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Open Neurology Journal

Jugajyoti Baruah, Anju Vasudevan
The mammalian brain receives the lion's share of the body's blood supply and is a highly vascularized organ. The vascular and nervous systems arise at two distinct time points of embryogenesis; however, their functions tend to overlap or complement each other in the growth promoting milieu of the embryonic Central Nervous System (CNS). The pre-existing idea that mental disorders are a direct result from defects solely in neuronal populations and networks is gradually changing. Several studies have implicated blood vessel pathologies and blood flow changes in mental health disorders...
2019: Open Neurology Journal
Ricardo B Maccioni, Andrea González, Víctor Andrade, Nicole Cortés, José Pablo Tapia, Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez
Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that includes the occurrence of behavioral disorders as well as memory and cognitive impairment as major symptoms. AD affects around 12% of the aged population in the world. Considerable research efforts have pointed to the role of innate immunity as the main culprit in the pathogenesis of AD. In this context, and according to with our neuroimmunomodulation theory, microglial activation modifies the cross-talks between microglia and neurons...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Ligia Maria Perrucci Catai, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Adriana Moro, Gustavo Ribas, Salmo Raskin, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Background: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 3 (SCA3) or Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD) is characterized by cerebellar, central and peripheral symptoms, including movement disorders. Dystonia can be classified as hereditary and neurodegenerative when present in SCA3. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dystonia characteristics in patients with MJD. Method: We identified all SCA3 patients with dystonia from the SCA3 HC-UFPR database, between December 2015 and December 2016...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Christos Bakirtzis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Lambros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios, Elina Konstantinopoulou, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
About half of patients with multiple sclerosis exhibit cognitive impairment which negatively affects their quality of life. The assessment of cognitive function in routine clinical practice is still undervalued, although various tools have been proposed for this reason. In this article, we describe the potential benefits of implementing cognitive assessment tools in routine follow -ups of MS patients. Early detection of changes in cognitive performance may provide evidence of disease activity, could unmask depression or medication side-effects and provide suitable candidates for cognitive rehabilitation...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Katerina Ntoskou, Lambros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios, Maria Martzoukou, Giorgos Makris, Elias Panagiotopoulos, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and severity of cognitive and language impairment in Greek patients with Relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS), relative to control participants. Method: A prospective study was conducted in 27 patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), ( N = 15) with RRMS, ( N = 12) with SPMS, and ( N = 12) healthy controls. All participants were assessed with a flexible comprehensive neuropsychological - language battery of tests that have been standardized in Greece and validated in Greek MS patients...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea
Objective: We examined genetic and dietary challenge on hippocampal oxidative damage. Mice expressing (ApoE+/+) or lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) were maintained on a standard diet or a high fat /high cholesterol (challenge) diet for 11-31 weeks. Similar levels of oxidative species were observed for ApoE+/+ and -/- mice maintained on the basal diet. Method: However, treatment of ApoE-/- homogenates with hydrogen peroxide and iron increased oxidative species by >100%, indicating an equivalent amount of potential oxidative species in latent form...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Aroldo Bacellar, Telma Assis, Bruno B Pedreira, Gersonita Costa, Osvaldo J M Nascimento
Background: Neurological disorders (NDs) are associated with high hospital mortality. We aimed to identify predictors of hospital mortality among elderly inpatients with NDs. Methods: Patients aged ≥60 years admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 with acute NDs, chronic NDs as underpinnings of acute clinical disorders, and neurological complications of other diseases were studied. We analyzed demographic data, NDs, and comorbidities as independent predictors of hospital mortality...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Ali Faqeeh, David Yen
Study Design: A case report. Background: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis have altered spinal biomechanics putting them at increased risk of spinal fractures that are unstable. As a result there is an increasing trend to treat these fractures with surgical stabilization. We hypothesize that the fracture pattern is also an important factor in patients with this disease and that those with an extension injury in the lumbar spine can be treated with brace immobilization...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Edward F Boumil, Rishel Brenna Vohnoutka, Yuguan Liu, Sangmook Lee, Thomas B Shea
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of motor neurons that has no cure or effective treatment. Any approach that could sustain minor motor function during terminal stages would improve quality of life. Objective: We examined the impact of omega-3 (Ω-3) and Ω-6, on motor neuron function in mice expressing mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), which dominantly confers familial ALS and induces a similar sequence of motor neuron decline and eventual death when expressed in mice...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Asra Al Fauzi, Purwati Sumorejo, Nur Setiawan Suroto, Muhammad Arifin Parenrengi, Joni Wahyuhadi, Agus Turchan, Ferdiansyah Mahyudin, Heri Suroto, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Mochammad Hasan Machfoed, Abdul Hafid Bajamal, Christianto Benjamin Lumenta
Object: Stroke, one of the most devastating diseases, is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world and is also associated with emotional and economic problems. The main goal of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of the intraventricular transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in post-haemorrhagic stroke patients. Method: This study was done consisting of eight patients with supratentorial haemorrhagic stroke, who had undergone 24 weeks of standard treatment of stroke with stable neurological deficits...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Anna Capasso
Objective: Cannabinoid-based medications provide not only relief for specific symptoms, but also arrest or delay of disease progression in patients with pain, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions. Although they also seem to hold potential as anticonvulsant agents, evidence of their efficacy in epilepsy is supported by several evidences. Method: The data reviewed herein lend support to the notion that the endocannabinoid signalling system plays a key modulation role in the activities subserved by the hippocampus, which is directly or indirectly affected in epilepsy patients...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
L E Henderson, M A Abdelmegeed, S H Yoo, S G Rhee, X Zhu, M A Smith, R Q Nguyen, G Perry, B J Song
Background: Despite increased neuronal death, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD), the detailed mechanism of cell death in AD is still poorly understood. Method: We hypothesized that p38 kinase activates and then phosphorylates Bax, leading to its translocation to mitochondria in AD brains compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of p38 kinase in phosphorylation and sub-cellular localization of pro-apoptotic Bax in the frontal cortex of the brains from AD and control subjects...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Abraham M Shultz, Sangmook Lee, Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea, Holly C Yanco
Background and Objective: The reductionist approach of neuronal cell culture has been useful for analyses of synaptic signaling. Murine cortical neurons in culture spontaneously form an ex vivo network capable of transmitting complex signals, and have been useful for analyses of several fundamental aspects of neuronal development hitherto difficult to clarify in situ . However, these networks lack the ability to receive and respond to sensory input from the environment as do neurons in vivo ...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Godwin Tong, Pablo Izquierdo, Rana Arham Raashid
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are a global health issue primarily in the elderly. Although AD has been investigated using primary cultures, animal models and post-mortem human brain tissues, there are currently no effective treatments. Summary: With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from fully differentiated adult cells such as skin fibroblasts, newer opportunities have arisen to study the pathophysiology of many diseases in more depth...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Yener Akyuva, Aylin Gonultas, Numan Karaaslan, Zehra Gulciftci Dagci, Semih Saglik, Mehmet Isyar, Mahir Mahirogullari
Aim: To describe a patient with lumbar angiolipoma mimicking schwannoma in the posterolateral side of the spinal canal with expansion of the left lumbar foramen and to discuss the clinical, radiologic, and surgical features of these lesions with literature. Methods: Without language restriction in this paper, the electronic databases; The Cochrane Collaboration the Cochrane, The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 of 12, Feb. 2011), ProQuest, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NLM) and PubMed dating from 1966 September to January Week 2 2017, were searched for comparative experimental studies using the terms: "OR", "AND"...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Jadwiga Attier Zmudka, Jean Marie Sérot, Salif Dao, Claire Sorel, Anne-Sophie Macaret, Olivier Balédent
Dementia is one of the most common health problems in the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The presence of vascular risk factors such as hypertension (HT) may increase the risk of AD [1,2]. The relation between blood pressure (BP) and dementia has been the subject of numerous epidemiological studies, midlife HT is a risk factor for dementia and AD [3-7] but the association between HT and risk of dementia is lower in the older population [8]. A fair modulation of an antihypertensive treatment, based on the cognitive status of the elderly, can avoid multiple complications...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Purificacion Alvarez Perez, Maria Jose Garcia-Antelo, Eduardo Rubio-Nazabal
Auditory hallucinations are defined as the abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. Musical hallucinations constitute a complex type of auditory hallucination characterized by perception of melodies, music, or songs. Musical hallucinations are infrequent and have been described in 0.16% of a general hospital population. The auditory hallucinations are popularly associated with psychiatric disorders or degenerative neurological diseases but there may be other causes in which the patient evolves favorably with treatment...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Spencer I Rozin
Cognitive decline and dementia are a growing problem as the population ages. Effective therapies to prevent and treat these problems are limited. Neuro-inflammation has been suggested as a cause of dementia [1]. Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat seasonal allergies and asthma. It acts as a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT1) receptor antagonist blocking the action of leukotrienes and decreasing inflammation [2]. Animal studies have shown that administering Montelukast improves memory function [3]...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Josef Finsterer, Helmut Rauschka, Liane Segal, Gabor G Kovacs, Boris Rolinski
OBJECTIVES: Combined complex I+IV deficiency has rarely been reported to manifest with the involvement of the respiratory muscles. CASE REPORT: A 45y male was admitted for hypercapnia due to muscular respiratory insufficiency. He required intubation and mechanical ventilation. He had a previous history of ophthalmoparesis since age 6y, ptosis since age 23y, and anterocollis since at least age 40y. Muscle biopsy from the right deltoid muscle at age 41y was indicative of mitochondrial myopathy...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
Melody M Chang, Ronak N Raval, Jessie J Southerland, Dare A Adewumi, Khaled A Bahjri, Rajeev K Samuel, Rafeek O Woods, Olaide O Ajayi, Bryan S Lee, Frank P K Hsu, Richard L Applegate Ii, Ihab R Dorotta
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages are frequently complicated by hypertension and neurogenic myocardial stunning. Beta blockers may be used for management of these complications. We sought to investigate sympathetic nervous system modulation by beta blockers and their effect on radiographic vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 218 adults admitted to the ICU between 8/2004 and 9/2010 was performed...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
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