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Gut Pathogens

Zeinab Pishnian, Mehri Haeili, Adel Feizi
Background: The emergence of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from human and animal sources is a public health concern as this antibiotic is considered to be the last line therapeutic option for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we aimed to determine the prevalence of colistin resistance, among enterobacteria isolated from poultry and the possible underlying colistin resistance mechanisms. Methods: A collection of 944 cloacal samples were obtained from poultry and screened for colistin resistance...
2019: Gut Pathogens
Qisha Liu, Fan Li, Yaoyao Zhuang, Jian Xu, Jianwei Wang, Xuhua Mao, Yewei Zhang, Xingyin Liu
Background: The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranked fifth malignancies all over the world. Increasing evidences showed that the distribution of HCC was related to the incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and other factors, such as alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 ingestion and obesity. Recent studies demonstrated that gut dysbiosis plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the researches on gut microbiota of HBV and non-HBV non-HCV related HCC have not been reported...
2019: Gut Pathogens
Linto Antony, Melissa Behr, Donald Sockett, Dale Miskimins, Nicole Aulik, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Marc W Allard, Joy Scaria
Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg is primarily a poultry adapted serotype of Salmonella that can also colonize other hosts and cause human disease. In this study, we compared the genomes of outbreak associated non-outbreak causing Salmonella ser. Heidelberg strains from diverse hosts and geographical regions. Human outbreak associated strains in this study were from a 2015 multistate outbreak of Salmonella ser. Heidelberg involving 15 states in the United States which originated from bull calves. Our clinicopathologic examination revealed that cases involving Salmonella ser...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Esther-Maria Antão, Szilvia Vincze, Regina Hanke, Lukas Klimmek, Katarzyna Suchecka, Antina Lübke-Becker, Lothar H Wieler
Antibiotic resistance is by far one of the most important health threats of our time. Only a global concerted effort of several disciplines based on the One-Health concept will help in slowing down this process and potentially mitigate the ruin of healthcare we have come to enjoy. In this review, we attempt to summarize the most basic and important topics that serve as good information tools to create Awareness . The Availability of antibiotics or the lack thereof is another significant factor that must be given thought, and finally because antibiotic resistance is a problem that will not go away, it is important to have Alternatives ...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Robert C Sharp, Ebraheem S Naser, Karel P Alcedo, Ahmad Qasem, Latifa S Abdelli, Saleh A Naser
Background: Several pathogens have been debated to play a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD). None of these pathogens have been investigated together in same clinical samples. We developed a multiplex PCR and multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization ( m -FISH) protocols for simultaneous detection of CD-associated pathogens including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Klebsiella pneumoniae , and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Rogatien Charlet, Clovis Bortolus, Melissandre Barbet, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
Background: The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Changes in crosstalk between the intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells and the microbiota are critically involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In the experimental mouse model, the development of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) promotes overgrowth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata . Conversely, fungal colonization aggravates inflammatory parameters...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Mohammad I El Mouzan, Harland S Winter, Assad A Assiri, Kirill S Korolev, Ahmad A Al Sarkhy, Scot E Dowd, Mohammad A Al Mofarreh, Rajita Menon
Background: The role of microbiota in Crohn's disease (CD) is increasingly recognized. However, most of the reports are from Western populations. Considering the possible variation from other populations, the aim of this study was to describe the microbiota profile in children with CD in Saudi Arabia, a non-Western developing country population. Results: Significantly more abundant genera in children with CD included Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Psychrobacter, and Acinetobacter; whereas the most significantly-depleted genera included Roseburia, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Ruminoclostridium, Intestinibacter, Mitsuokella, Megasphaera, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Turicibacter, and Paludibacter...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Jetnapang Kongrueng, Kanchana Srinitiwarawong, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi, Pimonsri Mittraparp-Arthorn, Varaporn Vuddhakul
Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of gastroenteritis. Most of the clinical isolates carry either tdh and/or trh genes which are considered as the major virulence genes of this pathogen. In this study, the clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus carrying trh gene ( n  = 73) obtained from 1886 to 2012 from various countries were investigated for the urease production, haemolytic activity, and biofilm formation. In addition, the potential of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genotyping among these isolates was investigated...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Laura Deutsch-Nagy, Péter Urbán, Zsuzsanna Tóth, Zoltán Bihari, Béla Kocsis, Csaba Fekete, Ferenc Kilár
Background: Shigella spp. are Gram-negative intracellular pathogenic bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause bacterial dysentery, a severe diarrheal disease. The pathophysiological impact of the Gram-negative bacteria is highly related to the composition and structural variability of lipopolysaccharides, the major lipoid components of the outer membrane. Out of the 114 genes involved in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway, 47 genes are specific to Shigella spp...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Oda Barth Vedøy, Kurt Hanevik, Sunniva Todnem Sakkestad, Halvor Sommerfelt, Hans Steinsland
Background: As part of the effort to develop an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) human challenge model for testing new heat-stable toxin (ST)-based vaccine candidates, a controlled human infection model study based on the ST-producing ETEC strain TW11681 was undertaken. Here, we estimate stool TW11681 DNA concentration and evaluate its association with dose, clinical symptoms, and with levels of antibodies targeting the CfaB subunit of the ETEC Colonization Factor Antigen I and the E...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Erik Van Roey, Subin Park, Ganesh Srinivasamoorthy, Fernanda S Nascimento, Delynn M Moss, Eldin Talundzic, Michael J Arrowood
Background: Cyclospora cayetanensis is a food-borne intestinal human parasite that causes outbreaks of diarrhea. There is a need for efficient laboratory methods for strain-level characterization to assist in outbreak investigations. By using next generation sequencing, genomic sequences can be obtained and compared to identify potential genotyping markers. However, there is no method available to propagate this parasite in the laboratory. Therefore, genomic DNA must be extracted from oocysts purified from human stool...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Claire L O'Brien, Christopher J Kiely, Paul Pavli
Background: Reduced intestinal microbial diversity and bacterial imbalance (dysbiosis) are seen in studies of Crohn's disease. As it is difficult to obtain biopsy samples before disease presentation, the earliest mucosal lesions in Crohn's disease, aphthous ulcers, present the best chance at assessing microbial communities at the onset of disease or a new flare. The aim of our study was to compare the microbial communities of aphthous ulcers and adjacent normal mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease with normal mucosa from controls...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Nadja Saile, Elisabeth Schuh, Torsten Semmler, Inga Eichhorn, Lothar H Wieler, Andreas Bauwens, Herbert Schmidt
Background: In the current study, nine foodborne "Locus of Enterocyte Effacement" (LEE)-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were selected for whole genome sequencing and analysis for yet unknown genetic elements within the already known LEE integration sites selC , pheU and pheV . Foreign DNA ranging in size from 3.4 to 57 kbp was detected and further analyzed. Five STEC strains contained an insertion of foreign DNA adjacent to the selC tRNA gene and five and seven strains contained foreign DNA adjacent to the pheU and pheV tRNA genes, respectively...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Tae Woong Whon, Hyun Sik Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
Background: Members of the species Kocuria rhizophila , belonging to the family Micrococcaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria , have been isolated from a wide variety of natural sources, such as soil, freshwater, fish gut, and clinical specimens. K . rhizophila is important from an industrial viewpoint, because the bacterium grows rapidly with high cell density and exhibits robustness at various growth conditions. However, the bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen involved in human infections...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Hooriyeh Mohammadpour, Enayat Berizi, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Majid Majlesi, Morteza Zare
There are a number of reports indicating correlation between outbreaks of campylobacteriosis and the consumption of raw vegetables. This study is a meta-analysis on the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits without any location limitation, which was performed through a documented review of the available resources. Relevant literature was reviewed by trained reviewers, who examined the results for the inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of Campylobacter in raw vegetables, the sample source, the Campylobacter species, and the method of detection were extracted...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Anja Müller, Wiebke Jansen, Nils Th Grabowski, Corinna Kehrenberg
Background: Food products of animal origin brought into the EU from third countries, both legally and illegally, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica . In this study, we examined five S. enterica isolates recovered either from legally imported chicken meat (n = 3) or from meat products confiscated from air travel passengers arriving in Germany (n = 2). The isolates were serotyped and further characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR-detection and sequencing of genes associated with antimicrobial resistances, and macrorestriction analysis...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Amira A Moawad, Helmut Hotzel, Heinrich Neubauer, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Herbert Tomaso, Hafez M Hafez, Uwe Roesler, Hosny El-Adawy
Background: Poultry remains one of the most important reservoir for zoonotic multidrug resistant pathogens. The global rise of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is of reasonable concern and demands intensified surveillance. Methods: In 2016, 576 cloacal swabs were collected from 48 broiler farms located in five governorates in northern Egypt. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae could be cultivated on different media and were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and PCR...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shu-Ying Tseng, Kwong-Chung Tung, Jan-Fang Cheng, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Zong-Yen Wu, Yu-Kai Hong, Shi-Yu Chen, Yao-Ting Huang, Po-Yu Liu
Background: Shewanella algae has been recognized as an emerging human pathogen. However, not much is known about the mechanism of its pathogenesis and its adaptation to a special niche such as the hepatobiliary tract. Results: In this study, we isolated the S. algae ACCC strain from human bile and performed whole genome sequencing. S. algae ACCC consists of a circular 4,743,354-bp chromosome with a GC content of 53.08%, within 4080 protein coding sequences. The genome of strain ACCC contains a number of candidate genes which have been reported to be associated with bile adaption, including htpB, exbBD , wecA , galU , adeFGH and phoPQ regulon...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shiwen Wang, Feng Yang, Dong Li, Juanxiu Qin, Weiwei Hou, Lian Jiang, Mimi Kong, Yong Wu, Yuchen Zhang, Fuju Zhao, Yi Fang, Yingxin Miao, Lingli Xu, Jie Chen, Zhijun Bao, Michal A Olszewski, Hu Zhao, Yanmei Zhang
Background: Culture-based diagnostic methods cannot achieve rapid and precise diagnoses for the identification of multiple diarrhoeal pathogens (DPs). A high-throughput multiplex genetic detection system (HMGS) was adapted and evaluated for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of infectious DPs and a broad analysis of DP infection aetiology. Results: DP-HMGS was highly sensitive and specific for DP detection compared with culture-based techniques and was similar to singleplex real-time PCR...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Young Eun Kim, Miok Song, Jaein Lee, Hyun Jung Seung, Eun-Young Kwon, Jinkyung Yu, Youngok Hwang, Taeho Yoon, Tae Jun Park, In Kyoung Lim
Background: Phylogenetic analysis of norovirus (NoV) is efficient for tracking NoV transmission. To determine the widespread NoV strains in Seoul, we conducted an extensive phylogenetic characterization of NoV-positives from 1659 diarrheal specimens collected in 2014-2016 for the Seoul NoV-surveillance. Results: When the large numbers of NoV partial VP1 genome sequences were analyzed in acute gastroenteritis patients along with the phylogenetic characterization, we could identify molecular epidemiologic patterns based on the genetic characteristics of sporadic NoV strains circulating in Seoul, which could provide a detailed description of the genome-wide and community-wide NoV evolution in each genotype...
2018: Gut Pathogens
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