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Frontiers in Neuroscience

Natalia Ortí-Casañ, Yingying Wu, Petrus J W Naudé, Peter P De Deyn, Inge S Zuhorn, Ulrich L M Eisel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. Accumulating experimental evidence shows the important linkage between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and AD, but the exact role of TNF in AD is still not completely understood. Although TNF-inhibitors are successfully used for treating several diseases, total inhibition of TNF can cause side effects, particularly in neurological diseases. This is attributed to the opposing roles of the two TNF receptors...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kailin Zhang, Yan Tang, Li Meng, Liping Zhu, Xiaoting Zhou, Yuwen Zhao, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang, Jifeng Guo
The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well established. The rs894278 polymorphism of SNCA has been associated with PD. We performed this study to investigate the relationship between rs894278 and PD status on resting-state brain activity, by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). A total of 81 PD patients and 64 healthy controls were recruited. Disease severity and PD stage were evaluated in PD patients using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, while the cognitive function of all participants was assessed using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Huaqian Dong, Xiang Ye, Li Zhong, Jinhong Xu, Jinhua Qiu, Jun Wang, Yiming Shao, Huiqin Xing
There are numerous types of pathological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), including apoptosis of neurons. HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein, which is encoded by HIV-1, may promote apoptosis in HAND. Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) is a multispecific transcription factor that has roles in many biological processes, including cellular apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether FOXO3 is activated by HIV-1 Tat and to investigate its role in neuronal apoptosis in HAND...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiu-Yun Zhao, Mei-Hong Lu, De-Juan Yuan, De-En Xu, Pei-Pei Yao, Wen-Li Ji, Hong Chen, Wen-Long Liu, Chen-Xiao Yan, Yi-Yuan Xia, Shao Li, Jin Tao, Quan-Hong Ma
Mitochondria are the double membrane organelles providing most of the energy for cells. In addition, mitochondria also play essential roles in various cellular biological processes such as calcium signaling, apoptosis, ROS generation, cell growth, and cell cycle. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in various neurological disorders which harbor acute and chronic neural injury such as neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia, hypoxia-induced brain injury. In this review, we describe how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders which manifest chronic or acute neural injury...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lilac Amirav, Shai Berlin, Shunit Olszakier, Sandip K Pahari, Itamar Kahn
The development of imaging methodologies for single cell measurements over extended timescales of up to weeks, in the intact animal, will depend on signal strength, stability, validity and specificity of labeling. Whereas light-microscopy can achieve these with genetically-encoded probes or dyes, this modality does not allow mesoscale imaging of entire intact tissues. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), outperform light microscopy in field of view and depth of imaging, but do not offer cellular resolution and specificity, suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and, in some instances, low temporal resolution...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ning Ding, Jing Jiang, Anping Xu, Yinshan Tang, Zhigang Li
Background: A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that cerebrovascular function abnormality plays a key role in occurrence and worsening of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a sensitive marker to early perfusion deficiencies in AD. As one of the most important therapies in complementary and alternative medicine, manual acupuncture (MA) has been used in the treatment of AD. However, the moderating effect of MA on CBF remains largely unknown. Objective: To investigate the effect of MA on the behavior and CBF of SAMP8 mice...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Zhouyan Feng, Weijian Ma, Zhaoxiang Wang, Chen Qiu, Hanhan Hu
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) traditionally utilizes electrical pulse sequences with a constant frequency, i.e., constant inter-pulse-interval (IPI), to treat certain brain disorders in clinic. Stimulation sequences with varying frequency have been investigated recently to improve the efficacy of existing DBS therapy and to develop new treatments. However, the effects of such sequences are inconclusive. The present study tests the hypothesis that stimulations with varying IPI can generate neuronal activity markedly different from the activity induced by stimulations with constant IPI...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Claire Laurens, Anne Abot, Alain Delarue, Claude Knauf
Propranolol is the first-line treatment for infants suffering from infantile hemangioma. Recently, some authors raised the question of potential neurologic side effects of propranolol due to its lipophilic nature and thus its ability to passively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and accumulate into the brain. Hydrophilic beta-blockers, such as atenolol and nadolol, where therefore introduced in clinical practice. In addition to their classical mode of action in the brain, circulating factors may modulate the release of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) from endothelial cells that compose the BBB without entering the brain...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Trevor Rajchgot, Sini Christine Thomas, Jo-Chiao Wang, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohammad Balood, Théo Crosson, Jenny Pena Dias, Réjean Couture, Audrey Claing, Sébastien Talbot
Diabetes is a common condition characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar primarily affects cells that have a limited capacity to regulate their glucose intake. These cells include capillary endothelial cells in the retina, mesangial cells in the renal glomerulus, Schwann cells, and neurons of the peripheral and central nervous systems. As a result, hyperglycemia leads to largely intractable complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, and neuropathy. Diabetic pain neuropathy is a complex and multifactorial disease that has been associated with poor glycemic control, longer diabetes duration, hypertension, advanced age, smoking status, hypoinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yasha Sheynin, Mira Chamoun, Alex S Baldwin, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Robert F Hess, Elvire Vaucher
A few hours of monocular deprivation with a diffuser eye patch temporarily strengthens the contribution of the deprived eye to binocular vision. This shift in favor of the deprived eye is characterized as a form of adult visual plasticity. Studies in animal and human models suggest that neuromodulators can enhance adult brain plasticity in general. Specifically, acetylcholine has been shown to improve certain aspects of visual function and plasticity in adulthood. We investigated whether a single administration of donepezil (a cholinesterase inhibitor) could further augment the temporary shift in perceptual eye dominance that occurs after 2 h of monocular patching...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa Da Silva, Cláudia Madeira Miranda, Tong Liu, Gary Tse, Leonardo Roever
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the cardiovascular risk factors for dementia. Several longitudinal studies have reported an association between AF and dementia independently of stroke history. Although the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood, proposed mechanisms include cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, genetic factors, cerebral microbleeds, and recurrent silent cerebral ischemia. Oral anticoagulation can be used to minimize risk of cognitive decline and dementia, given that brain insults can be caused by chronic microemboli or microbleeds...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Takafumi Fukuda, Rena Ohya, Keiko Kobayashi, Yasuhisa Ano
Recent studies have demonstrated a close association between neural inflammation and development of mental illnesses, such as depression. Clinical trials have reported that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with reduced risk of depression. Moreover, nutritional approaches for the prevention and management of depression have garnered significant attention in recent years. We have previously demonstrated that iso-α-acids (IAAs)-the bitter components in beer-suppress hippocampal microglial inflammation, thereby improving cognitive decline...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alison T DePew, Michael A Aimino, Timothy J Mosca
To successfully integrate a neuron into a circuit, a myriad of developmental events must occur correctly and in the correct order. Neurons must be born and grow out toward a destination, responding to guidance cues to direct their path. Once arrived, each neuron must segregate to the correct sub-region before sorting through a milieu of incorrect partners to identify the correct partner with which they can connect. Finally, the neuron must make a synaptic connection with their correct partner; a connection that needs to be broadly maintained throughout the life of the animal while remaining responsive to modes of plasticity and pruning...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qian Jiao, Xixun Du, Jie Wei, Yong Li, Hong Jiang
Iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) plays a key role in the cellular iron homeostasis and could be regulated by a variety of factors, such as oxidative stress, hypoxia and iron, etc. IRP2 depletion results in neurodegenerative movement disorder with the loss of neurons and accumulations of iron. Since oxidative stress extensively exists in several neurodegenerative diseases where iron accumulation also exists, it is important to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effects of oxidative stress on IRP2 expression and its consequence...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Laura Truu, Külli Kingo, Triin Erm, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba, Anu Planken
We report the changed levels of serum amyloid alpha, an immunologically active protein, in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' peripheral tissues. We have previously shown that Saa-1 and -2 (serum amyloid alpha-1,-2, genes) were among the top downregulated genes in PD patients' skin, using whole-genome RNA sequencing. In the current study, we characterized the gene and protein expression profiles of skin and blood samples from patients with confirmed PD diagnosis and age/sex matched controls. qRT-PCR analysis of PD skin demonstrated downregulation of Saa-1 and -2 genes in PD patients...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kevin Wong, Elliott D Kozin, Vivek V Kanumuri, Nicolas Vachicouras, Jonathan Miller, Stéphanie Lacour, M Christian Brown, Daniel J Lee
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) was first developed nearly 40 years ago and provides auditory rehabilitation to patients who are deaf and ineligible for cochlear implant surgery due to abnormalities of the cochlea and cochlear nerve. The aims of the following review are to describe the history of the ABI and innovations leading up to the modern ABI system, as well as highlight areas of future development in implant design.
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Isabella D'Andrea Meira, Tayla Taynan Romão, Henrique Jannuzzelli Pires do Prado, Lia Theophilo Krüger, Maria Elisa Paiva Pires, Priscila Oliveira da Conceição
The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a modality of treatment used since the 1920s as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. It has been proposed as a dietary treatment that would produce similar benefits to fasting, which is already recorded in the Hippocratic collection. The KD has a high fat content (90%) and low protein and carbohydrate. Evidence shows that KD and its variants are a good alternative for non-surgical pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy of any age, taking into account that the type of diet should be designed individually and that less-restrictive and more-palatable diets are usually better options for adults and adolescents...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mingzhu Huang, Bianbian Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Chongluo Fu, Changhe Wang, Xinjiang Kang
α-synuclein (α-Syn) is a presynaptic enriched protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the physiological roles of α-Syn remain poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated a critical role of α-Syn in the sensing and generation of membrane curvature during vesicular exocytosis and endocytosis. It has been known to modulate the assembly of SNARE complex during exocytosis including vesicle docking, priming and fusion steps. Growing evidence suggests that α-Syn also plays critical roles in the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nan Zhang, Rui-Hua Li, Lin Ma, Na Li, Pei-Yan Shan, Xing-Bang Wang, Ai-Fen Liu
Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a relatively rare myelopathy mainly caused by vitamin B12 (VitB12) deficiency. There are many causes contributing to VitB12 deficiency. Autoimmune gastritis might lead to severe VitB12 malabsorption and in its advanced stage pernicious anemia (PA) may occur. Besides, long-term hypergastrinemia arising from achlorhydria in autoimmune gastritis is associated with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients diagnosed with SCD coexistent with PA and NET are seldomly reported. We describe a 34-year-old woman with an initial complaint of progressive fatigue, weakness and numbness in her limbs and disturbed gait...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Haoqi Ni, Su Yang, Felix Siaw-Debrah, Jiangnan Hu, Ke Wu, Zibin He, Jianjing Yang, Sishi Pan, Xiao Lin, Haotuo Ye, Zhu Xu, Fan Wang, Kunlin Jin, Qichuan Zhuge, Lijie Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Although treatment guidelines have been developed, no best treatment option or medicine for this condition exists. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes have shown lots of promise for the treatment of brain disorders, with some results highlighting the neuroprotective effects through neurogenesis and angiogenesis after TBI. However, studies focusing on the role of exosomes in the early stages of neuroinflammation post-TBI are not sufficient...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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