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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Jack Zhang, Zeanna Jadavji, Ephrem Zewdie, Adam Kirton
Background: The options for severely disabled children with intact cognition to interact with their environment are extremely limited. A brain computer interface (BCI) has the potential to allow such persons to gain meaningful function, communication, and independence. While the pediatric population might benefit most from BCI technology, research to date has been predominantly in adults. Methods: In this prospective, cross-over study, we quantified the ability of healthy school-aged children to perform simple tasks using a basic, commercially available, EEG-based BCI...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Keith Kawabata Duncan, Tatsuya Tokuda, Chiho Sato, Keiko Tagai, Ippeita Dan
Use of applied neuroscience to complement traditional methods of consumer research is increasing. Previously, fMRI has shown that prefrontal activity contains information relating to willingness-to-pay (WTP). The aim of the present study was to determine if functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can record WTP-related brain activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a single, real use of cosmetic products. Thirty female participants, were divided into two groups (one low frequency users of foundation and one high frequency users of foundation), asked to apply different foundations to their face and then record how much money they were willing to pay...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fabio Richlan
This mini-review provides a comparison of the brain systems associated with developmental dyslexia and the brain systems associated with letter-speech sound (LSS) integration. First, the findings on the functional neuroanatomy of LSS integration are summarized in order to obtain a comprehensive overview of the brain regions involved in this process. To this end, neurocognitive studies investigating LSS integration in both normal and abnormal reading development are taken into account. The neurobiological basis underlying LSS integration is consequently compared with existing neurocognitive models of functional and structural brain abnormalities in developmental dyslexia-focusing on superior temporal and occipito-temporal (OT) key regions...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yufeng Ke, Ningci Wang, Jiale Du, Linghan Kong, Shuang Liu, Minpeng Xu, Xingwei An, Dong Ming
Working memory (WM) is a fundamental cognitive ability to support complex thought, but it is limited in capacity. WM training has shown the potential benefit for those in need of a higher WM ability. Many studies have shown the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to transiently enhance WM performance by delivering a low current to the brain cortex of interest, via electrodes on the scalp. tDCS has also been revealed as a promising intervention to augment WM training in a few studies...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Vatika Harlalka, Raju S Bapi, P K Vinod, Dipanjan Roy
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analyses have shown atypical connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to typically developing (TD). However, this view emerges from investigating static FC overlooking the whole brain transient connectivity patterns. In our study, we investigated how age and disease influence the dynamic changes in functional connectivity of TD and ASD. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data stratified into three cohorts: children (7-11 years), adolescents (12-17 years), and adults (18+ years) for the analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Akihiro Takamiya, Jinichi Hirano, Bun Yamagata, Shigeki Takei, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura
Introduction : Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has antidepressant effects, but it also has possible cognitive side effects. The effects of ECT on neuronal oscillatory pattern and phase synchronization, and the relationship between clinical response or cognitive change and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements remain elusive. Methods : Individuals with unipolar depressive disorder receiving bilateral ECT were recruited. Five minutes of resting, eyes-closed, 19-lead EEG recordings were obtained before and after a course of ECT...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Angela Iannitelli, Serena Parnanzone, Giulia Pizziconi, Giulia Riccobono, Francesca Pacitti
The discovery of psychoanalysis and of psychotropic medications represent two radical events in understanding and treatment of mental suffering. The growth of both disciplines together with the awareness of the impracticality of curing mental suffering only through pharmacological molecules-the collapse of the "Great Illusion"-and the experience of psychoanalysts using psychotropic medications along with depth psychotherapeutic treatment, have led to integrated therapies which are arguably more effective than either modality alone...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Caterina Cinel, Davide Valeriani, Riccardo Poli
Recent advances in neuroscience have paved the way to innovative applications that cognitively augment and enhance humans in a variety of contexts. This paper aims at providing a snapshot of the current state of the art and a motivated forecast of the most likely developments in the next two decades. Firstly, we survey the main neuroscience technologies for both observing and influencing brain activity, which are necessary ingredients for human cognitive augmentation. We also compare and contrast such technologies, as their individual characteristics (e...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Danfeng Li, Tongran Liu, Jiannong Shi
This research investigated the individual behavioral and electrophysiological differences during emotional conflict adaptation processes in preschool children. Thirty children (16 girls, mean age 5.44 ± 0.28 years) completed an emotional Flanker task (stimulus-stimulus cognitive control, S-S) and an emotional Simon task (stimulus-response cognitive control, S-R). Behaviorally, the 5-year-old preschool children exhibited reliable congruency sequence effects (CSEs) in the emotional contexts, with faster response times (RTs) and lower error rates in the incongruent trials preceded by an incongruent trial (iI trial) than in the incongruent trials preceded by a congruent trial (cI trial)...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dohyun Kim, Jae Hyun Yoo, Young Woo Park, Minchul Kim, Dong Woo Shin, Bumseok Jeong
Despite the critical impact of parental dialog on children who remain physically and psychologically dependent, most studies have focused on brain alterations in people exposed to moderate-to-high levels of emotional maltreatment with/without psychopathology. We measured metabolites in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) acquired with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and anatomical connectivity assessed with probabilistic tractography in 46 healthy young adults who experienced no-to-low level parental verbal abuse (paVA) during their childhood and adolescence...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ariel W Snowden, Catalin V Buhusi
Previous research has shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit impairments in interval timing. The cause of timing impairments in SZ remains unknown but may be explained by a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal circuits. Although the current literature includes extensive behavioral data on timing impairments, there is limited focus on the neural correlates of timing in SZ. The neuroimaging literature included in the current review reports hypoactivation in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the basal ganglia (BG)...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jacqueline A Palmer, Alice Halter, Whitney Gray, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) representation for a target muscle can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain related to motor learning. The extent to which the motor state during this form of paired associative stimulation (PAS) influences the degree and mechanisms of neuroplasticity or motor learning is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of volitional muscle contraction during PAS on: (1) measures of general corticomotor excitability and intracortical circuit excitability; and (2) motor performance and learning...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Grant Brighter, Nancy Rader
An "establishing shot" prefaces a scene in a movie with a wide shot of the scene's location. It is meant to help viewers process a shift to a new location. Establishing shots can depict the actors in the space in which they will be acting, the exterior of a building, or the larger geographic context of the scene. While use of an establishing shot is standard filmmaking practice, some argue that establishing shots are unnecessary. This study sought to investigate how effective four types of establishing shots are at helping viewers process location shifts...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hai Lin, Wei-Ping Li, Synnöve Carlson
Top-down modulation is engaged during multiple stages of working memory (WM), including expectation, encoding, and maintenance. During WM maintenance period, an "incidental cue" can bring one of the two items into a privileged state and make the privileged item be recalled with higher precision, despite being irrelevant to which one to be probed as the target. With regard to the different representational states of WM, it's unclear whether there is top-down modulation on earth sensory cortical areas...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ken Ebishima, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Andrew Stickley, Takayuki Nakahachi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Yoko Kamio
Background : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kimiya Fujio, Hiroki Obata, Noritaka Kawashima, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The prediction of upcoming perturbation modulates postural responses in the ankle muscles. The effects of this prediction on postural responses vary according to predictable factors. When the amplitude of perturbation can be predicted, the long-latency response is set at an appropriate size for the required response, whereas when the direction of perturbation can be predicted, there is no effect. The neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Here, we examined how the corticospinal excitability of the ankle muscles [i...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Feng-Ying Huang, Ai-Ling Hsu, Li-Ming Hsu, Jaw-Shiun Tsai, Chih-Mao Huang, Yi-Ping Chao, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Changwei W Wu
The grief of bereavement is recognized as a severe psychosocial stressor that can trigger a variety of mental and physical disorders, and the long-lasting unresolved grief has a detrimental effect on brain functionality. Literature has documented mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as an efficient treatment for improving well-being, specifically related to the mood and cognition, in a variety of populations. However, little attention has been devoted to neural mechanisms with regard to bereaved individuals' cognition after MBCT intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jakob Scheunemann, Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Driving is a complex task concurrently drawing on multiple cognitive resources. Yet, there is a lack of studies investigating interactions at the brain-level among different driving subtasks in dual-tasking. This study investigates how visuospatial attentional demands related to increased driving difficulty interacts with different working memory load (WML) levels at the brain level. Using multichannel whole-head high density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain activation measurements, we aimed to predict driving difficulty level, both separate for each WML level and with a combined model...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sébastien Rimbert, Nathalie Gayraud, Laurent Bougrain, Maureen Clerc, Stéphanie Fleck
Predicting a subject's ability to use a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is one of the major issues in the BCI domain. Relevant applications of forecasting BCI performance include the ability to adapt the BCI to the needs and expectations of the user, assessing the efficiency of BCI use in stroke rehabilitation, and finally, homogenizing a research population. A limited number of recent studies have proposed the use of subjective questionnaires, such as the Motor Imagery Questionnaire Revised-Second Edition (MIQ-RS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Antonio Alcaro, Stefano Carta
Recent neuro-psychoanalytic literature has emphasized the view that our subjective identity rests on ancient subcortical neuro-psychic processes expressing unthinking forms of experience, which are "affectively intense without being known" (Solms and Panksepp, 2012). Devoid of internal representations, the emotional states of our "core-Self" (Panksepp, 1998b) are entirely "projected" towards the external world and tend to be discharged through instinctual action-patterns. However, due to the close connections between the subcortical and the cortical midline brain, the emotional drives may also find a way to be reflected within an intrinsic self-referential processing, evident when the organism is not actively engaged with the external world...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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