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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Yonghong Luo, Xianzhen Yin, Shupeng Shi, Xiaolei Ren, Haoran Zhang, Zhuolu Wang, Yong Cao, Mimi Tang, Bo Xiao, Mengqi Zhang
A better understanding of functional changes in the cerebral microvasculature following ischemic injury is essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of stroke. Up to now, the simultaneous depiction and stereological analysis of 3D micro-architectural changes of brain vasculature with network disorders remains a technical challenge. We aimed to explore the three dimensional (3D) microstructural changes of microvasculature in the rat brain on 4, 6 hours, 3 and 18 days post-ischemia using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) with a per pixel size of 5...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Daniel Normen Düring, Mariana Diales Rocha, Falk Dittrich, Manfred Gahr, Richard Hans Robert Hahnloser
Expansion microscopy and light sheet imaging (ExLSM) provide a viable alternative to existing tissue clearing and large volume imaging approaches. The analysis of intact volumes of brain tissue presents a distinct challenge in neuroscience. Recent advances in tissue clearing and light sheet microscopy have re-addressed this challenge and blossomed into a plethora of protocols with diverse advantages and disadvantages. While refractive index matching achieves near perfect transparency and allows for imaging at large depths, the resolution of cleared brains is usually limited to the micrometer range...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ignacio Albert-Smet, Asier Marcos-Vidal, Juan José Vaquero, Manuel Desco, Arrate Muñoz-Barrutia, Jorge Ripoll
Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has been present in cell biology laboratories for quite some time, mainly as custom-made systems, with imaging applications ranging from single cells (in the micrometer scale) to small organisms (in the millimeter scale). Such microscopes distinguish themselves for having very low phototoxicity levels and high spatial and temporal resolution, properties that make them ideal for a large range of applications. These include the study of cellular dynamics, in particular cellular motion which is essential to processes such as tumor metastasis and tissue development...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Lucidia F Santiago, Marco Aurelio M Freire, Cristovam W Picanço-Diniz, João G Franca, Antonio Pereira
In order to understand how the mammalian sensory cortex has been structured during evolution, it is necessary to compare data from different species across distinct mammalian lineages. Here, we investigated the organization of the secondary somatosensory area (S2) in the agouti ( Dasyprocta aguti ), a medium-sized Amazonian rodent, using microelectrode mapping techniques and neurotracer injections. The topographic map obtained from multiunit electrophysiological recordings were correlated with both cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and with patterns of corticocortical connections in tangential sections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jeanne M Powell, Nicholas W Plummer, Erica L Scappini, Charles J Tucker, Patricia Jensen
Visualization and quantification of fluorescently labeled axonal fibers are widely employed in studies of neuronal connectivity in the brain. However, accurate analysis of axon density is often confounded by autofluorescence and other fluorescent artifacts. By the time these problems are detected in labeled tissue sections, significant time and resources have been invested, and the tissue may not be easy to replace. In response to these difficulties, we have developed Digital Enhancement of Fibers with Noise Elimination (DEFiNE), a method for eliminating fluorescent artifacts from digital images based on their morphology and fluorescence spectrum, thus permitting enhanced visualization and quantification of axonal fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sandra Cebada-Sánchez, Pilar Marcos Rabal, Ana María Insausti, Ricardo Insausti
The angular bundle is a white matter fiber fascicle, which runs longitudinally along the parahippocampal gyrus. It is best known for carrying fibers from the entorhinal cortex (EC) to the hippocampus through the perforant and alvear pathways, as well as for carrying hippocampal output to the neocortex, and distributing fibers to polysensory cortex. The angular bundle is already present prenatally at the beginning of the fetal period. Connections between the EC and the hippocampus are established by the 20th gestational week (gw)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jürgen K Mai, Milan Majtanik
The wealth of competing parcellations with limited cross-correspondence between atlases of the human thalamus raises problems in a time when the usefulness of neuroanatomical methods is increasingly appreciated for modern computational analyses of the brain. An unequivocal nomenclature is, however, compulsory for the understanding of the organization of the thalamus. This situation cannot be improved by renewed discussion but with implementation of neuroinformatics tools. We adopted a new volumetric approach to characterize the significant subdivisions and determined the relationships between the parcellation schemes of nine most influential atlases of the human thalamus...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Krishnan Padmanabhan, Fumitaka Osakada, Anna Tarabrina, Erin Kizer, Edward M Callaway, Fred H Gage, Terrence J Sejnowski
Neuronal activity in sensory regions can be modulated by attention, behavioral state, motor output, learning, and memory. This is often done through direct feedback or centrifugal projections originating from higher processing areas. Though, functionally important, the identity and organization of these feedback connections remain poorly characterized. Using a retrograde monosynaptic g-deleted rabies virus and whole-brain reconstructions, we identified the organization of feedback projecting neurons to the main olfactory bulb of the mouse...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Natalia López-González Del Rey, Ana Quiroga-Varela, Elisa Garbayo, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Mariana H G Monje, Inés Trigo-Damas, María J Blanco-Prieto, Javier Blesa
When James Parkinson described the classical symptoms of the disease he could hardly foresee the evolution of our understanding over the next two hundred years. Nowadays, Parkinson's disease is considered a complex multifactorial disease in which genetic factors, either causative or susceptibility variants, unknown environmental cues, and the potential interaction of both could ultimately trigger the pathology. Noteworthy advances have been made in different fields from the clinical phenotype to the decoding of some potential neuropathological features, among which are the fields of genetics, drug discovery or biomaterials for drug delivery, which, though recent in origin, have evolved swiftly to become the basis of research into the disease today...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anna Lena Eberle, Dirk Zeidler
Major progress has been achieved in recent years in three-dimensional microscopy techniques. This applies to the life sciences in general, but specifically the neuroscientific field has been a main driver for developments regarding volume imaging. In particular, scanning electron microscopy offers new insights into the organization of cells and tissues by volume imaging methods, such as serial section array tomography, serial block-face imaging or focused ion beam tomography. However, most of these techniques are restricted to relatively small tissue volumes due to the limited acquisition throughput of most standard imaging techniques...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Qingyu Zhao, Michael Fritz, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Kilian M Pohl, Natalie M Zahr
Individuals aged 12-20 years drink 11% of all alcohol consumed in the United States with more than 90% consumed in the form of binge drinking. Early onset alcohol use is a strong predictor of future alcohol dependence. The study of the effects of excessive alcohol use on the human brain is hampered by limited information regarding the quantity and frequency of exposure to alcohol. Animal models can control for age at alcohol exposure onset and enable isolation of neural substrates of exposure to different patterns and quantities of ethanol (EtOH)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jose Juan Aliaga Maraver, Susana Mata, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Javier DeFelipe, Luis Pastor
The field of neuroanatomy has progressed considerably in recent decades, thanks to the emergence of novel methods which provide new insights into the organization of the nervous system. These new methods have produced a wealth of data that needs to be analyzed, shifting the bottleneck from the acquisition to the analysis of data. In other disciplines, such as in many engineering areas, scientists and engineers are dealing with increasingly complex systems, using hierarchical decompositions, graphical models and simplified schematic diagrams for analysis and design processes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Robert Baud, Pierre Sprumont, Hans J Ten Donkelaar
The white matter of the central nervous system (CNS) is difficult to represent in anatomy because it is located predominantly "between" other anatomical entities. In a classic presentation, like a cross section of a brain segment, white matter is present and can be labeled adequately. Several appearances of the same entity are feasible on successive cross section views. The problem is the absence of a global view on long tracts, and more generally, the lack of a comprehensive classification of white matter pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sebastian J Kopetzky, Markus Butz-Ostendorf
The connectome is regarded as the key to brain function in health and disease. Structural and functional neuroimaging enables us to measure brain connectivity in the living human brain. The field of connectomics describes the connectome as a mathematical graph with its connection strengths being represented by connectivity matrices. Graph theory algorithms are used to assess the integrity of the graph as a whole and to reveal brain network biomarkers for brain diseases; however, the faulty wiring of single connections or subnetworks as the structural correlate for neurological or mental diseases remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Xiaobing Chen, Christine Winters, Virginia Crocker, Michael Lazarou, Alioscka A Sousa, Richard D Leapman, Thomas S Reese
Combining tomography with electron microscopy (EM) produces images at definition sufficient to visualize individual protein molecules or molecular complexes in intact neurons. When freeze-substituted hippocampal cultures in plastic sections are imaged by EM tomography, detailed structures emerging from 3D reconstructions reveal putative glutamate receptors and membrane-associated filaments containing scaffolding proteins such as postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 family proteins based on their size, shape, and known distributions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Kai Lin Cham, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters, modulating diverse behaviours and physiological functions. Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 38 (RNF38) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase whose function remains unclear. A recent study has shown a possible regulatory relationship between RNF38 and the 5-HT system. Therefore, to gain insight into the role of RNF38 in the central 5-HT system, we identified the neuroanatomical location of 5-HT positive cells and investigated the relationship between RNF38 and the 5-HT system in the brain of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Stephen C Noctor
Since descriptions of neural precursor cells (NPCs) were published in the late 19th century, neuroanatomists have used a variety of terms to describe these cells, each term reflecting contemporary understanding of cellular characteristics and function. As the field gained knowledge through a combination of technical advance and individual insight, the terminology describing NPCs changed to incorporate new information. While there is a trend toward consensus and streamlining of terminology over time, to this day scientists use different terms for NPCs that reflect their field and perspective, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anneke Alkemade, Josephine M Groot, Birte U Forstmann
Non-invasive in vivo neuroimaging techniques provide a wide array of possibilities to study human brain function. A number of approaches are available that improve our understanding of the anatomical location of brain activation patterns, including the development of probabilistic conversion tools to register individual in vivo data to population based neuroanatomical templates. Two elegant examples were published by Horn et al. (2017) in which a method was described to warp DBS electrode coordinates, and histological data to MNI-space (Ewert et al...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Giulia Bolasco, Laetitia Weinhard, Tom Boissonnet, Ralph Neujahr, Cornelius T Gross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Zachary Logan Holley, Katherine M Bland, Zachary O Casey, Christopher J Handwerk, George S Vidal
Architectonic heterogeneity in neurons is thought to be important for equipping the mammalian cerebral cortex with an adaptable network that can organize the manifold totality of information it receives. To this end, the dendritic arbors of supragranular pyramidal neurons, even those of the same class, are known to vary substantially. This diversity of dendritic morphology appears to have a rostrocaudal configuration in some brain regions of various species. For example, in humans and non-human primates, neurons in more rostral visual association areas (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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