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Food and Environmental Virology

Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Monitoring of environmental water is crucial to protecting humans and animals from possible health risks. Although numerous human-specific viral markers have been designed to track the presence of human fecal contamination in water, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity in different geographical regions. We evaluated the performances of six human-specific viral markers [Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), human adenoviruses (HAdVs), BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKPyVs and JCPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and crAssphage] using 122 fecal-source samples collected from humans and five animal hosts in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
May 13, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Arijana Filipić, Gregor Primc, Rok Zaplotnik, Nataša Mehle, Ion Gutierrez-Aguirre, Maja Ravnikar, Miran Mozetič, Jana Žel, David Dobnik
While one of the biggest problems we are facing today is water scarcity, enormous quantities of water are still being used in irrigation. If contaminated, this water can act as an effective pathway for the spread of disease-causing agents, like viruses. Here, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method known as cold atmospheric plasma for inactivation of viruses in water used in closed irrigation systems. We measured the plasma-mediated viral RNA degradation as well as the plasma-induced loss of viral infectivity using potato virus Y as a model virus due to its confirmed water transmissibility and economic as well as biological importance...
April 29, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Sofia Persson, Måns Karlsson, Henrik Borsch-Reniers, Patrik Ellström, Ronnie Eriksson, Magnus Simonsson
Mismatches between template sequences and reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can lead to underestimation or false negative results during detection and quantification of sequence-diverse viruses. We performed an in silico inclusivity analysis of a widely used RT-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food, described in ISO 15216-1. One of the most common mismatches found was a single G (primer) to U (template) mismatch located at the terminal 3'-end of the reverse primer region...
April 19, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
N El Moqri, F El Mellouli, N Hassou, M Benhafid, N Abouchoaib, S Etahiri
Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in the world. These outbreaks are frequently associated with bivalve shellfish consumption, particularly because these products are often eaten raw or only slightly cooked. In Morocco, regulations concerning the acceptable levels of enteric bacteria indicator organisms in these products have been put in place. However, these regulations do not take into account the risk of viral contamination, and many gastroenteritis outbreaks have been linked to the ingestion of bivalve shellfish from areas that comply with the current food safety criteria...
April 13, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
P Kokkinos, K Katsanou, N Lambrakis, A Vantarakis
The purpose of this study is to assess the overall impact of different anthropogenic activities in the Vouraikos River basin (southwestern Greece, Natura 2000 area). Virological quality of river water samples was investigated. Positive samples for human adenoviruses were found occasionally, while porcine adenoviruses and bovine polyoma viruses were not detected. It is the first time that virological data are collected in the study area.
April 10, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
David H Kingsley, Bassam A Annous
The effectiveness of steady-state levels of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) against Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus surrogate, on berries was determined. The generated ClO2 was maintained at 1 mg/L inside a 269 L glove box to treat two 50 g batches of blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and two 100 g batches of strawberries that were immersion coated with TV. The standardized/normalized treatment concentrations of ClO2 ranging from 0.63 to 4.40 ppm-h/g berry were evaluated. When compared to untreated TV contaminated berries, log reductions of TV were in excess of 2...
April 4, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Viviana Bortagaray, Andrés Lizasoain, Claudia Piccini, Luciana Gillman, Mabel Berois, Sonia Pou, María Del Pilar Díaz, Fernando López Tort, Rodney Colina, Matías Victoria
The aim of this study was to determine the origin (human, bovine or porcine) and the concentration of the fecal sources of contamination in waters from Santa Lucía basin and Uruguay River in Uruguay by using host-specific viral markers (adenoviruses and polyomaviruses) as microbial source tracking (MST). Between June 2015 and May 2016, monthly collections of surface water samples were performed in six sites in Santa Lucía basin and four sites in Uruguay River (n = 120 samples). Viral concentration was carried out using an absorption-elution method...
April 3, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
David H Kingsley, Haiqiang Chen, Bassam A Annous, Gloria K Meade
Male-specific coliphages (MSCs) are currently used to assess the virologic quality of shellfish-growing waters and to assess the impact of sewage release or adverse weather events on bivalve shellfish. Since MSC can have either DNA or RNA genomes, and most research has been performed exclusively on RNA MSCs, persistence of M13, a DNA MSC, was evaluated for its persistence as a function of time and temperature within Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Oysters were individually exposed to seawater containing a total of 1010 to 1012 pfu of M13 for 24 h at 15 °C followed by maintenance in tanks with as many as 21 oysters in continuously UV-sterilized water for up to 6 weeks at either 7, 15, or 22 °C...
March 27, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Wenjun Deng, Giselle Almeida, Kristen E Gibson
Human noroviruses (hNoV) are the primary cause of foodborne disease in the USA. Most studies on inactivation kinetics of hNoV and its surrogates are performed in monoculture, while the microbial ecosystem effect on virus inactivation remains limited. This study investigated the persistence of hNoV surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and Tulane virus (TuV), along with Aichi virus (AiV) under thermal and chemical inactivation in association with Gram-negative (Enterobacter cloacae) bacteria. Thermal inactivation of viruses in co-culture with E...
March 26, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Shin Young Park, Sang-Do Ha
This study investigated the synergistic effects of combined chlorine (200, 500, 700, and 1000 ppm) and vitamin B1 (1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm) on the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate, on oyster surface. Vitamin B1 slightly reduced MNV-1 (0.04-0.3 log-reduction), whereas chlorine significantly reduced MNV-1 (0.4-1.0 log-reduction). The combined chlorine and vitamin B1 resulted in a 0.52-1.97 log-reduction of MNV-1. The synergistic reduction in the MNV titer was not dependent on the concentrations of chlorine and vitamin B1 , and it ranged between 0...
March 22, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Albert Blanco, Islem Abid, Nawal Al-Otaibi, Francisco José Pérez-Rodríguez, Cristina Fuentes, Susana Guix, Rosa M Pintó, Albert Bosch
An extremely affordable virus concentration method based on adsorption-elution to glass wool and subsequent reconcentration through polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) precipitation was optimized to recover not only non-enveloped viruses but also enveloped viruses. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were employed as surrogates for naked and enveloped viruses, respectively, to set up the methodology. Initial experimentation in small-volume samples showed that both types of particles readily adsorbed to the positively charged glass wool but were poorly detached from it through standard elution with 0...
March 21, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Kashmeera Meghnath, Paul Hasselback, Rachel McCormick, Natalie Prystajecky, Marsha Taylor, Lorraine McIntyre, Stephanie Man, Yvonne Whitfield, Bryna Warshawsky, Michael McKinley, Olga Bitzikos, April Hexemer, Eleni Galanis
Two outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures. Traceback was conducted by collecting oyster tags from restaurants and analyzing them to determine the most common farms. Oyster samples were collected from case homes, restaurants, and harvest sites and tested for the presence of norovirus...
March 21, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Adrian A Farías, Laura N Mojsiejczuk, Fernando S Flores, Juan J Aguilar, Veronica E Prez, Gisela Masachessi, Silvia V Nates
Environmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009-2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%)...
March 20, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Maede Adineh, Mostafa Ghaderi, Seyed Dawood Mousavi-Nasab
Salivirus is a newly discovered virus which seems to be related to acute gastroenteritis in children. Salivirus may infect susceptible children by fecal-oral route after exposure to contaminated water. The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence and quantity of Salivirus in treated and untreated sewage water and river water samples collected in the city of Karaj, Iran by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assay. A total of 50 samples were collected from environmental waters containing 22 treated and untreated sewage water in volume of 1 l and 28 river water samples in volume of 5 l were included in this study...
March 20, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Durdica Marosevic, Anne Belting, Katharina Schönberger, Anja Carl, Jürgen J Wenzel, Roland Brey
Hepatitis A (HAV) is a viral infection causing a range of symptoms, sudden onset of fever, malaise, diarrhea, and jaundice. It is mostly transmitted fecal-oral through contaminated food, with immediate household and sexual contacts having a higher risk of infection. Since 2016 an increased number of HAV infections, mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) have been noticed worldwide, with three main genotypes circulating. We report here on the first spillover outbreak of the MSM-associated HAV genotype RIVM-HAV16-090 in the German general population in November 2017-February 2018...
March 13, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Kata Farkas, Evelien M Adriaenssens, David I Walker, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham, Davey L Jones
The discharge of human-derived wastewater represents a major threat to water quality with the potential for waterborne disease outbreaks mainly associated with enteric viruses. To prevent illnesses, indicators associated with fecal contamination are monitored in polluted areas, however, their prevalence often does not correlate well with viral pathogens. In this study, we used crAssphage, a recently discovered human-specific gut-associated bacteriophage, for the surveillance of wastewater-derived viral contamination...
February 13, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Suntae Lee, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are increasingly being used for wastewater reclamation treatment for their high removal of pathogens and suspended solids. However, breakage of UF membrane fibers could allow leakage of pathogens into the permeate and create health risks in the use of reclaimed water. Here, we assessed the log10 reduction value (LRV) of human enteric viruses and microbial indicators of new and aged UF modules in a pilot-scale UF process to evaluate the influence of fiber breakage. Norovirus genotypes I and II, Aichi virus, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any permeate samples of intact UF modules, but were detected in samples of damaged UF modules...
February 12, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Gislaine Fongaro, Aline Viancelli, Deyse A Dos Reis, Aníbal F Santiago, Marta Hernández, Willian Michellon, Maria Célia da Silva Lanna, Helen Treichel, David Rodríguez-Lázaro
Although the effects of heavy metals on the behavior, including infectivity, of bacteria have been studied, little information is available about their effects on enteric viruses. We report an investigation of effects on the biosynthesis of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and hepatitis A (HAV) of waters contaminated with mineral waste following an environmental disaster in Mariana City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study area was affected on November 5, 2015, by 60 million m3 of mud (containing very high concentrations of iron salts) from a mining reservoir (Fundão), reaching the Gualaxo do Norte River (sites evaluated in this study), the "Rio Doce" River and finally the Atlantic Ocean...
February 12, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Xuan Zhou, De-Guang Kong, Jing Li, Bei-Bei Pang, Ying Zhao, Jun-Bo Zhou, Ting Zhang, Jun-Qiang Xu, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Yuan-Hong Wang
A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing...
February 9, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Lucas Ariel Totaro Garcia, Laurita Boff, Célia Regina Monte Barardi, Markus Nagl
Millions of people use contaminated water sources for direct consumption. Chlorine is the most widely disinfection product but can produce toxic by-products. In this context, natural and synthetic compounds can be an alternative to water disinfection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the inactivation of human adenovirus by N-chlorotaurine (NCT), bromamine-T (BAT) and Grape seed extract (GSE) in water. Distilled water artificially contaminated with recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdV-GFP) was treated with different concentrations of each compound for up to 120 min, and viral infectivity was assessed by fluorescence microscopy...
February 4, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
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