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Drug Testing and Analysis

Katarina Henning, Jörg Teske, Michael Klintschar, Marek Dziadosz
Three cases of fatal intoxication after self-administered pipamperone are reported. The case histories and especially the toxicological findings along with a description of the analytical method are presented. Detection and quantification were performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Femoral blood concentrations were quantified at 15-39 μg/mL. Besides that, the concentrations of pipamperone in heart blood (15-51 μg/mL), urine (445-548 μg/mL), bile (70-339 μg/mL), liver (91-190 μg/g), kidney (37-74 μg/g), lung (54-227 μg/g) and brain (41-113 μg/g) can be classified as toxic so that the results are most likely in accordance with fatal intoxication especially caused by pipamperone...
February 13, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marilyn A Huestis, Benjamin C Blount, Daniel F Milan, Matthew N Newmeyer, Jennifer Schroeder, Michael L Smith
Variability in urine dilution complicates urine cannabinoid test interpretation. Normalizing urine cannabinoid concentrations to specific gravity (SG) or creatinine was proposed to account for donors' hydration states. In this study all urine voids were individually collected from 8 frequent and 8 occasional cannabis users for up to 85 h after each received on separate occasions 50.6 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by smoking, vaporization and oral ingestion in a randomized, within-subject, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled protocol...
February 12, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Joao Gabriel Baltazar-Martins, Maria Del Mar Plata, Jesús Muñoz-Guerra, Gloria Muñoz, Daniel Carreras, Juan Del Coso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Bruno Aleksander Martek, Mateja Mihelač, Martin Gazvoda, Miha Virant, Damijana Urankar, Marko Krivec, Tomaž Gostič, Brigita Nemec, Bojana Koštrun, Mojca Janežič, Sonja Klemenc, Janez Košmrlj
High frequency of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA) emergence renders this group of new psychoactive compounds particularly demanding in terms of detection, identification and responding. Without the available reference material one of the specific problems is differentiation and structure elucidation of constitutional isomers. Herein, we report a simple and efficient flow chart diagram applicable for a rapid NMR identification and differentiation between azaindoles, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-azaindole, which is a common structural motif of synthetic cannabinoids...
February 7, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael Kraemer, Sebastian Broecker, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, which is of growing medical interest. Previous studies on the metabolism of CBD showed mainly the formation of hydroxylated or oxidized derivatives, of carboxylic acids or modifications of the aliphatic side chain. Using incubation of CBD with hepatic microsomes of mice, the formation of carbon monoxide was reported. We investigated the phase I metabolism of CBD and cannabidivarin (CBDV) using in vitro experiments with human liver microsomes in order to discover so far not considered metabolites...
January 30, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Geoffrey D Miller, Masaru Teramoto, Stacy J Smeal, Dan Cushman, Daniel Eichner
PURPOSE: The hydration status of an athlete at the time of a doping control sample collection is an important factor to consider when reviewing Athlete Biological Passports. Dehydration results in a reduction of the circulating plasma volume (PV), which may lead to artificially high values of some blood parameters. This study aimed to identify whether serum albumin could serve as a single marker of fluid shifts, which are not currently accounted for in the hematological passport. An additional marker could be used to assist experts when interpreting irregularities in the athlete biological passport (ABP)...
January 28, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marc Luginbühl, Britt Bekaert, Silke Suesse, Wolfgang Weinmann
The assessment of alcohol consumption behavior in hair is well established in forensic toxicology. The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) recommends the direct alcohol markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) for the detection of past alcohol consumption. In this study, we investigated if detox shampoos which are sold online can have an impact on EtG or FAEE concentrations in hair. According to customer reviews, positive drug testing results could be avoided after long-term incubation with shampoo under a swimming cap...
January 18, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
R T C Cavalcanti, P A C Teixeira, R S Levy, H M G Pereira, F R Aquino Neto
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used in horses for doping purposes to increase the performance of these animals in endurance sports. Currently, ELISA and mass spectrometry methods are used to detect ESA abuse in equines. However, the sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE) technique could also be used, since its application in human doping control is well established and has proven to be more sensitive. In this work, the SAR-PAGE method was used to detect rHuEPO, NESP, CERA and EPO-Fc in horse blood and urine...
January 13, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann, Ingo Butzke, Philippe Pfeifer
Direct and indirect biomarkers are widely applied for the determination of alcohol consumption. They help to assess past or present alcohol consumption. Dependent on the window of detection and sensitivity of the investigated marker, punctual alcohol consumption may remain undetected. In this study, different sampling strategies for the intermediary-long-term marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are evaluated and compared to the determination of the short-term markers EtG and EtS in urine. Samples from 19 patients undergoing alcohol use disorder treatment were collected during the withdrawal treatment and successive rehabilitation (33±26 days (range: 3-74 days))...
January 7, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lizhu Chen, Baohua Shen, Songtao Wang, Yingjia Yu, Hui Yan, Yan Shi, Gengli Duan, Ping Xiang
BACKGROUND: Chiral analysis is a crucial way to differentiate selegiline (SG) intake from drug abuse. Oral fluid (OF) has been successfully used as an alternative matrix for blood testing in several pharmacokinetic studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the pharmacokinetics of SG and its main metabolites in OF after a single oral administration of SG which is meaningful for results interpretation in forensic analysis. METHODS: Ten milligrams of SG were orally administered to 8 volunteers, and OF samples were collected for up to 96 h by having participants spit into polypropylene tubes without stimulation...
January 6, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sonja Metternich, Siegfried Zörntlein, Torsten Schönberger, Carolin Huhn
The greatest challenge for European drug policies is how to effectively respond to the dynamic and constantly changing market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). Even small modifications in the chemical structure of substances often allow circumventing existing laws. Also in prison, the consumption of NPS is rising and there is growing evidence that NPS are responsible for a large share of drug-related problems. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique of choice for trace analysis of illicit drugs or explosives at security points e...
January 4, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Oya Yeter, Yeter Erol Öztürk
5F-ADB (methyl 2-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl] amino}-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a frequently abused new synthetic cannabinoid that has been sold since at least the end of 2014 in the drug market and has been classified as an illicit drug in most European countries, as well as Turkey, Japan and the United States. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of 5F-ADB was investigated by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) assay and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
January 4, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nadia Arbouche, Jean-Sebastien Raul, Delphine Garnier, Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists were first identified in herbal products in 2008 advertised as a legal replacement for cannabis. These herbal incenses are usually called "spice" and among these, one product in particular has gained popularity: AB-PINACA (N-[(2S)-1-Amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide). This drug has been discovered to have a stronger binding to human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors than ∆9 -THC.While some articles have been published regarding the presence of AB-PINACA in biological fluids such as blood and urine, none reports the presence of AB-PINACA in hair...
January 2, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nicolas Fabresse, Hassan Aouad, Adeline Knapp, Charlotte Mayer, Isabelle Etting, Islam Amine Larabi, Jean-Claude Alvarez
According to the French law, the roadside testing for drugs of abuse (DOA) should be performed in oral fluid (OF) using an immunological screening kit. If the screening is positive, confirmation has to be done in OF collected by a special swab, called the FLOQSwabTM (FS). Unlike other sampling kits, this device was not designed to collect OF since it does not contain an elution buffer. An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous detection of ten DOA under control in France: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at 1 ng/mL, and cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) at 10 ng/mL...
December 28, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel, Folker Westphal, Maurice Wilde, Jürgen Kempf, Verena Angerer, Volker Auwärter
The number of newly appearing benzodiazepine derivatives on the new psychoactive substances (NPS) drug market has increased over the last couple of years totaling in 23 'designer benzodiazepines' monitored at the end of 2017 by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. In the present study, three benzodiazepines (flunitrazolam, norflurazepam and 4'-chlorodiazepam (Ro5-4864)) offered as 'research chemicals' on the Internet were characterized and their main in vitro phase I metabolites tentatively identified after incubation with pooled human liver microsomes...
December 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Bahia A Moussa, Asmaa A El-Zaher, Mohamed K El-Ashrey, Marwa A Fouad
With the aim to study their in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics, new chromatographic methods were developed for the determination of three new roflumilast synthetic analogues (I-III) as PDE-4B inhibitors in rat liver S9 fraction, phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, human and rat plasma. The developed HPLC-UV methods were performed on a Zorbax Eclipse C8 column and UV detection was carried out at 215 nm. The three compounds were tested for their metabolic stability and they were found to be metabolically more stable than roflumilast especially the 2-mercaptobenzothiazol-6-yl analogue (III) which displayed an in vitro half-life time (247...
December 21, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Anna Ferrari, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi, Daniele Vandelli, Patrizia Verri, Filippo Marchesi, Manuela Licata
Monitoring of prescription pain medications is strongly recommended, considering their abuse liability. We used hair analysis for monitoring pain medications in 12 women with chronic migraine and drug overuse. Hair samples were collected at baseline and after 4 and 8 months and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Intrapatient variability of the hair level-to-dose ratio was < 20% in most cases. The hair analysis detected changes in the dose taken by the same patient over time, both occasionally and chronically...
December 21, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Fabian Picht, Olof Beck, Michael Böttcher
Detection of heroin use is an important task in clinical drug testing and can be best performed by using 6-acetylmorphine as the target analyte. This study was performed to evaluate an on-site test for 6-acetylmorphine screening in urine with an assigned cutoff limit at 10 ng/mL. The reference method was a forensic accredited liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method. The study confirmed that negative controls and negative authentic specimen resulted in negative readings. Low cross-reactivity was recorded from other potential interfering opioids...
December 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Tim Sobolevsky, Brian Ahrens
Both AICAR and mannitol are prohibited for use in sports, but no decisive criteria that would guide anti-doping laboratories on data interpretation have been established so far. In an attempt to help harmonize reporting and management of analytical findings, reference population data collected for the US athletes are presented. Upon analysis of 12377 samples, mean urinary AICAR concentration was found to be 647 ± 365 ng/mL with median value of 574 ng/mL, 99th percentile at 1786 ng/mL and 99.7th percentile at 2151 ng/mL...
December 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Andrea E Steuer, Justine Raeber, Christian Steuer, Martina I Boxler, Dario A Dornbierer, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz, Thomas Kraemer
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that occurs naturally in the mammalian brain and that is prescribed as a medication against narcolepsy or used as a drug of abuse. Particularly, its use as a knock-out drug in cases of drug facilitated crimes is of major importance in forensic toxicology. Because of its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection windows (<12 h in urine), detection of GHB remains challenging. Thus, there is an urgent call for new markers to improve the reliable detection of GHB use...
December 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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