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Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports

Nishant R Shah, Ron Blankstein, Todd Villines, Hafiz Imran, Alan R Morrison, Michael K Cheezum
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent hardware and software advances in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) that make it a potentially viable alternative to invasive coronary angiography for surveillance of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in heart transplant recipients. Recent Findings: Dual-source CT, multisegment reconstruction, and intracycle motion correction algorithms are all technologies applied during or after image acquisition that can improve image quality and diagnostic accuracy in patients with elevated heart rates, such as heart transplant recipients...
2018: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Javier Gomez, Rami Doukky, Guido Germano, Piotr Slomka
Purpose of review: The use of quantitative analysis in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has become an integral part of current clinical practice and plays a crucial role in the detection and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. Emerging technologies, new protocols, and new quantification methods have had a significant impact on the diagnostic performance and prognostic value of nuclear cardiology imaging, while reducing the need for clinician oversight...
January 2018: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Bryan C Ramsey, Emilio Fentanes, Andrew D Choi, Kelley R Branch, Dustin M Thomas
Purpose of Review: The aim of this review is to highlight recent advancements, current trends, and the expanding role for cardiac CT (CCT) in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and some specific congenital myocardial disease states. Recent Findings: CCT is a highly versatile imaging modality for the assessment of numerous cardiovascular disease states. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is now a well-established first-line imaging modality for the exclusion of significant coronary artery disease (CAD); however, CCTA has modest positive predictive value and specificity for diagnosing obstructive CAD in addition to limited capability to evaluate myocardial tissue characteristics...
2018: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Victoria R Pell, Friedrich Baark, Filipa Mota, James E Clark, Richard Southworth
Purpose of Review: In this review, we outline the potential for hypoxia imaging as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in cardiology. We describe the lead hypoxia PET radiotracers currently in development and propose a rationale for how they should most appropriately be screened and validated. Recent Findings: While the majority of hypoxia imaging agents has been developed for oncology, the requirements for hypoxia imaging in cardiology are different. Recent work suggests that the bis(thiosemicarbazone) family of compounds may be capable of detecting the subtle degrees of hypoxia associated with cardiovascular syndromes, and that they have the potential to be "tuned" to provide different tracers for different applications...
2018: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Kenneth Mangion, Kirsty McDowell, Patrick B Mark, Elaine Rutherford
Purpose of Review: The aim of the review was to identify and describe recent advances (over the last 3 years) in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a literature review in line with current guidelines. Recent Findings: The authors identified 22 studies. Patients with CKD had left ventricular global and regional dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Stress testing with CMR revealed a reduced stress-response in CKD patients...
2018: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Yasmeen Golzar, Rami Doukky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac risk assessment, though challenging, is critical in these high-risk patients, particularly in the pre-transplant population. In this review, we discuss the burden of coronary artery disease in the ESRD population and review the literature on the diagnostic and prognostic performance, clinical value, and future directions of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in ESRD patients...
May 2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Mohammed M Chowdhury, Ahmed Tawakol, Farouc A Jaffer
Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease is a powerful clinical and experimental approach that can inform our understanding of atherosclerosis biology. Complementing cross-sectional imaging techniques that provide detailed anatomical information, molecular imaging can further detect important biological changes occurring within atheroma, and refine the prediction of vascular complications. In addition, molecular imaging of atherosclerosis can illuminate underlying pathophysiology and serve as a surrogate end-point in clinical trials of new drugs...
January 2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Susan H Kwon, Aasha S Gopal
Purpose of Review: Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (3DE) and 4-dimensional echocardiography (4DE), also known as real-time (RT) 3DE (RT3DE), are rapidly emerging technologies which have made significant impact in the clinical arena over the years. This review will discuss the recent applications of 3DE in diagnosing and treating different types of cardiovascular disease. Recent Findings: Recent studies using 3DE expanded on prior findings and introduced additional applications to different cardiac conditions...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Alastair J Moss, Michelle C Williams, David E Newby, Edward D Nicol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cost-effective care pathways are integral to delivering sustainable healthcare programmes. Due to the overestimation of coronary artery disease using traditional risk tables, non-invasive testing has been utilised to improve risk stratification and initiate appropriate management to reduce the dependence on invasive investigations. In line with recent technological improvements, cardiac CT is a modality that offers a detailed anatomical assessment of coronary artery disease comparable to invasive coronary angiography...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Michelle C Williams, Alastair Moss, Edward Nicol, David E Newby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review the recent randomised controlled trials of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for patients with stable coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The initial results and subsequent papers from the SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART) and PROMISE (PROspective Multicentre Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain) trials have shown that CCTA is a safe and appropriate addition to standard care or alternative to functional testing...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Malte Kircher, Constantin Lapa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a key player in a wide range of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases. Given the numerous implications of inflammatory processes in disease initiation and progression, functional imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) represent valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools in patient management. Since increased glucose metabolism is a hallmark of inflammation, PET using the radiolabeled glucose analog [(18)F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is the mainstay diagnostic test for nuclear imaging of (cardiac) inflammation...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Mathieu Rubeaux, Yuan Xu, Guido Germano, Daniel S Berman, Piotr J Slomka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is performed clinically worldwide to detect and monitor coronary artery disease (CAD). MPI allows an objective quantification of myocardial perfusion at stress and rest. This established technique relies on normal databases to compare patient scans against reference normal limits. In this review, we aim to introduce the process of MPI quantification with normal databases and describe the associated perfusion quantitative measures that are used...
August 2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Amita Singh, Victor Mor-Avi, Amit R Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography is a well-validated non-invasive technique for accurate and expedient diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a limitation of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is its limited capability to identify physiologically significant stenoses, which may eventuate the need for further functional testing. Stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging (CT-MPI) is an emerging technique that has the ability to identify flow-limiting stenoses...
July 2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Tetsuya Hara, Farouc A Jaffer
Progression of vulnerable coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlies the majority of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death episodes. Recent advances in biological/molecular imaging technology are now enabling the accurate identification of high-risk plaques and stents in living subjects. Due to their smaller caliber and susceptibility to cardiorespiratory motion, noninvasive molecular imaging of human coronary arteries remains challenging. Therefore, intravascular high-resolution molecular imaging approaches appear necessary to resolve molecular features of human coronary arteries and stents...
April 2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Ljubica Mandic, Denise Traxler, Alfred Gugerell, Katrin Zlabinger, Dominika Lukovic, Noemi Pavo, Georg Goliasch, Andreas Spannbauer, Johannes Winkler, Mariann Gyöngyösi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial infarction (MI) leading to heart failure displays an important cause of death worldwide. Adequate restoration of blood flow to prevent this transition is a crucial factor to improve long-term morbidity and mortality. Novel regenerative therapies have been thoroughly investigated within the past decades. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium has shown beneficial effects on the prognosis of MI; therefore, the proangiogenic capacity of currently tested treatments is of specific interest...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Russell J Everett, David E Newby, Andrew Jabbour, Zahi A Fayad, Marc R Dweck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aortic valve disease is the most common form of heart valve disease in developed countries. Imaging remains central to the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with both aortic stenosis and regurgitation and has traditionally been performed with echocardiography. Indeed, echocardiography remains the cornerstone of aortic valve imaging as it is cheap, widely available and provides critical information concerning valve hemodynamics and ventricular function. RECENT FINDINGS: Whilst diagnostic in the vast majority of patients, echocardiography has certain limitations including operator variability, potential for measurement errors and internal inconsistencies in severity grading...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Kaitlin B Baron, Andrew D Choi, Marcus Y Chen
Coronary computed tomography (CT) allows for the acquisition of thin slices of the heart and coronary arteries, which can be used to detect and quantify coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite the proven clinical value in cardiac risk prognostication, there remain concerns regarding radiation exposure from CAC CT scans. There have been several recent technical advancements that allow for significant radiation dose reduction in CAC scoring. This paper reviews the clinical utility and recent literature in low radiation dose CAC scoring...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Bjarne Linde Nørgaard, Jonathon Leipsic, Bon-Kwon Koo, Christopher K Zarins, Jesper Møller Jensen, Niels Peter Sand, Charles A Taylor
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic and physiologic modeling now enables simulation of patient-specific hemodynamic parameters including blood velocity, pressure, pressure gradients, and FFR from standard acquired coronary computed tomography (CT) datasets...
2016: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Amir Ali Rahsepar, Armin Arbab-Zadeh
Diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease represent a major challenge to our health care systems affecting millions of patients each year. Until recently, the diagnosis of coronary artery disease could be conclusively determined only by invasive coronary angiography. To avoid risks from cardiac catheterization, many healthcare systems relied on stress testing as gatekeeper for coronary angiography. Advancements in cardiac computed tomography angiography technology now allows to noninvasively visualize coronary artery disease, challenging the role of stress testing as the default noninvasive imaging tool for evaluating patients with chest pain...
August 2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Thomas Buck, Björn Plicht
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is considered the most common valve disease with a prevalence of 2-3 % of significant regurgitation (moderate to severe and severe) in the general population. Accurate assessment of the severity of regurgitation was demonstrated to be of significant importance for patient management and prognosis and consequently has been widely recognized in recent guidelines. However, evaluation of severity of valvular regurgitation can be potentially difficult with the largest challenges presenting in cases of mitral regurgitation...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
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