of nine trials were identified, involving 5504 patients and three checkpoint inhibitors. Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy had the highest p-score of 0.95 among all the treatments, and was superior to pembrolizumab alone (hazard ratio: 0...
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Farzaneh Afshari, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Giandomenico Roviello, Nima Rezaei
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death world-wide. Despite improvements in prevention, early detection and various therapeutic options, the prognosis is still poor. GC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with survivals less than 1 year. Chemotherapy as the mainstay of treatment in advanced stage is not of notable advantages, underlining the need for novel more effective therapeutic options. Based on current knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms, a number of novel biologic approaches such as monoclonal antibodies have been recently introduced for cancer treatment that mainly affect the immune system or target signaling pathways playing role in cancer and metastasis development...
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Khalil Saleh, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Hampig Raphael Kourie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Zhuoya Zhang, Wei Deng, Qizhe Wu, Lingyun Sun
There is currently interest in the risk of infections during treatment with new targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), specifically the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib. Tofacitinib has been studied extensively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and has been shown to be effective and generally safe. East Asian countries have a high background rate of tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the risk of recurrence or reactivation of infections such as TB, HBV and herpes zoster during DMARD therapy is of particular interest in the region...
March 2019: Immunotherapy
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Azam Bolhassani
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) have been involved in different functions including chaperone activity, protein folding, apoptosis, autophagy and immunity. The HSP families have powerful effects on the stimulation of innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors and scavenger receptors. Moreover, HSP-mediated phagocytosis directly enhances the processing and presentation of internalized antigens via the endocytic pathway in adaptive immune system. These properties of HSPs have been used for development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against infectious and noninfectious diseases...
February 2019: Immunotherapy
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