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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

Charlène Aubinet, Rajanikant Panda, Stephen Karl Larroque, Helena Cassol, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Manon Carrière, Sarah Wannez, Steve Majerus, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
The recovery of patients with disorders of consciousness is a real challenge, especially at the chronic stage. After a severe brain injury, patients can regain some slight signs of consciousness, while not being able to functionally communicate. This entity is called the minimally conscious state (MCS), which has been divided into MCS- and MCS+, respectively based on the absence or presence of language-related signs of consciousness. In this series of cases we aimed to describe retrospectively the longitudinal recovery of specific language-related behaviors using neuroimaging measurement in severely brain-injured patients...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brian C Coe, Thomas Trappenberg, Douglas P Munoz
The distributed nature of information processing in the brain creates a complex variety of decision making behavior. Likewise, computational models of saccadic decision making behavior are numerous and diverse. Here we present a generative model of saccadic action selection in the context of competitive decision making in the superior colliculus (SC) in order to investigate how independent neural signals may converge to interact and guide saccade selection, and to test if systematic variations can better replicate the variability in responses that are part of normal human behavior...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Daniele Caligiore, Magda Mustile, Alissa Fineschi, Laura Romano, Fabrizio Piras, Francesca Assogna, Francesco E Pontieri, Gianfranco Spalletta, Gianluca Baldassarre
Action observation therapy (AOT) has been recently proposed as a new rehabilitation approach for treatment of motor deficits in Parkinson's disease. To date, this approach has never been used to deal with cognitive deficits (e.g., deficits in working memory, attention), which are impairments that are increasingly recognized in Parkinsonian patients. Typically, patients affected by these dysfunctions have difficulty filtering out irrelevant information and tend to lose track of the task goal. In this paper, we propose that AOT may also be used to improve cognitive abilities of Parkinsonian patients if it is used within a dual task framework...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Shuyu Zhu, Benjamin Allitt, Anil Samuel, Leo Lui, Marcello G P Rosa, Ramesh Rajan
Based on anatomical connectivity and basic response characteristics, primate auditory cortex is divided into a central core surrounded by belt and parabelt regions. The encoding of pitch, a prototypical element of sound identity, has been studied in primary auditory cortex (A1) but little is known about how it is encoded and represented beyond A1. The caudal auditory belt and parabelt cortical fields process spatial information but also contain information on non-spatial aspects of sounds. In this study, we examined neuronal responses in these areas to pitch-varied marmoset vocalizations, to derive the consequent representation of pitch in these regions and the potential underlying mechanisms, to compare to the encoding and representation of pitch of the same sounds in A1...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Julie Seibt, Marcos G Frank
It is commonly accepted that brain plasticity occurs in wakefulness and sleep. However, how these different brain states work in concert to create long-lasting changes in brain circuitry is unclear. Considering that wakefulness and sleep are profoundly different brain states on multiple levels (e.g., cellular, molecular and network activation), it is unlikely that they operate exactly the same way. Rather it is probable that they engage different, but coordinated, mechanisms. In this article we discuss how plasticity may be divided across the sleep-wake cycle, and how synaptic changes in each brain state are linked...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Alison R Weiss, Jessica White, Rebecca Richardson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
Previous research indicated that monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions (Neo-PRh) were impaired on working memory (WM) tasks that generated proactive interference, but performed normally on WM tasks devoid of interference (Weiss et al., 2016). This finding suggested that the early lesions disrupted cognitive processes important for resolving proactive interference, such as behavioral inhibition and cognitive flexibility. To distinguish between these possibilities, the same Neo-PRh monkeys and their controls were tested using the Intradimensional/Extradimensional attentional set-shifting task (Roberts et al...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Signy Sheldon, Can Fenerci, Lauri Gurguryan
Autobiographical memory retrieval involves constructing mental representations of personal past episodes by associating together an array of details related to the retrieved event. This construction process occurs flexibly so that the event details can be associated together in different ways during retrieval. Here, we propose that differences in how this association occurs support a division in autobiographical remembering. We first review theories of autobiographical memory organization that suggest that episodic details of an experience are processed along a gradient of abstraction...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mattia Musto, Rossana Rauti, Artur Filipe Rodrigues, Elena Bonechi, Clara Ballerini, Kostas Kostarelos, Laura Ballerini
Graphene-based nanomaterials are increasingly engineered as components of biosensors, interfaces or drug delivery platforms in neuro-repair strategies. In these developments, the mostly used derivative of graphene is graphene oxide (GO). To tailor the safe development of GO nanosheets, we need to model in vitro tissue responses, and in particular the reactivity of microglia, a sub-population of neuroglia that acts as the first active immune response, when challenged by GO. Here, we investigated central nervous system (CNS) tissue reactivity upon long-term exposure to GO nanosheets in 3D culture models...
2019: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nadia Paraskevoudi, John S Pezaris
Despite appearing automatic and effortless, perceiving the visual world is a highly complex process that depends on intact visual and oculomotor function. Understanding the mechanisms underlying spatial updating (i.e., gaze contingency) represents an important, yet unresolved issue in the fields of visual perception and cognitive neuroscience. Many questions regarding the processes involved in updating visual information as a function of the movements of the eyes are still open for research. Beyond its importance for basic research, gaze contingency represents a challenge for visual prosthetics as well...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Taiane Coelho Ramos, Joana Bisol Balardin, João Ricardo Sato, André Fujita
The cerebral cortex and the cerebellum are spatially remote areas that are connected by complex circuits that link both primary and associative areas. Previous studies have revealed abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, it is not clear whether cortico-cerebellar connectivity is differentially manifested in the disorder. To explore this issue, we investigated differences in intrinsic cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity between individuals with typical development (TD) and those with ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Sarah A Johnson, Sean M Turner, Katelyn N Lubke, Tara L Cooper, Kaeli E Fertal, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Memory requires similar episodes with overlapping features to be represented distinctly, a process that is disrupted in many clinical conditions as well as normal aging. Data from humans have linked this ability to activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG). While animal models have shown the perirhinal cortex is critical for disambiguating similar stimuli, hippocampal activity has not been causally linked to discrimination abilities. The goal of the current study was to determine how disrupting CA3/DG activity would impact performance on a rodent mnemonic discrimination task...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Pascale Gisquet-Verrier, David C Riccio
We recently proposed that retrograde amnesia does not result from a disruption of the consolidation/reconsolidation processes but rather to the integration of the internal state induced by the amnesic treatment within the initial memory. Accordingly, the performance disruption induced by an amnesic agent does not result from a disruption of the memory fixation process, but from a difference in the internal state present during the learning phase (or reactivation) and at the later retention test: a case of state-dependency...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Naomi Hartopp, Paul Wright, Nicola J Ray, Tavia E Evans, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton, Michael J O'Sullivan
Individual differences in memory during aging are associated with the microstructure of the fornix, a bidirectional tract connecting the hippocampus with the diencephalon, basal forebrain and cortex. To investigate the origin of alterations in fornix microstructure, measurement of hippocampal subfield volumes was combined with diffusion MRI and cognitive evaluation in a new sample of 31 healthy human participants aged 50-89 years. The fornix, uncinate and parahippocampal cingulum were reconstructed using diffusion MRI tractography...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Alison Xiaoqiao Xie, Xiao-Qing Pan, Randall B Meacham, Anna P Malykhina
Early activation of transcription factors is one of the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to the induction and maintenance of chronic pain states. Previous studies identified the changes in a number of nociception-related genes, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the pelvic organs after transient colonic inflammation. The gene and protein expression of these neuropeptides could be modulated by transcription factors Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Oleksandr V Popovych, Thanos Manos, Felix Hoffstaedter, Simon B Eickhoff
Over the past years, nonlinear dynamical models have significantly contributed to the general understanding of brain activity as well as brain disorders. Appropriately validated and optimized mathematical models can be used to mechanistically explain properties of brain structure and neuronal dynamics observed from neuroimaging data. A thorough exploration of the model parameter space and hypothesis testing with the methods of nonlinear dynamical systems and statistical physics can assist in classification and prediction of brain states...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Meghan A L Quinlan, Vanessa M Strong, Darlene M Skinner, Gerard M Martin, Carolyn W Harley, Susan G Walling
Norepinephrine (NE) in dentate gyrus (DG) produces NE-dependent long-term potentiation (NE-LTP) of the perforant path-evoked potential population spike both in vitro and in vivo . Chemical activators infused near locus coeruleus (LC), the source of DG NE, produce a NE-LTP that is associative, i.e., requires concurrent pairing with perforant path (PP) input. Here, we ask if LC optogenetic stimulation that allows us to activate only LC neurons can induce NE-LTP in DG. We use an adeno-associated viral vector containing a depolarizing channel (AAV8-Ef1a-DIO-eChR2(h134r)-EYFP-WPRE) infused stereotaxically into the LC of TH:Cre rats to produce light-sensitive LC neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Thomas D W Wilcockson, Diako Mardanbegi, Peter Sawyer, Hans Gellersen, Baiqiang Xia, Trevor J Crawford
Previous research has suggested that people with dyslexia may have an impairment of inhibitory control. The oculomotor system is vulnerable to interference at various levels of the system, from high level cognitive control to peripheral neural pathways. Therefore, in this work we examined two forms of oculomotor inhibition and two forms of oculomotor interference at high and low levels of the control system. This study employed a prosaccade, antisaccade, and a recent distractor eye movement task (akin to a spatial negative priming) in order to explore high level cognitive control and the inhibition of a competing distractor...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Elizabeth L Johnson, David King-Stephens, Peter B Weber, Kenneth D Laxer, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight
How does the human brain rapidly process incoming information in working memory? In growing divergence from a single-region focus on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), recent work argues for emphasis on how distributed neural networks are rapidly coordinated in support of this central neurocognitive function. Previously, we showed that working memory for everyday "what," "where," and "when" associations depends on multiplexed oscillatory systems, in which signals of different frequencies simultaneously link the PFC to parieto-occipital and medial temporal regions, pointing to a complex web of sub-second, bidirectional interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
James F A Poulet, Sylvain Crochet
Cortical neurons process information on a background of spontaneous, ongoing activity with distinct spatiotemporal profiles defining different cortical states. During wakefulness, cortical states alter constantly in relation to behavioral context, attentional level or general motor activity. In this review article, we will discuss our current understanding of cortical states in awake rodents, how they are controlled, their impact on sensory processing, and highlight areas for future research. A common observation in awake rodents is the rapid change in spontaneous cortical activity from high-amplitude, low-frequency (LF) fluctuations, when animals are quiet, to faster and smaller fluctuations when animals are active...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Alex Sheremet, Yu Qin, Jack P Kennedy, Yuchen Zhou, Andrew P Maurer
Mesoscale cortical activity can be defined as the organization of activity of large neuron populations into collective action, forming time-dependent patterns such as traveling waves. Although collective action may play an important role in the cross-scale integration of brain activity and in the emergence of cognitive behavior, a comprehensive formulation of the laws governing its dynamics is still lacking. Because collective action processes are macroscopic with respect to neuronal activity, these processes cannot be described directly with methods and models developed for the microscale (individual neurons)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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