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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Dongxue Li, Dongqing Jing, Ziyang Liu, Ying Chen, Fang Huang, Thomas Behnisch
The klotho gene family consists of α-, β-, and γ-Klotho, which encode type I single-pass transmembrane proteins with large extracellular domains. α-Klotho exists as a full-length membrane-bound and as a soluble form after cleavage of the extracellular domain. Due to gene splicing, a short extracellular Klotho form can be expressed and secreted. Inactivation of α-Klotho leads to a phenotype that resembles accelerated aging, as the expression level of the α-Klotho protein in the hippocampal formation of mice decreases with age...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yingze Ye, Zhi Zeng, Tong Jin, Hongfei Zhang, Xiaoxing Xiong, Lijuan Gu
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a novel, cytokine-like, and ubiquitous, highly conserved, nuclear protein that can be actively secreted by microglia or passively released by necrotic neurons. Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the outcome is dependent on the amount of hypoxia-related neuronal death in the cerebral ischemic region. Acting as an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein, HMGB1 mediates cerebral inflammation and brain injury and participates in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ahmet Arac, Michele A Grimbaldeston, Stephen J Galli, Tonya M Bliss, Gary K Steinberg
Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. Because post-stroke inflammation is a critical determinant of damage and recovery after stroke, understanding the interplay between the immune system and the brain after stroke holds much promise for therapeutic intervention. An understudied, but important aspect of this interplay is the role of meninges that surround the brain. All blood vessels travel through the meningeal space before entering the brain parenchyma, making the meninges ideally located to act as an immune gatekeeper for the underlying parenchyma...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lucas E Cabrera Zapata, Mariana Bollo, María Julia Cambiasso
17β-estradiol (E2) induces axonal growth through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-MAPK cascade in hypothalamic neurons of male rat embryos in vitro , but the mechanism that initiates these events is poorly understood. This study reports the intracellular Ca2+ increase that participates in the activation of ERK1/2 and axogenesis induced by E2. Hypothalamic neuron cultures were established from 16-day-old male rat embryos and fed with astroglia-conditioned media for 48 h. E2-induced ERK phosphorylation was completely abolished by a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor (ryanodine) and partially attenuated by an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (L-VGCC) blocker (nifedipine), an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) inhibitor (2-APB), and a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U-73122)...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shaun S Sanders, Francesca I De Simone, Gareth M Thomas
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) controls growth and proliferation of non-neuronal cells, while during neuronal development mTORC1 responds to glutamate and neurotrophins to promote neuronal migration and dendritic arborization. Recent studies reveal that mTORC1 signaling complexes are assembled on lysosomal membranes, but how mTORC1 membrane targeting is regulated is not fully clear. Our examination of palmitoyl-proteomic databases and additional bioinformatic analyses revealed that several mTORC1 proteins are predicted to undergo covalent modification with the lipid palmitate...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jackson Kyle, Michelle Wu, Stefania Gourzi, Stella E Tsirka
Microglia are reported to have significant roles in regulating normal mammalian adult neurogenesis. There are two neurogenic niches in the adult mammal brain: the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ), which makes up the lining of the lateral ventricles. While the microglia interactions on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus have been characterized, the SVZ niche is not as well investigated. The SVZ niche is unique in that the newborn neurons migrate a much longer distance through multiple brain structures compared to newborn neurons in the hippocampus, making it more difficult to fully characterize how microglia influence this process...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Kenneth A Jacobson, Dilip K Tosh, Shanu Jain, Zhan-Guo Gao
Adenosine receptors (ARs) function in the body's response to conditions of pathology and stress associated with a functional imbalance, such as in the supply and demand of energy/oxygen/nutrients. Extracellular adenosine concentrations vary widely to raise or lower the basal activation of four subtypes of ARs. Endogenous adenosine can correct an energy imbalance during hypoxia and other stress, for example, by slowing the heart rate by A1 AR activation or increasing the blood supply to heart muscle by the A2A AR...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xiaolin Deng, Ming Wang, Sihui Hu, Yonghao Feng, Yiye Shao, Yangmei Xie, Men Wu, Yinghui Chen, Xiaohong Shi
Cognitive dysfunction is one of the serious complications induced by status epilepticus (SE), which has a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. Previous studies demonstrated that the pathophysiological changes after SE such as oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction contribute to neuronal damage. A recent study indicated that preventive astaxanthin (AST) alleviated epilepsy-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the brain. In the present study, rats were treated with vehicle or AST 1 h after SE onset and were injected once every other day for 2 weeks (total of seven times)...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Maria Katharina Müller, Sasa Jovanovic, Christian Keine, Tamara Radulovic, Rudolf Rübsamen, Ivan Milenkovic
Sound information is transduced into graded receptor potential by cochlear hair cells and encoded as discrete action potentials of auditory nerve fibers. In the cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve fibers convey this information through morphologically distinct synaptic terminals onto bushy cells (BCs) and stellate cells (SCs) for processing of different sound features. With expanding use of transgenic mouse models, it is increasingly important to understand the in vivo functional development of these neurons in mice...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sara Hougaard Pedersen, Sanne Hage la Cour, Kirstine Calloe, Frank Hauser, Jes Olesen, Dan Arne Klaerke, Inger Jansen-Olesen
Infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP-38) provokes migraine attacks in migraineurs and headache in non-migraineurs. Adverse events like long-lasting flushing and heat sensation can be terminated with oral antihistamine treatment, indicating the involvement of mast cell activation after PACAP-infusion. Degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells was provoked by several isoforms of PACAP via previously unknown receptor pharmacology. The effect might thus be mediated either via specific splice variants of the PAC1 -receptor or via an unknown receptor for PACAP-38...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mee Jung Ko, Grace E Mulia, Richard M van Rijn
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that regulate crucial neuronal functions such as neuronal differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis through phosphorylation of subsequent protein kinases. The three classical MAPK subfamilies, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase have been linked to various neurological disorders often in conjunction with activation of a wide range of G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elisa Landucci, Annunziatina Laurino, Lorenzo Cinci, Manuela Gencarelli, Laura Raimondi
Mast cells are primary players in immune and inflammatory diseases. In the brain, mast cells are located at the brain side of the blood brain barrier (BBB) exerting a crucial role in protecting the brain from xenobiotic invasion. Furthermore, recent advances in neuroscience indicate mast cells may play an important role in glial cell-neuron communication through the release of mediators, including histamine. Interestingly, brain mast cells contain not only 50% of the brain histamine but also hormones, proteases and lipids or amine mediators; and cell degranulation may be triggered by different stimuli activating membrane bound receptors including the four types of histaminergic receptors...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Farzad Salehpour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Javad Mahmoudi, Marjan Erfani, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Michael R Hamblin, Albert Gjedde
Disturbances in mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, combined with neuroinflammation, play cardinal roles in the cognitive impairment during aging that is further exacerbated by transient cerebral ischemia. Both near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) administration are known to stimulate mitochondrial electron transport that potentially may reverse the effects of cerebral ischemia in aged animals. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of PBM and CoQ10 , separately or in combination, improve cognition in a mouse model of transient cerebral ischemia superimposed on a model of aging...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mengchen Yang, Xiaoxue Wang, Yueshan Fan, Yaqing Chen, Dongdong Sun, Xin Xu, Jianhao Wang, Gang Gu, Ruilong Peng, Tianyu Shen, Xilei Liu, Fanjian Li, Yi Wang, Dong Wang, Hongtao Rong, Zhenying Han, Xiangliang Gao, Qifeng Li, Keyuan Fan, Yuhua Yuan, Jianning Zhang
Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is a member of the Semaphorins family, a class of membrane-associated protein that participates in the construction of nerve networks. SEMA3A has been reported to affect vascular permeability previously, but its influence in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unknown. To investigate the effects of SEMA3A, we used a mouse TBI model with a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device and a blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury model in vitro with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We tested post-TBI changes in SEMA3A, and its related receptors (Nrp-1 and plexin-A1) expression and distribution through western blotting and double-immunofluorescence staining, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zhongya Wei, Ying Fei, Wenfeng Su, Gang Chen
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury or disease remains a major challenge for modern medicine worldwide. Most of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are centered on neuronal mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-neuronal cells, especially glial cells, also play active roles in the initiation and resolution of pain. The preponderance of evidence has implicated central nervous system (CNS) glial cells, i.e., microglia and astrocytes, in the control of pain. The role of Schwann cells in neuropathic pain remains poorly understood...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pauline Latzer, Olena Shchyglo, Tim Hartl, Veronika Matschke, Uwe Schlegel, Denise Manahan-Vaughan, Carsten Theiss
A hallmark of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is neoangiogenesis, mediated by the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF antibodies, like bevacizumab, prolong progression-free survival in GBM, however, this treatment has been reported to be associated with a decline in neurocognitive function. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of bevacizumab on neuronal function and plasticity. We analyzed neuronal membrane properties and synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices, as well as spine dynamics in dissociated hippocampal neurons, to examine the impact of bevacizumab on hippocampal function and viability...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tian-Jia Song, Xing-Yu Lan, Meng-Ping Wei, Fu-Jun Zhai, Tobias M Boeckers, Jia-Nan Wang, Shuo Yuan, Meng-Ying Jin, Yu-Fei Xie, Wan-Wen Dang, Chen Zhang, Michael Schön, Pei-Wen Song, Mei-Hong Qiu, Ya-Yue Song, Song-Ping Han, Ji-Sheng Han, Rong Zhang
Mutations within the Shank3 gene, which encodes a key postsynaptic density (PSD) protein at glutamatergic synapses, contribute to the genetic etiology of defined autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) and intellectual disabilities (ID). Although there are a series of genetic mouse models to study Shank3 gene in ASDs, there are few rat models with species-specific advantages. In this study, we established and characterized a novel rat model with a deletion spanning exons 11-21 of Shank3 , leading to a complete loss of the major SHANK3 isoforms...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Christian Alfano, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Thérèse Couderc, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, together with dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. In the wake of its emergence in the French Polynesia and in the Americas, ZIKV has been shown to cause congenital microcephaly. It is the first arbovirus which has been proven to be teratogenic and sexually transmissible. Confronted with this major public health challenge, the scientific and medical communities teamed up to precisely characterize the clinical features of congenital ZIKV syndrome and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Maria Elena Silva, Simona Lange, Bryan Hinrichsen, Amber R Philp, Carolina R Reyes, Diego Halabi, Josselyne B Mansilla, Peter Rotheneichner, Alerie Guzman de la Fuente, Sebastien Couillard-Despres, Luis F Bátiz, Robin J M Franklin, Ludwig Aigner, Francisco J Rivera
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Upon demyelination, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are activated and they proliferate, migrate and differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Besides OPCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) may respond to demyelination and generate oligodendrocytes. We have recently shown that CNS-resident pericytes (PCs) respond to demyelination, proliferate and secrete Laminin alpha2 (Lama2) that, in turn, enhances OPC differentiation...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Juan Wan, Yi Ding, Sha Nan, Qiulin Zhang, Jinrui Sun, Chuanguang Suo, Mingxing Ding
Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) tolerance, a negative therapeutic effect, is a gradual decline in antinociception because of its repeated or prolonged use. This study aims to explore the role of thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), having neuro-protection properties, in EA tolerance (EAT). Methods: Rats were treated with EA once daily for eight consecutive days to establish EAT, effect of Tβ4 on the development of EAT was determined through microinjection of Tβ4 antibody and siRNA into the cerebroventricle. The mRNA and protein expression profiles of Tβ4, opioid peptides (enkephalin, dynorphin and endorphin), and anti-opioid peptides (cholecystokinin octapeptide, CCK-8 and orphanin FQ, OFQ), and mu opioid receptor (MOR) and CCK B receptor (CCKBR) in the brain areas (hypothalamus, thalamus, cortex, midbrain and medulla) were characterized after Tβ4 siRNA was administered...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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