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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Woo-Hyun Cho, Jung-Cheol Park, Won Kyung Jeon, Jeiwon Cho, Jung-Soo Han
The participation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and dorsal striatum in switching the learning task from cued to place learning were examined in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, by assessing changed levels of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB). Mice of both strains first received cued training in a water maze for 4 days (4 trials per day), and were then assigned to one of four groups, one with no place training, and three with different durations of place training (2, 4, or 8 days). Both strains showed equal performance in cued training...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ana Domi, Serena Stopponi, Esi Domi, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Nazzareno Cannella
Recent animal models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are centered in capturing individual vulnerability differences in disease progression. Here, we used genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) and Wistars rats to apply a multidimensional model of AUD adapted from a previously described DSM-IV/DSM-5 multisymptomatic cocaine addiction model. As proof of concept, we hypothesized that msP rats, genetically selected for excessive drinking, would be more prone to develop dependence-like behavior compared to Wistars...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Wenbin Yang, Yutong Meng, Danyang Li, Quan Wen
The larval zebrafish is a promising vertebrate model organism to study neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory due to its small brain and rich behavioral repertoire. Here, we report on a high-throughput operant conditioning system for zebrafish larvae, which can simultaneously train 12 fish to associate a visual conditioned pattern with electroshocks. We find that the learning responses can be enhanced by the visual contrast, not the spatial features of the conditioned patterns, highlighted by several behavioral metrics...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Juliana Popovitz, Shreesh P Mysore, Hita Adwanikar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been frequently linked to affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, much remains to be understood about the underlying molecular and signaling mechanisms that mediate affective dysfunctions following injury. A lack of consensus in animal studies regarding what the affective sequelae of TBI are has been a major hurdle that has slowed progress, with studies reporting the full range of effects: increase, decrease, and no change in anxiety following injury. Here, we addressed this issue directly by investigating long-term anxiety outcomes in mice following a moderate to severe controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury using a battery of standard behavioral tests-the open field (OF), elevated zero maze (EZM), and elevated plus maze (EPM)...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ching-San Tseng, Shen-Ju Chou, Yi-Shuian Huang
The rodent olfactory bulb (OB) contains two distinct populations of postnatally born interneurons, mainly granule cells (GCs), to support local circuits throughout life. During the early postnatal period (i.e., 2 weeks after birth), GCs are mostly produced locally from progenitor cells in the OB with a proportion of them deriving from proliferating cells in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Afterward, the replenishment of GCs involves differentiated neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in a process known as adult neurogenesis...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
George Savulich, Emily Thorp, Thomas Piercy, Katie A Peterson, John D Pickard, Barbara J Sahakian
Work and study increasingly rely on the use of technologies requiring individuals to switch attention rapidly between emails, texts and tasks. This has led to healthy people having problems of attention and concentration and difficulties getting into the "flow," which impedes goal attainment and task completion. Possibly related to this, there is an increasing diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prescriptions of drugs such as methylphenidate. In addition to ADHD, attention is impaired in other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and in traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Daisuke Ishii, Kotaro Takeda, Satoshi Yamamoto, Akira Noguchi, Kiyoshige Ishibashi, Kenya Tanamachi, Arito Yozu, Yutaka Kohno
The integration of multiple sensory modalities allows us to adapt to the environment of the outside world. It is widely known that visual stimuli interfere with the processing of auditory information, which is involved in the ability to pay attention. Additionally, visuospatial attention has the characteristic of laterality. It is unclear whether this laterality of visuospatial attention affects the processing of auditory stimuli. The sensorimotor gating system is a neurological process, which filters out unnecessary stimuli from environmental stimuli in the brain...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gloria Blázquez, Anna Castañé, Ana Saavedra, Mercè Masana, Jordi Alberch, Esther Pérez-Navarro
STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a neural-specific protein that opposes the development of synaptic strengthening and whose levels are altered in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Since STEP is expressed in brain regions implicated in social behavior, namely the striatum, the CA2 region of the hippocampus, cortex and amygdala, here we investigated whether social memory and social patterns were altered in STEP knockout (KO) mice. Our data robustly demonstrated that STEP KO mice presented specific social memory impairment as indicated by the three-chamber sociability test, the social discrimination test, the 11-trial habituation/dishabituation social recognition test, and the novel object recognition test (NORT)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Steven P Roose, Patrick J Brown, Bret R Rutherford
Therapeutic factors such as alliance and expectancy have been found to greatly affect treatment outcome in both psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy. Often, these factors are referred to as nonspecific because of their common roles across treatment modalities. Here we argue that conceptualizing such factors as nonspecific is not accurate at best, misleading at worst and may undermine treatment outcome across various modalities. We argue that alliance and expectancy contain both a trait-like common factor component and a state-like specific effect, and that it is clinically, conceptually and methodologically critical to disentangle the two...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rachel Morano, Olivia Hoskins, Brittany L Smith, James P Herman
Chronic stress drives behavioral and physiological changes associated with numerous psychiatric disease states. In rodents, the vast majority of chronic stress models involve imposition of external stressors, whereas in humans stress is often driven by internal cues, commonly associated with a sense of loss. We previously exposed groups of rats to environmental enrichment (EE) for a protracted period (1 month), followed by removal of enrichment (ER), to induce an experience of loss in male rats. ER enhanced immobility in the forced swim test (FST), led to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity, and caused hyperphagia relative to continuously enriched (EE), single-housed (Scon) and pair-housed (Pcon) groups, most of which were reversible by antidepressant treatment (Smith et al...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Hanna Zwaka, Ruth Bartels, Sophie Lehfeldt, Meida Jusyte, Sören Hantke, Simon Menzel, Jacob Gora, Rafael Alberdi, Randolf Menzel
The search for neural correlates of operant and observational learning requires a combination of two (experimental) conditions that are very difficult to combine: stable recording from high order neurons and free movement of the animal in a rather natural environment. We developed a virtual environment (VE) that simulates a simplified 3D world for honeybees walking stationary on an air-supported spherical treadmill. We show that honeybees perceive the stimuli in the VE as meaningful by transferring learned information from free flight to the virtual world...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Nicholas J Kelley, Alessia Gallucci, Paolo Riva, Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-regulation enables individuals to guide their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a purposeful manner. Self-regulation is thus crucial for goal-directed behavior and contributes to many consequential outcomes in life including physical health, psychological well-being, ethical decision making, and strong interpersonal relationships. Neuroscientific research has revealed that the prefrontal cortex plays a central role in self-regulation, specifically by exerting top-down control over subcortical regions involved in reward (e...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Erica R Glasper, Gretchen N Neigh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Linda C Weiss
Ecological communities are organized in trophic levels that share manifold interactions forming complex food webs. Infochemicals can further modify these interactions, e.g., by inducing defenses in prey. The micro-crustacean Daphnia is able to respond to predator-specific chemical cues indicating an increased predation risk. Daphnia shows plastic responses by adapting its morphology, behavior, and physiology, increasing organism, and population fitness. This stabilizes community structures. This review will describe the progress that has been made in understanding the high degree of plasticity observed in the model crustacean Daphnia ...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Naomi Kakoschke, Esther Aarts, Antonio Verdejo-García
Compulsivity is a central feature of obsessive-compulsive and addictive disorders, which share considerable overlap with excessive eating in terms of repetitive behavior despite negative consequences. Excessive eating behavior is characteristic of several eating-related conditions, including eating disorders [bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED)], obesity, and food addiction (FA). Compulsivity is proposed to be driven by four distinct cognitive components, namely, contingency-related cognitive flexibility, task/attentional set-shifting, attentional bias/disengagement and habit learning...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Takahira Shirahase, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Atsushi Tsujimura, Shin Kwak, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Masaki Tanaka
RNA editing plays critical roles in normal brain function, and alteration of its activity causes various disorders. We previously found that chronic consumption of ethanol was associated with increased levels of RNA editing of serotonin 2C receptor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, it remains unknown whether RNA editing in the NAc modulates alcohol addiction through the brain reward system. To investigate the involvement of NAc RNA editing in alcohol addiction, we generated NAc-specific knockout mice of the double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR2 using AAV-GFP/Cre and conducted a battery of behavioral tests including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Arun Asok, Eric R Kandel, Joseph B Rayman
The generalization of fear memories is an adaptive neurobiological process that promotes survival in complex and dynamic environments. When confronted with a potential threat, an animal must select an appropriate defensive response based on previous experiences that are not identical, weighing cues and contextual information that may predict safety or danger. Like other aspects of fear memory, generalization is mediated by the coordinated actions of prefrontal, hippocampal, amygdalar, and thalamic brain areas...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Randolf Menzel, Lea Tison, Johannes Fischer-Nakai, James Cheeseman, Maria Sol Balbuena, Xiuxian Chen, Tim Landgraf, Julian Petrasch, Johannes Polster, Uwe Greggers
Elongated landscape features like forest edges, rivers, roads or boundaries of fields are particularly salient landmarks for navigating animals. Here, we ask how honeybees learn such structures and how they are used during their homing flights after being released at an unexpected location (catch-and-release paradigm). The experiments were performed in two landscapes that differed with respect to their overall structure: a rather feature-less landscape, and one rich in close and far distant landmarks. We tested three different forms of learning: learning during orientation flights, learning during training to a feeding site, and learning during homing flights after release at an unexpected site within the explored area...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Julie Lasselin, Manfred Schedlowski, Mats Lekander, Martin Hadamitzky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Magdalena Monier, Sabine Nöbel, Etienne Danchin, Guillaume Isabel
Mate-copying is a form of social learning in which the mate-choice decision of an individual (often a female) is influenced by the mate-choice of conspecifics. Drosophila melanogaster females are known to perform such social learning, and in particular, to mate-copy after a single observation of one conspecific female mating with a male of one phenotype, while the other male phenotype is rejected. Here, we show that this form of social learning is dependent on serotonin and dopamine. Using a pharmacological approach, we reduced dopamine or serotonin synthesis in adult virgin females with 3-iodotyrosine (3-IY) and DL-para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), respectively, and then tested their mate-copying performance...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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