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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Alexandra Krol, Violeta G Lopez-Huerta, Taylor E C Corey, Karl Deisseroth, Jonathan T Ting, Guoping Feng
Dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons modulate and control processes ranging from reward signaling to regulation of motor outputs. Further, dysfunction of these neurons is involved in both degenerative and psychiatric disorders. Elucidating the roles of these neurons has been greatly facilitated by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse lines expressing channelrhodopsin to readily enable cell-type specific activation. However, corresponding lines to silence these monoaminergic neurons have been lacking...
2019: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Marcus A Triplett, Geoffrey J Goodhill
A key problem in systems neuroscience is to characterize how populations of neurons encode information in their patterns of activity. An understanding of the encoding process is essential both for gaining insight into the origins of perception and for the development of brain-computer interfaces. However, this characterization is complicated by the highly variable nature of neural responses, and thus usually requires probabilistic methods for analysis. Drawing on techniques from statistical modeling and machine learning, we review recent methods for extracting important variables that quantitatively describe how sensory information is encoded in neural activity...
2019: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Anthony J Williams, Qian-Quan Sun
Our objective is to examine the layer and spectrotemporal architecture and laminar distribution of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in a neonatal freeze lesion model of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) associated with a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Electrophysiological recording of local field potentials (LFPs) in control and freeze lesion animals were obtained with linear micro-electrode arrays to detect presence of HFOs as compared to changes in spectral power, signal coherence, and single-unit distributions during "hyper-excitable" epochs of anesthesia-induced burst-suppression (B-S)...
2019: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Erik Svensson, John Apergis-Schoute, Geoffrey Burnstock, Michael P Nusbaum, David Parker, Helgi B Schiöth
It is now accepted that neurons contain and release multiple transmitter substances. However, we still have only limited insight into the regulation and functional effects of this co-transmission. Given that there are 200 or more neurotransmitters, the chemical complexity of the nervous system is daunting. This is made more-so by the fact that their interacting effects can generate diverse non-linear and novel consequences. The relatively poor history of pharmacological approaches likely reflects the fact that manipulating a transmitter system will not necessarily mimic its roles within the normal chemical environment of the nervous system (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
R Ozgur Doruk, Kechen Zhang
We present an adaptive stimulus design method for efficiently estimating the parameters of a dynamic recurrent network model with interacting excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations. Although stimuli that are optimized for model parameter estimation should, in theory, have advantages over nonadaptive random stimuli, in practice it remains unclear in what way and to what extent an optimal design of time-varying stimuli may actually improve parameter estimation for this common type of recurrent network models...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Vasily A Vakorin, Bernhard Ross, Sam M Doesburg, Urs Ribary, Anthony R McIntosh
Methods of functional connectivity are applied ubiquitously in studies involving non-invasive whole-brain signals, but may be not optimal for exploring the propagation of the steady-state responses, which are strong oscillatory patterns of neurodynamics evoked by periodic stimulation. In our study, we explore a functional network underlying the somatosensory steady-state response using methods of effective connectivity. Human magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected in 10 young healthy adults during 23-Hz vibro-tactile stimulation of the right hand index finger...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Samyukta Jayakumar, Rukhmani Narayanamurthy, Reshma Ramesh, Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Grid cells are a special class of spatial cells found in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) characterized by their strikingly regular hexagonal firing fields. This spatially periodic firing pattern is originally considered to be independent of the geometric properties of the environment. However, this notion was contested by examining the grid cell periodicity in environments with different polarity (Krupic et al., 2015) and in connected environments (Carpenter et al., 2015). Aforementioned experimental results demonstrated the dependence of grid cell activity on environmental geometry...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jeff Hawkins, Marcus Lewis, Mirko Klukas, Scott Purdy, Subutai Ahmad
How the neocortex works is a mystery. In this paper we propose a novel framework for understanding its function. Grid cells are neurons in the entorhinal cortex that represent the location of an animal in its environment. Recent evidence suggests that grid cell-like neurons may also be present in the neocortex. We propose that grid cells exist throughout the neocortex, in every region and in every cortical column. They define a location-based framework for how the neocortex functions. Whereas grid cells in the entorhinal cortex represent the location of one thing, the body relative to its environment, we propose that cortical grid cells simultaneously represent the location of many things...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Nicolas Deperrois, Victoria Moiseeva, Boris Gutkin
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are thought to encode reward prediction errors (RPE) by comparing actual and expected rewards. In recent years, much work has been done to identify how the brain uses and computes this signal. While several lines of evidence suggest the interplay of the DA and the inhibitory interneurons in the VTA implements the RPE computation, it still remains unclear how the DA neurons learn key quantities, for example the amplitude and the timing of primary rewards during conditioning tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Elizabeth Zavitz, Nicholas S C Price
The goal of sensory neuroscience is to understand how the brain creates its myriad of representations of the world, and uses these representations to produce perception and behavior. Circuits of neurons in spatially segregated regions of brain tissue have distinct functional specializations, and these regions are connected to form a functional processing hierarchy. Advances in technology for recording neuronal activity from multiple sites in multiple cortical areas mean that we are now able to collect data that reflects how information is transformed within and between connected members of this hierarchy...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kenji Morita, Yasuo Kawaguchi
The hypothesis that the basal-ganglia direct and indirect pathways represent goodness (or benefit) and badness (or cost) of options, respectively, explains a wide range of phenomena. However, this hypothesis, named the Opponent Actor Learning (OpAL), still has limitations. Structurally, the OpAL model does not incorporate differentiation of the two types of cortical inputs to the basal-ganglia pathways received from intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal-tract (PT) neurons. Functionally, the OpAL model does not describe the temporal-difference (TD)-type reward-prediction-error (RPE), nor explains how RPE is calculated in the circuitry connecting to the DA neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Galit Saar, Alan P Koretsky
MRI has been extensively used in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-temporal dementia (FTD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MRI is important for monitoring the neurodegenerative components in other diseases such as epilepsy, stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS). Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been used in many preclinical studies to image anatomy and cytoarchitecture, to obtain functional information in areas of the brain and to study neuronal connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tomas Hökfelt, Swapnali Barde, Zhi-Qing David Xu, Eugenia Kuteeva, Joelle Rüegg, Erwan Le Maitre, Mårten Risling, Jan Kehr, Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson, Miklos Palkovits, William Deakin, Gyorgy Bagdy, Gabriella Juhasz, H Josée Prud'homme, Naguib Mechawar, Rochellys Diaz-Heijtz, Sven Ove Ögren
Neuropeptides are auxiliary messenger molecules that always co-exist in nerve cells with one or more small molecule (classic) neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides act both as transmitters and trophic factors, and play a role particularly when the nervous system is challenged, as by injury, pain or stress. Here neuropeptides and coexistence in mammals are reviewed, but with special focus on the 29/30 amino acid galanin and its three receptors GalR1, -R2 and -R3. In particular, galanin's role as a co-transmitter in both rodent and human noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Louis-Eric Trudeau, Salah El Mestikawy
Multiple discoveries made since the identification of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) two decades ago revealed that many neuronal populations in the brain use glutamate in addition to their "primary" neurotransmitter. Such a mode of cotransmission has been detected in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and surprisingly even in GABA neurons. Interestingly, work performed by multiple groups during the past decade suggests that the use of glutamate as a cotransmitter takes different forms in these different populations of neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Shigeyoshi Saito, Kazuhiko Sawada, Ichio Aoki
The aim of this study was to characterize hippocampal abnormalities in rats after prenatal x-ray irradiation using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). All radiation-exposed rat brains showed a reduced volume with prominent dilatation of lateral ventricles. Moreover, MEMRI-enhanced areas within the hippocampus were reduced in volumes by approximately 25% of controls, although the entire volume of hippocampus was decreased by approximately 50% of controls. MEMRI signals were enhanced strongly in the hilus and granular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the pyramidal layer and infrapyramidal region of the CA3 region, and moderately along the CA1/2 pyramidal cell layer in the control rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ayako Hayashi, Takashi Yoshida, Kenichi Ohki
Although the processing of whisker deflections in the barrel area of the rodent primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has been studied extensively, how cutaneous vibro-tactile stimuli are processed in the rodent S1 outside the barrel area has not been fully examined. Particularly, the cell-type specific representation of multiple vibration frequencies in genetically identified inhibitory cells in the S1 has not been examined. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we examined the responses to vibration stimuli of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the S1 hind limb area of male and female mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Chika Sato, Kazuhiko Sawada, David Wright, Tatsuya Higashi, Ichio Aoki
MRI observations following in vivo administration of Mn2+ [manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI, MEMRI] have been used as an excellent morphological and functional MRI tool for in vivo preclinical studies. To detect brain three-dimensional (3D) microstructures, we improved the ex vivo MEMRI method for mouse brains after in vivo Mn administration and obtained high-resolution MRIs using a cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coil. Male C57BL/6 mice ( n = 8) were injected with 50 mM MnCl2 intravenously and MEMRIs of the brain were acquired in vivo after 24 h, followed by perfusion fixation with a 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) solution...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Shan Wang, Liuxun Hu, Jieli Cao, Wenmin Huang, Chuanzhu Sun, Dongdong Zheng, Zhuonan Wang, Shuoqiu Gan, Xuan Niu, Chenghui Gu, Guanghui Bai, Limei Ye, Danbin Zhang, Nu Zhang, Bo Yin, Ming Zhang, Lijun Bai
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered to induce abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity within resting-state networks (RSNs). The objective of this study was to estimate the role of sex in intrinsic functional connectivity after acute mild TBI. We recruited a cohort of 54 patients (27 males and 27 females with mild TBI within 7 days post-injury) from the emergency department (ED) and 34 age-, education-matched healthy controls (HCs; 17 males and 17 females). On the clinical scales, there were no statistically significant differences between males and females in either control group or mild TBI group...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jaison Jiro Omoto, Bao-Chau Minh Nguyen, Pratyush Kandimalla, Jennifer Kelly Lovick, Jeffrey Michael Donlea, Volker Hartenstein
The central complex (CX) is a midline-situated collection of neuropil compartments in the arthropod central brain, implicated in higher-order processes such as goal-directed navigation. Here, we provide a systematic genetic-neuroanatomical analysis of the ellipsoid body (EB), a compartment which represents a major afferent portal of the Drosophila CX. The neuropil volume of the EB, along with its prominent input compartment, called the bulb, is subdivided into precisely tessellated domains, distinguishable based on intensity of the global marker DN-cadherin...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Huy Bang Nguyen, Truc Quynh Thai, Yang Sui, Morio Azuma, Ken Fujiwara, Nobuhiko Ohno
Recent advancements in electron microscope volume imaging, such as serial imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), have facilitated the acquisition of three-dimensional ultrastructural information of biological samples. These advancements help build a comprehensive understanding of the functional structures in entire organelles, cells, organs and organisms, including large-scale wiring maps of neural circuitry in various species. Advanced volume imaging of biological specimens has often been limited by artifacts and insufficient contrast, which are partly caused by problems in staining, serial sectioning and electron beam irradiation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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