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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Charidimos Tzagarakis, Andrew Thompson, Robert D Rogers, Giuseppe Pellizzer
Impulsivity is a prominent personality trait, and a key modulating component of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. How impulsivity is related to the brain mechanisms associated with action planning is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relation between impulsivity and the modulation of beta band oscillatory activity associated with action planning and execution. Given that beta power decreases during action planning and decreases further during action execution, we hypothesized that during planning the level of beta band power of more impulsive individuals would be closer to the level reached during execution than that of less impulsive individuals...
2019: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Phillip R Kramer, Mahesh Rao, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Michael B Yee
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2018.00046.].
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Simona Caldani, Milena Razuk, Mathilde Septier, José Angelo Barela, Richard Delorme, Eric Acquaviva, Maria Pia Bucci
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder without validated objective markers. Oculomotor behavior and executive motor control could potentially be used to investigate attention disorders. The aim of this study was to explore an oculomotor and postural dual task in children with ADHD. Forty-two children were included in the study, gathering children with ADHD ( n = 21) (mean 8.15 age ± years 0.36) and sex-, age-, and IQ-matched typically developing children (TD). Children performed two distinct fixation tasks in three different postural conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Annie Brandes-Aitken, Joaquin A Anguera, Yi-Shin Chang, Carly Demopoulos, Julia P Owen, Adam Gazzaley, Pratik Mukherjee, Elysa J Marco
Objective : Recent evidence suggests that co-occurring deficits in cognitive control and visuomotor control are common to many neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, children with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD), a condition characterized by sensory hyper/hypo-sensitivity, show varying degrees of overlapping attention and visuomotor challenges. In this study, we assess associations between cognitive and visuomotor control abilities among children with and without SPD. In this same context, we also examined the common and unique diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tracts that may support the overlap of cognitive control and visuomotor control...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Michael A Paradiso, Seth Akers-Campbell, Octavio Ruiz, James E Niemeyer, Stuart Geman, Jackson Loper
Approximately three times per second, human visual perception is interrupted by a saccadic eye movement. In addition to taking the eyes to a new location, several lines of evidence suggest that the saccades play multiple roles in visual perception. Indeed, it may be crucial that visual processing is informed about movements of the eyes in order to analyze visual input distinctly and efficiently on each fixation and preserve stable visual perception of the world across saccades. A variety of studies has demonstrated that activity in multiple brain areas is modulated by saccades...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Stevan Nikolin, Shani Lauf, Colleen K Loo, Donel Martin
Objective: There is a need to elucidate the underlying neural mechanisms subserving working memory and divided attention functioning. Recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence for anatomical co-localization of both functions. In the present study we used a functional intervention, whereby we applied a novel type of focalised, non-invasive brain stimulation, High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), to the regions subserving these processes, the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ramona Ritzmann, Kyungsoo Lee, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer, Kathrin Freyler
Anticipation determines the timing and efficiency of human motor performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of stimulus anticipation on proactive (prior to the event) and reactive (after the event) postural adjustments in response to perturbations. Postural set was manipulated by providing either (i) predictable, (ii) unpredictable, or (iii) cheated perturbations which require balance corrections to maintain postural stability. In 29 subjects, a protocol of anterior and posterior perturbations was applied for the conditions (i-iii)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Peter Bossaerts
Anterior insula (aIns) is thought to play a crucial role in rapid adaptation in an ever-changing environment. Mathematically, it is known to track risk and surprise. Modern theories of learning, however, assign a dominant role to signed prediction errors (PEs), not to risk and surprise. Risk and surprise only enter to the extent that they modulate the learning rate, in an attempt to approximate Bayesian learning. Even without such modulation, adaptation is still possible, albeit slow. Here, I propose a new theory of learning, reference-model based learning (RMBL), where risk and surprise are central, and PEs play a secondary, though still crucial, role...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Katie P Wadden, Nicholas J Snow, Peder Sande, Sian Slawson, Tom Waller, Lara A Boyd
Chronic stress contributes to both mental and physical illness. A high prevalence and cost of stress-related illnesses North America warrants investigation into alternative or complementary therapies which may help reduce adverse reactions to stressful stimuli. Emotion regulation is the process of monitoring and adjusting emotional responses to environmental stimuli and stressors. Individuals who participate in physical activity are less likely to have adverse responses to potentially stressful situations, potentially due to adaptions in emotion regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Alexandra Lezkan, Anna Metzger, Knut Drewing
Active finger movements play a crucial role in natural haptic perception. For the perception of different haptic properties people use different well-chosen movement schemes (Lederman and Klatzky, 1987). The haptic property of softness is stereotypically judged by repeatedly pressing one's finger against an objects' surface, actively indenting the object. It has been shown that people adjust the peak indentation forces of their pressing movements to the expected stimulus' softness in order to improve perception (Kaim and Drewing, 2011)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Volker Hofmann, Maurice J Chacron
The fact that perception and behavior depend on the simultaneous and coordinated activity of neural populations is well established. Understanding encoding through neuronal population activity is however complicated by the statistical dependencies between the activities of neurons, which can be present in terms of both their mean (signal correlations) and their response variability (noise correlations). Here, we review the state of knowledge regarding population coding and the influence of correlated variability in the electrosensory pathways of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus ...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Gesa Hartwigsen, Mathias Scharinger, Daniela Sammler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Lingli Zhang, Wenfei Han, Chenguanlu Lin, Fei Li, Ivan E de Araujo
In most species, including humans, food preference is primarily controlled by nutrient value. In particular, glucose-containing sugars exert exquisitely strong effects on food choice via gut-generated signals. However, the identity of the visceral signals underlying glucose's rewarding effects remains uncertain. In particular, it is unknown whether sugar metabolism mediates the formation of preferences for glucose-containing sugars. Using the mouse as a model organism, we made use of a combination of conditioning schedules, gastrointestinal nutrient administration, and chromatographic/electrochemical methods to assess the behavioral and neural effects of activating the gut with either metabolizable glucose or a non-metabolizable glucose analog...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Federico Zamberlan, Camila Sanz, Rocío Martínez Vivot, Carla Pallavicini, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Classic psychedelics are substances of paramount cultural and neuroscientific importance. A distinctive feature of psychedelic drugs is the wide range of potential subjective effects they can elicit, known to be deeply influenced by the internal state of the user ("set") and the surroundings ("setting"). The observation of cross-tolerance and a series of empirical studies in humans and animal models support agonism at the serotonin (5-HT)2A receptor as a common mechanism for the action of psychedelics...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Wei Guo, Satoshi Imai, Jia-Le Yang, Shiping Zou, Huijuan Li, Huakun Xu, Kamal D Moudgil, Ronald Dubner, Feng Wei, Ke Ren
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) produce long-lasting attenuation of pain hypersensitivity. This effect involves BMSC's ability to interact with the immune system and activation of the endogenous opioid receptors in the pain modulatory circuitry. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) protein complex is a key transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in immunity. We tested the hypothesis that the NF-κB signaling plays a role in BMSC-induced pain relief. We focused on the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a key structure in the descending pain modulatory pathway, that has been shown to play an important role in BMSC-produced antihyperalgesia...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Pablo Andrés Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Eduardo Giraldo, Maximiliano Bueno-López, Marta Molinas
The localization of active brain sources from Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a useful method in clinical applications, such as the study of localized epilepsy, evoked-related-potentials, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The distributed-source model is a common method to estimate neural activity in the brain. The location and amplitude of each active source are estimated by solving the inverse problem by regularization or using Bayesian methods with spatio-temporal constraints. Frequency and spatio-temporal constraints improve the quality of the reconstructed neural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Carrie R Jonak, Jonathan W Lovelace, Iryna M Ethell, Khaleel A Razak, Devin K Binder
Translational comparison of rodent models of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases to human electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers in these conditions will require multisite rodent EEG on the skull surface, rather than local area electrocorticography (ECoG) or multisite local field potential (LFP) recording. We have developed a technique for planar multielectrode array (MEA) implantation on the mouse skull surface, which enables multisite EEG in awake and freely moving mice and reusability of the MEA probes...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Nicole N Scheff, Aditi Bhattacharya, Edward Dowse, Richard X Dang, John C Dolan, Susanna Wang, Hyesung Kim, Donna G Albertson, Brian L Schmidt
The incidence of oral cancer in the United States is increasing, especially in young people and women. Patients with oral cancer report severe functional pain. Using a patient cohort accrued through the New York University Oral Cancer Center and immune-competent mouse models, we identify a sex difference in the prevalence and severity of oral cancer pain. A neutrophil-mediated endogenous analgesic mechanism is present in male mice with oral cancer. Local naloxone treatment potentiates cancer mediator-induced orofacial nociceptive behavior in male mice only...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ethan B Russo
Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Milos Dordevic, Robert Schrader, Marco Taubert, Patrick Müller, Anita Hökelmann, Notger G Müller
Background and Objective: Life-long balance training has been shown to affect brain structure, including the hippocampus. Data are missing in this respect on professional ballet dancers of both genders. It is also unknown whether transfer effects exist on general balancing as well as spatial orientation abilities, a function mainly supported by the hippocampus. We aimed to assess differences in gray matter (GM) structure, general balancing skills, and spatial orientation skills between professional ballet dancers and non-dancers...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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