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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

Claire Vanpouille-Box, Lorenzo Galluzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Takayuki Abe, Sagi D Shapira
In mammals, cytosolic detection of nucleic acids is critical in initiating innate antiviral responses against invading pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites). These programs are mediated by multiple cytosolic and endosomal sensors and adaptor molecules (c-GAS/STING axis and TLR9/MyD88 axis, respectively) and lead to the production of type I interferons (IFNs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the identity and role of multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been elucidated, such immune surveillance systems must be tightly regulated to limit collateral damage and prevent aberrant responses to self- and non-self-nucleic acids...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Nikolai N Khodarev
DNA damage has been considered the primary action of ionizing radiation (IR) in normal and tumor cells resulting in cell autonomous death. However, recent findings have elucidated novel local and systemic effects of IR mediated by the induction of Type I interferons (IFN) and activation of adaptive immune responses. These responses are initiated by DNA- and RNA-dependent activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) which comprise an innate immunity system responsible for detection of exogenous pathogens, mounting of an anti-viral response, and activation of adaptive immunity...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Shahanshah Khan, Victoria Godfrey, Md Hasan Zaki
Innate immunity employs germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense microbial pattern molecules. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various PPRs located on the cell membrane or in the cytosol leads to the activation of cell signaling pathways and production of inflammatory mediators. Nucleic acids including DNA, RNA, and their derivatives are potent PAMPs which can be recognized by multiple PRRs to induce inflammatory responses. While nucleic acid sensors can also sense endogenous nucleic acids, they are capable of discriminating self from non-self...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Terry Medler, Jaina M Patel, Alejandro Alice, Jason R Baird, Hong-Ming Hu, Michael J Gough
Nucleic acid sensing pathways have likely evolved as part of a broad pathogen sensing strategy intended to discriminate infectious agents and initiate appropriate innate and adaptive controls. However, in the absence of infectious agents, nucleic acid sensing pathways have been shown to play positive and negative roles in regulating tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastatic spread. Understanding the normal biology behind these pathways and how they are regulated in malignant cells and in the tumor immune environment can help us devise strategies to exploit nucleic acid sensing to manipulate anti-cancer immunity...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Christopher R Lupfer, Meagan D Rippee-Brooks, Paras K Anand
The innate immune system detects the presence of pathogens based on detection of non-self. In other words, most pathogens possess intrinsic differences that can distinguish them from host cells. For example, bacteria and fungi have cell walls comprised of peptidoglycan and carbohydrates (like mannans), respectively. Germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family have the ability to detect such unique pathogen associated features...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Valentina Bordignon, Ilaria Cavallo, Giovanna D'Agosto, Elisabetta Trento, Martina Pontone, Elva Abril, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Fabrizio Ensoli
Bacteria and mammalian cells have developed sophisticated sensing mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its expression and replication. Progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms, which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids in check. The complex of mechanisms involved in RNA and DNA sensing is part of a system which is now appreciated as "immune sensing of nucleic acids" or better "nucleic acid immunity." Nucleic acids, which are critical components for inheriting genetic information in all species, including pathogens, are key structures recognized by the innate immune system...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Takumi Kawasaki, Taro Kawai
During viral and bacterial infections, the innate immune system recognizes various types of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as nucleic acids, via a series of membrane-bound or cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), and cytosolic DNA sensors. The binding of PAMPs to these receptors triggers the production of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines. Type I IFN induces the expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), which protect surrounding cells from infection...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Sophia L Stone
Ubiquitination is a prevalent post-translation modification system that is involved in almost all aspects of eukaryotic biology. It involves the attachment of ubiquitin, a small, highly conserved protein to selected substrates. The most notable function of ubiquitin is the targeting of modified proteins to the multi-proteolytic 26S proteasome complex for degradation. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the abundance of numerous enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins ensuring proper cellular function...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Charles Copeland, Xin Li
Plants rely on a sophisticated innate immune system to recognize pathogens and defend against pathogen attacks. The immune system must be precisely regulated to be capable of mounting a strong and effective defense response while avoiding autoimmunity. Targeted protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays crucial roles in both negative and positive regulations of immunity. In the absence of pathogens, the UPS targets immune receptors and downstream signaling components to maintain their homeostasis...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Ruth Eichner, Vanesa Fernández-Sáiz, Bianca-Sabrina Targosz, Florian Bassermann
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and results from the clonal amplification of plasma cells. Despite recent advances in treatment, MM remains incurable with a median survival time of only 5-6years, thus necessitating further insights into MM biology and exploitation of novel therapeutic approaches. Both the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis, and treatment of MM and different lines of evidence suggest a close cross talk between these central cell-regulatory signaling networks...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Xu Liu, Ernesto J Fuentes
Post-synaptic density-95, disks-large and zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domains are small globular protein-protein interaction domains widely conserved from yeast to humans. They are composed of ∼90 amino acids and form a classical two α-helical/six β-strand structure. The prototypical ligand is the C-terminus of partner proteins; however, they also bind internal peptide sequences. Recent findings indicate that PDZ domains also bind phosphatidylinositides and cholesterol. Through their ligand interactions, PDZ domain proteins are critical for cellular trafficking and the surface retention of various ion channels...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Alexandra P Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, James W Welsh
Glycosylation and its by-product, the glycan, play a crucial role in many cellular processes. Aberrant glycan structures and mutations of the glycosylation pathway have been intricately linked with the development of cancer and more recently with cancer's ability to escape the innate immune system. This chapter aims to elucidate how glycosylation interacts with the immune system to promote tumor deviation through endogenous lectins, mutated glycosphingolipids, sialic acid domains, and more. This chapter also explores the mechanisms of glycosylation that may lead to powerful translational therapeutic tools, such as glycotransferase inhibitors, glycan/glycopeptide-based vaccines, and antibody-based immunotherapies, all of which have shown great promise clinically in the field of immuno-oncology...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Eli Jany, Hayley Nelles, Daphne R Goring
In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is actively regulated by cell-cell communication between the male pollen and female pistil, and many species possess self-incompatibility systems for the selective rejection of self-pollen to maintain genetic diversity. The Brassicaceae self-incompatibility pathway acts early on when pollen grains have landed on the stigmatic papillae at the top of the pistil. Extensive studies have revealed that self-pollen rejection in the Brassicaceae is initiated by an S-haplotype-specific interaction between two polymorphic proteins: the pollen S-locus protein 11/S cysteine-rich (SP11/SCR) ligand and the stigma S receptor kinase (SRK)...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Lorenzo Galluzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Timo Gaber, Yuling Chen, Pierre-Louis Krauß, Frank Buttgereit
Adaptive immune responses that occur in infection, cancer, and autoimmune as well as allergic diseases involve the participation of T cells. T cells travel throughout the body searching for antigens, which are recognized via the major histocompatibility complexes. In the healthy organism, these T cells maintain metabolic quiescence until they encounter a potentially cognate antigen. Once activated, e.g., during an infection or tissue damage, T cells switch their metabolic program to gain energy and building blocks to maintain cellular homeostasis and to fulfill their specific immune functions involving clonal expansion and/or differentiation into effector and memory T cells to ultimately ensure host survival...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Jennifer L Guerriero
The complexity of T cell activation to maintain homeostasis and provide host defense is highlighted by the intricate step-wise process which is coordinated by multiple cell types. Crucial to T cell activation is the requirement of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages at each step of the activation and effector stages. Macrophages are central regulators in T cell activation and are involved in each step including initiating the series of events leading to T cell activation. Macrophages identify and present foreign antigens in classes I and II major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) to T cells, which recognize the MHC-antigen complex through their T cell receptor...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Johan Spetz, Adam G Presser, Kristopher A Sarosiek
Cell death plays two major complementary roles in T cell biology: mediating the removal of cells that are targeted by T cells and the removal of T cells themselves. T cells serve as major actors in the adaptive immune response and function by selectively killing cells which are infected or dysfunctional. This feature is highly involved during homeostatic maintenance, and is relied upon and modulated in the context of cancer immunotherapy. The vital recognition and elimination of both autoreactive T cells and cells which are unable to recognize threats is a highly selective and regulated process...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Katherine Grzesik, Kevin Eng, Fabien Crauste, Sebastiano Battaglia
T cell function is dictated by a delicate balance of stimuli that shapes T-cell phenotype, the latter characterizable using a number of immunogenic assays. Thanks to advancements in next-generation sequencing technology, and the intersection between genetics, engineering, computer science, biostatistics, and immunology, it is now possible to profile immune cells residing in any organ or disease site at single cell resolution. Herein we review the most common approaches available to describe T cell activation, T cell molecular heterogeneity, and T cell function...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Anne Monette, Andrew J Mouland
Continuous epidemiological surveillance of existing and emerging viruses and their associated disorders is gaining importance in light of their abilities to cause unpredictable outbreaks as a result of increased travel and vaccination choices by steadily growing and aging populations. Close surveillance of outbreaks and herd immunity are also at the forefront, even in industrialized countries, where previously eradicated viruses are now at risk of re-emergence due to instances of strain recombination, contractions in viral vector geographies, and from their potential use as agents of bioterrorism...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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