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Frontiers in Neuroengineering

Emma K Brunton, Bjorn Winther-Jensen, Chun Wang, Edwin B Yan, Saman Hagh Gooie, Arthur J Lowery, Ramesh Rajan
Electrodes for cortical stimulation need to deliver current to neural tissue effectively and safely. We have developed electrodes with a novel annular geometry for use in cortical visual prostheses. Here, we explore a critical question on the ideal annulus height to ensure electrical stimulation will be safe and effective. We implanted single electrodes into the motor cortex of anesthetized rats and measured the current required to evoke a motor response to stimulation, and the charge injection capacity (CIC) of the electrodes...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Zahra Hakimi, Morteza Barati, Vincent Walsh, Lili Tcheang
Mobile eye-tracking in external environments remains challenging, despite recent advances in eye-tracking software and hardware engineering. Many current methods fail to deal with the vast range of outdoor lighting conditions and the speed at which these can change. This confines experiments to artificial environments where conditions must be tightly controlled. Additionally, the emergence of low-cost eye tracking devices calls for the development of analysis tools that enable non-technical researchers to process the output of their images...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Ulrich G Hofmann, Jürgen Krüger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Marijn N van Dongen, Freek E Hoebeek, S K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Wouter A Serdijn
This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100 kHz) duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation. These findings are subsequently verified using in vitro experiments in which the response of a Purkinje cell is measured due to a stimulation signal in the molecular layer of the cerebellum of a mouse...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Benjamin W Avants, Daniel B Murphy, Joel A Dapello, Jacob T Robinson
Patterned illumination using a digital micromirror device (DMD) is a powerful tool for optogenetics. Compared to a scanning laser, DMDs are inexpensive and can easily create complex illumination patterns. Combining these complex spatiotemporal illumination patterns with optogenetics allows DMD-equipped microscopes to probe neural circuits by selectively manipulating the activity of many individual cells or many subcellular regions at the same time. To use DMDs to study neural activity, scientists must develop specialized software to coordinate optical stimulation patterns with the acquisition of electrophysiological and fluorescence data...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Joshua I Sanders, Adam Kepecs
Precisely timed experimental manipulations of the brain and its sensory environment are often employed to reveal principles of brain function. While complex and reliable pulse trains for temporal stimulus control can be generated with commercial instruments, contemporary options remain expensive and proprietary. We have developed Pulse Pal, an open source device that allows users to create and trigger software-defined trains of voltage pulses with high temporal precision. Here we describe Pulse Pal's circuitry and firmware, and characterize its precision and reliability...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Aleksandra Vuckovic, Jaime A Pineda, Kristen LaMarca, Disha Gupta, Christoph Guger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Salah Sommakia, Jenna L Rickus, Kevin J Otto
The ability to design long-lasting intracortical implants hinges on understanding the factors leading to the loss of neuronal density and the formation of the glial scar. In this study, we modify a common in vitro mixed cortical culture model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to examine the responses of microglia, astrocytes, and neurons to microwire segments. We also use dip-coated polyethylene glycol (PEG), which we have previously shown can modulate impedance changes to neural microelectrodes, to control the cellular responses...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Nealen G Laxpati, Babak Mahmoudi, Claire-Anne Gutekunst, Jonathan P Newman, Riley Zeller-Townson, Robert E Gross
Optogenetic channels have greatly expanded neuroscience's experimental capabilities, enabling precise genetic targeting and manipulation of neuron subpopulations in awake and behaving animals. However, many barriers to entry remain for this technology - including low-cost and effective hardware for combined optical stimulation and electrophysiologic recording. To address this, we adapted the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology platform for use in awake and behaving rodents in both open and closed-loop stimulation experiments...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Takashi Tateno, Jun Nishikawa
In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA), and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were used to extracellularly measure the activity of cultured rat cortical neurons and mouse cortical slices...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Rüdiger Rupp
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that measure brain activities and translate them into control signals used for a variety of applications. Among them are systems for communication, environmental control, neuroprostheses, exoskeletons, or restorative therapies. Over the last years the technology of BCIs has reached a level of matureness allowing them to be used not only in research experiments supervised by scientists, but also in clinical routine with patients with neurological impairments supervised by clinical personnel or caregivers...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Mulugeta Semework, Marcello DiStasio
Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step toward the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP) research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt) to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Ren Xu, Ning Jiang, Aleksandra Vuckovic, Muhammad Hasan, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, David Allan, Matthew Fraser, Bahman Nasseroleslami, Bernie Conway, Kim Dremstrup, Dario Farina
Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Yijing Xie, Nadja Martini, Christina Hassler, Robert D Kirch, Thomas Stieglitz, Andreas Seifert, Ulrich G Hofmann
In neural prosthetics and stereotactic neurosurgery, intracortical electrodes are often utilized for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. Unfortunately, neuroinflammation impairs the neuron-electrode-interface by developing a compact glial encapsulation around the implants in long term. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities can not provide information in deep brain regions...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Jaime A Pineda, Elisabeth V C Friedrich, Kristen LaMarca
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent condition with core deficits in the social domain. Understanding its neuroetiology is critical to providing insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and social behaviors, including imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and even self-awareness. Equally important is the need to find ways to arrest its increasing prevalence and to ameliorate its symptoms. In this review, we highlight neurofeedback studies as viable treatment options for high-functioning as well as low-functioning children with ASD...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Ceon Ramon, Paolo Garguilo, Egill A Fridgeirsson, Jens Haueisen
The dura layer which covers the brain is less conductive than the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and also more conductive than the skull bone. This could significantly influence the flow of volume currents from cortex to the scalp surface which will also change the magnitude and spatial profiles of scalp potentials. This was examined with a 3-D finite element method (FEM) model of an adult subject constructed from 192 segmented axial magnetic resonance (MR) slices with 256×256 pixel resolution. The voxel resolution was 1×1×1 mm...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Salah Sommakia, Janak Gaire, Jenna L Rickus, Kevin J Otto
The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Jie Song, Brittany M Young, Zack Nigogosyan, Leo M Walton, Veena A Nair, Scott W Grogan, Mitchell E Tyler, Dorothy Farrar-Edwards, Kristin E Caldera, Justin A Sattin, Justin C Williams, Vivek Prabhakaran
The relationship of the structural integrity of white matter tracts and cortical activity to motor functional outcomes in stroke patients is of particular interest in understanding mechanisms of brain structural and functional changes while recovering from stroke. This study aims to probe these underlying mechanisms using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fMRI measures. We examined the structural integrity of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) using DTI and corticomotor activity using motor-task fMRI in stroke patients who completed up to 15 sessions of rehabilitation therapy using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Kai Keng Ang, Cuntai Guan, Kok Soon Phua, Chuanchu Wang, Longjiang Zhou, Ka Yin Tang, Gopal J Ephraim Joseph, Christopher Wee Keong Kuah, Karen Sui Geok Chua
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Eduardo Fernández, Bradley Greger, Paul A House, Ignacio Aranda, Carlos Botella, Julio Albisua, Cristina Soto-Sánchez, Arantxa Alfaro, Richard A Normann
The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by harnessing activity recorded from populations of neurons. As more and more patients benefit from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly and a new generation of penetrating microelectrode arrays are providing unprecedented access to the neurons of the central nervous system (CNS)...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroengineering
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