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Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728858/golimumab-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#1
REVIEW
Georgina Cunningham, Mark A Samaan, Peter M Irving
Golimumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis in 2013 and was the third antitumour-necrosis-factor therapy after adalimumab and infliximab licensed for this indication. However, given it is the most recent of these drugs to become available, evidence regarding its optimal use and its positioning in relation to other biological therapies is only now emerging. In this article, we review the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of golimumab both in the setting of clinical trials and in 'real world' observational studies...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719078/personalized-management-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-based-on-genomics-hope-at-last-or-just-feigned-praise
#2
EDITORIAL
Xiao Jing Iris Wang, Michael Camilleri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719077/the-intestinal-vitamin-d-receptor-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-inverse-correlation-with-inflammation-but-no-relationship-with-circulating-vitamin-d-status
#3
Mayur Garg, Simon G Royce, Chris Tikellis, Claire Shallue, Pavel Sluka, Hady Wardan, Patrick Hosking, Shaun Monagle, Merlin Thomas, John S Lubel, Peter R Gibson
Background: The intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) remains poorly characterized in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Colonoscopic biopsies and intestinal resection specimens from the terminal ileum, ascending and sigmoid colon, from patients with and without IBD, were analyzed for VDR mRNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction, and protein localization and semi-quantification by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between VDR and intestinal inflammation, serum 25(OH)D and oral vitamin D intake was elicited...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719076/the-application-of-omics-techniques-to-understand-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan P Segal, Benjamin H Mullish, Mohammed Nabil Quraishi, Animesh Acharjee, Horace R T Williams, Tariq Iqbal, Ailsa L Hart, Julian R Marchesi
The aetiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves the complex interaction between a patient's genetic predisposition, environment, gut microbiota and immune system. Currently, however, it is not known if the distinctive perturbations of the gut microbiota that appear to accompany both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the cause of, or the result of, the intestinal inflammation that characterizes IBD. With the utilization of novel systems biology technologies, we can now begin to understand not only details about compositional changes in the gut microbiota in IBD, but increasingly also the alterations in microbiota function that accompany these...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719075/targeting-liver-cancer-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Na Li, Ying Zhu
Liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and prognosis remains poor. It has been increasingly recognized that liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are responsible for the carcinogenesis, recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Targeting LCSCs is promising to be a new direction for the treatment of HCC. Herein, we summarize the potentially therapeutic targets in LCSCs at the level of genes, molecules and cells, such as knockout of oncogenes or oncoproteins, restoring the silent tumor suppressor genes, inhibition of the transcription factors and regulation of noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs) in LCSCs at the genetic level; inhibition of markers and blockade of the key signaling pathways of LCSCs at the molecular level; and inhibiting autophagy and application of oncolytic adenoviruses in LCSCs at the cellular level...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719074/acupuncture-and-related-therapies-for-treating-irritable-bowel-syndrome-overview-of-systematic-reviews-and-network-meta-analysis
#6
Irene X Y Wu, Charlene H L Wong, Robin S T Ho, William K W Cheung, Alexander C Ford, Justin C Y Wu, Arthur D P Mak, Holger Cramer, Vincent C H Chung
Background: An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and a network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of acupuncture and related therapies used either alone, or as an add-on to other irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatments. Methods: A total of eight international and Chinese databases were searched for SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methodological quality of SRs was appraised using the AMSTAR instrument...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643542/practical-guidance-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-patients-with-cancer-which-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Shaji Sebastian, Steven Neilaj
Clinicians involved in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increasingly come across patients with current or previous history of malignancies. With increasing and earlier use of immunosuppression and biologics in IBD patients, the question arises whether these treatments further increase the risk of new or recurrent cancers. A number of population-based observational studies have now reported the odds of development of new or recurrent cancers with thiopurines and antitumour necrosis factors (anti-TNFs)...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636972/factors-associated-with-more-frequent-diagnostic-tests-and-procedures-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Brian Lacy, Rajeev Ayyagari, Annie Guerin, Andrea Lopez, Sherry Shi, Michelle Luo
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reduces quality of life and burdens healthcare systems. This study identified factors associated with frequent use of IBS diagnostic tests and procedures. Methods: Using a United States claims database (2001-2012), tests and procedures in IBS patients occurring in the 2-year study period (12 months before/following the first IBS diagnosis) were analyzed: endoscopy, GI transit testing, anorectal procedures, and radiologic imaging...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574193/current-perspectives-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-functional-anorectal-disorders-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Gaurav B Nigam, Jimmy K Limdi, Dipesh H Vasant
Despite advances in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapies, a significant proportion of patients with quiescent disease experience persistent, debilitating symptoms of faecal incontinence (FI), urgency and defaecatory disorders due to anorectal dysfunction. Such symptoms are often underreported or misdiagnosed and can lead to potentially premature treatment 'escalation' and under-utilisation of pelvic floor investigations. In this review article, we consider putative pathophysiological post-inflammatory changes resulting in altered anorectal sensitivity, motility and neuromuscular coordination and how this may drive symptoms in quiescent IBD...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574192/role-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#10
REVIEW
Aleksandar Acovic, Marina Gazdic, Nemanja Jovicic, C Randall Harrell, Crissy Fellabaum, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has the most important role in modulation of tryptophan-dependent effects in the gastrointestinal tract, including modulation of intestinal immune response. An increased IDO activity maintains immune tolerance and attenuates ongoing inflammation but allows immune escape and uncontrolled growth of gastrointestinal tumors. Accordingly, IDO represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review article, we summarize current knowledge about molecular and cellular mechanisms that are involved in IDO-dependent effects...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574191/function-and-therapeutic-advances-of-chemokine-and-its-receptor-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Jing Zhang, Hui-Ning Fan, Jin-Shui Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of hepatic pathology, ranging from simple accumulation of fat in its most benign form, steatohepatitis, to cirrhosis in its most advanced form. The prevalence of NAFLD is 20-30% in adults, and 10-20% of patients with NAFLD progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplantation over the next 10 years. Therefore, it is essential to explore effective diagnostic and treatment strategies for NAFLD patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574190/diagnostic-accuracy-of-i-scan-image-enhancement-for-real-time-endoscopic-diagnosis-of-small-colorectal-polyps-a-meta-analysis
#12
Ben Glover, Nisha Patel, Hutan Ashrafian, Julian Teare
Objective: i-Scan is a digital image enhancement technology, reported to improve diagnostic performance during endoscopy. Previous studies have investigated the accuracy of i-scan for distinguishing between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colonic polyps and suggested diagnostic accuracy close to that required for use in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the available literature investigating diagnostic accuracy for i-scan optical diagnosis when made in real time for colorectal polyps <10 mm in size...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574189/sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-voxilaprevir-a-new-triple-combination-for-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-one-pill-fits-all-is-it-the-end-of-the-road
#13
REVIEW
Marc Bourlière, Olivia Pietri, Paul Castellani, Valérie Oules, Xavier Adhoute
The advent of oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically improved the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment landscape in the last 4 years, providing cure rates over 95% with a shorter duration of treatment and a very good safety profile. This has enabled access to treatment in nearly all HCV infected patients. The launch of two pangenotypic fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in 2017 made a new step forward in HCV treatment by slightly increasing efficacy and more importantly allowing the treatment of patients without HCV genotyping, and in some cases without fibrosis assessment...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30505350/advances-in-therapeutic-options-for-portal-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Marina Vilaseca, Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
Portal hypertension represents one of the major clinical consequences of chronic liver disease, having a deep impact on patients' prognosis and survival. Its pathophysiology defines a pathological increase in the intrahepatic vascular resistance as the primary factor in its development, being subsequently aggravated by a paradoxical increase in portal blood inflow. Although extensive preclinical and clinical research in the field has been developed in recent decades, no effective treatment targeting its primary mechanism has been defined...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479664/advances-and-challenges-in-the-management-of-advanced-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
REVIEW
Mehmet Sayiner, Brian Lam, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common type of chronic liver disease worldwide. From the spectrum of NAFLD, it is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that predominantly predisposes patients to higher risk for development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is growing evidence that the risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is not uniform among all patients with NASH. In fact, NASH patients with increasing numbers of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, visceral obesity and dyslipidemia are at a higher risk of mortality...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30455743/the-effect-of-pre-admission-immunosuppression-on-colectomy-rates-in-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Desmond Patrick, James Doecke, James Irwin, Katherine Hanigan, Lisa Simms, Mariko Howlett, Graham Radford-Smith
Background: Patients on immunosuppression at the time of acute severe ulcerative colitis have been suggested to be at a higher risk of colectomy than those who are treatment-naïve. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the risk of colectomy. Method: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using prospective data examining the 30 day and 1 year colectomy rates of 200 consecutive patients with an index episode of acute severe ulcerative colitis as defined by the Truelove and Witts criteria...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30455742/new-drug-developments-in-metastatic-gastric-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Aaron C Tan, David L Chan, Wasek Faisal, Nick Pavlakis
Metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and novel treatment options are desperately needed. The development of targeted therapies heralded a new era for the management of metastatic gastric cancer, however results from clinical trials of numerous targeted agents have been mixed. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has yielded similar promise and results from early trials are encouraging. This review provides an overview of the systemic treatment options evaluated in metastatic gastric cancer, with a focus on recent evidence from clinical trials for targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30397412/insights-into-the-evaluation-and-management-of-dyspepsia-recent-developments-and-new-guidelines
#18
REVIEW
Christopher J Black, Lesley A Houghton, Alexander C Ford
Dyspepsia is a very common gastrointestinal (GI) condition worldwide. We critically examine the recommendations of recently published guidelines for the management of dyspepsia, including those produced jointly by the American College of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology, and those published by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dyspepsia is a symptom complex, characterized by a range of upper GI symptoms including epigastric pain or burning, early satiety, and post-prandial fullness...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30377451/current-frontline-approaches-in-the-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-the-evolving-role-of-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Gagandeep Brar, Tim F Greten, Zachary J Brown
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and is expected to rise. Patients with early-stage disease may have a good prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of greater than 70%. However, the majority of patients are diagnosed with late-stage disease with a dismal overall survival rate of less than 16%. Therefore, there is a great need for advances in the treatment of advanced HCC, which for approximately the past decade, has been sorafenib. Immunotherapy is an evolving cancer treatment and has shown promise in treating patients with advanced HCC...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364471/glp-2-analog-teduglutide-significantly-reduces-need-for-parenteral-nutrition-and-stool-frequency-in-a-real-life-setting
#20
Marc Schoeler, Thomas Klag, Judith Wendler, Simon Bernhard, Michael Adolph, Andreas Kirschniak, Martin Goetz, Nisar Malek, Jan Wehkamp
Background: To evaluate the benefits of teduglutide in a real-life setting, we analyzed the data of 14 patients with short bowel syndrome treated with teduglutide. Additionally, we studied glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) receptor expression in samples of small intestinal and colonic tissue to provide explanations for clinical observations. Methods: Stool frequency and consistency, sensation of thirst, parental calorie or fluid uptake and the number of days on parenteral support per week were collected for up to 2 years...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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