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Epigenetics & Chromatin

Elena A Matveeva, Qamar M H Al-Tinawi, Eric C Rouchka, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
BACKGROUND: Recently, we showed that PARP1 is involved in cotranscriptional splicing, possibly by bridging chromatin to RNA and recruiting splicing factors. It also can influence alternative splicing decisions through the regulation of RNAPII elongation. In this study, we investigated the effect of PARP1-mediated chromatin changes on RNAPII movement, during transcription and alternative splicing. RESULTS: We show that RNAPII pauses at PARP1-chromatin structures within the gene body...
February 18, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
René A M Dirks, Guido van Mierlo, Hindrik H D Kerstens, Andreia S Bernardo, Julianna Kobolák, István Bock, Julien Maruotti, Roger A Pedersen, András Dinnyés, Martijn A Huynen, Alice Jouneau, Hendrik Marks
BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting, resulting in parent-of-origin specific gene expression, plays a critical role in mammalian development. Here, we apply allele-specific RNA-seq on isogenic B6D2F1 mice to assay imprinted genes in tissues from early embryonic tissues between E3.5 and E7.25 and in pluripotent cell lines to evaluate maintenance of imprinted gene expression. For the cell lines, we include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) derived from fertilized embryos and from embryos obtained after nuclear transfer (NT) or parthenogenetic activation (PGA)...
February 15, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Jianlin He, Xiguang Xu, Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Sharmi Banerjee, Michael A Fox, Hehuang Xie
DNA methylation plays important roles in the regulation of nervous system development and in cellular responses to environmental stimuli such as light-derived signals. Despite great efforts in understanding the maturation and refinement of visual circuits, we lack a clear understanding of how changes in DNA methylation correlate with visual activity in the developing subcortical visual system, such as in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the main retino-recipient region in the dorsal thalamus. Here, we explored epigenetic dynamics underlying dLGN development at ages before and after eye opening in wild-type mice and mutant mice in which retinal ganglion cells fail to form...
February 14, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Katherine A Giles, Cathryn M Gould, Qian Du, Ksenia Skvortsova, Jenny Z Song, Madhavi P Maddugoda, Joanna Achinger-Kawecka, Clare Stirzaker, Susan J Clark, Phillippa C Taberlay
BACKGROUND: ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are responsible for establishing and maintaining the positions of nucleosomes. Chromatin remodellers are targeted to chromatin by transcription factors and non-coding RNA to remodel the chromatin into functional states. However, the influence of chromatin remodelling on shaping the functional epigenome is not well understood. Moreover, chromatin remodellers have not been extensively explored as a collective group across two-dimensional and three-dimensional epigenomic layers...
February 12, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Congcong Lu, Simone Sidoli, Katarzyna Kulej, Karen Ross, Cathy H Wu, Benjamin A Garcia
BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in cancer propagation. It can be orchestrated by the activation of multiple signaling pathways, which have been found to be highly coordinated with many epigenetic regulators. Although the mechanism of EMT has been studied over decades, cross talk between signaling and epigenetic regulation is not fully understood. RESULTS: Here, we present a time-resolved multi-omics strategy, which featured the identification of the correlation between protein changes (proteome), signaling pathways (phosphoproteome) and chromatin modulation (histone modifications) dynamics during TGF-β-induced EMT...
February 8, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Charles E Mordaunt, Dorothy A Kieffer, Noreene M Shibata, Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Karl-Heinz Weiss, Yihui Zhu, Christopher L Bowlus, Souvik Sarkar, Stewart Cooper, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan, Mohamed R Ali, Janine M LaSalle, Valentina Medici
BACKGROUND: Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in ATP7B encoding a copper transporter. Consequent copper accumulation results in a variable WD clinical phenotype involving hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric symptoms, without clear genotype-phenotype correlations. The goal of this study was to analyze alterations in DNA methylation at the whole-genome level in liver and blood from patients with WD to investigate epigenomic alterations associated with WD diagnosis and phenotype...
February 1, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Richard C Chang, Haiqing Wang, Yudhishtar Bedi, Michael C Golding
BACKGROUND: Although clinical data support an association between paternal alcohol use and deficits in child neurocognitive development, the relationship between paternal drinking and alcohol-induced growth phenotypes remains challenging to define. Using an established mouse model of chronic exposure, previous work by our group has linked preconception paternal alcohol use to sex-specific patterns of fetal growth restriction and placental dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term impact of chronic preconception paternal alcohol use on offspring growth and metabolic programming...
January 22, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Oriella Andresini, Marianna Nicoletta Rossi, Francesca Matteini, Stefano Petrai, Tiziana Santini, Rossella Maione
BACKGROUND: The cell-cycle inhibitor p57kip2 plays a critical role in mammalian development by coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation in many cell types. p57kip2 expression is finely regulated by several epigenetic mechanisms, including paternal imprinting. Kcnq1ot1, a long non-coding RNA (LncRNA), whose gene maps to the p57Kip2 imprinting domain, is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele and participates in the cis-silencing of the neighboring imprinted genes through chromatin-level regulation...
January 16, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Bridget E Collins, Celeste B Greer, Benjamin C Coleman, J David Sweatt
Epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation permit change in chromatin structure without accompanying change in the underlying genomic sequence. A number of studies in animal models have shown that dysregulation of various components of the epigenetic machinery causes cognitive deficits at the behavioral level, suggesting that proper epigenetic control is necessary for the fundamental processes of learning and memory. Histone H3 lysine K4 (H3K4) methylation comprises one component of such epigenetic control, and global levels of this mark are increased in the hippocampus during memory formation...
January 7, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Sara Wernig-Zorc, Mukesh Pratap Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Kopparapu, Mats Bemark, Hallgerdur Lind Kristjansdottir, Per-Ola Andersson, Chandrasekhar Kanduri, Meena Kanduri
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been a good model system to understand the functional role of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) in cancer progression. More recently, an oxidized form of 5-mC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) has gained lot of attention as a regulatory epigenetic modification with prognostic and diagnostic implications for several cancers. However, there is no global study exploring the role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels in CLL. Herein, using mass spectrometry and hMeDIP-sequencing, we analysed the dynamics of 5-hmC during B cell maturation and CLL pathogenesis...
January 7, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Adam J Bewick, Zachary Sanchez, Elizabeth C Mckinney, Allen J Moore, Patricia J Moore, Robert J Schmitz
BACKGROUND: The function of cytosine (DNA) methylation in insects remains inconclusive due to a lack of mutant and/or genetic studies. RESULTS: Here, we provide evidence for the functional role of the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) in an insect using experimental manipulation. Through RNA interference (RNAi), we successfully posttranscriptionally knocked down Dnmt1 in ovarian tissue of the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus (the large milkweed bug). Individuals depleted for Dnmt1, and subsequently DNA methylation, failed to reproduce...
January 7, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
José L Ruiz, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Thierry Lefèvre, Jean B Ouedraogo, Victor G Corces, Elena Gómez-Díaz
BACKGROUND: Infection by the human malaria parasite leads to important changes in mosquito phenotypic traits related to vector competence. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms and, in particular, of the epigenetic basis for these changes. We have examined genome-wide distribution maps of H3K27ac, H3K9ac, H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 by ChIP-seq and the transcriptome by RNA-seq, of midguts from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes blood-fed uninfected and infected with natural isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso...
January 7, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Dimitrios Cakouros, Sarah Hemming, Kahlia Gronthos, Renjing Liu, Andrew Zannettino, Songtao Shi, Stan Gronthos
BACKGROUND: The 5 hydroxymethylation (5hmC) mark and TET DNA dioxygenases play a pivotal role in embryonic stem cell differentiation and animal development. However, very little is known about TET enzymes in lineage determination of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSC). We examined the function of all three TET DNA dioxygenases, responsible for DNA hydroxymethylation, in human BMSC cell osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. RESULTS: We used siRNA knockdown and retroviral mediated enforced expression of TET molecules and discovered TET1 to be a repressor of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis...
January 3, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Anna Fedotova, Chaevia Clendinen, Artem Bonchuk, Vladic Mogila, Tsutomu Aoki, Pavel Georgiev, Paul Schedl
BACKGROUND: Boundaries in the Drosophila bithorax complex delimit autonomous regulatory domains that activate the parasegment (PS)-specific expression of homeotic genes. The Fab-7 boundary separates the iab-6 and iab-7 regulatory domains that control Abd-B expression in PS11 and PS12. This boundary is composed of multiple functionally redundant elements and has two key activities: it blocks crosstalk between iab-6 and iab-7 and facilitates boundary bypass. RESULTS: Here, we have used a structure-function approach to elucidate the biochemical properties and the in vivo activities of a conserved BEN domain protein, Insensitive, that is associated with Fab-7...
January 3, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Sumaiya A Islam, Sarah J Goodman, Julia L MacIsaac, Jelena Obradović, Ronald G Barr, W Thomas Boyce, Michael S Kobor
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of accessible peripheral tissues for epigenetic analyses has prompted increasing interest in the study of tissue-specific DNA methylation (DNAm) variation in human populations. To date, characterizations of inter-individual DNAm variability and DNAm concordance across tissues have been largely performed in adult tissues and therefore are limited in their relevance to DNAm profiles from pediatric samples. Given that DNAm patterns in early life undergo rapid changes and have been linked to a wide range of health outcomes and environmental exposures, direct investigations of tissue-specific DNAm variation in pediatric samples may help inform the design and interpretation of DNAm analyses from early life cohorts...
January 2, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Qin Ma, Zhengzheng Xu, Huan Lu, Ziying Xu, Yuanyuan Zhou, Bifeng Yuan, Weimin Ci
BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and adjacent CpG sites in mammalian genome can be co-methylated and co-hydroxymethylated due to the processivity of DNMT and TET enzymes. RESULTS: We applied TAB-seq and oxBS-seq to selectively detect 5hmC and 5mC at base resolution in the mouse cortex, olfactory bulb and cerebellum tissues. We found that majority of the called 5hmC CpG sites frequently have 5mC modification simultaneously and are enriched in gene body regions of neuron development-related genes in brain tissues...
December 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Derek H Janssens, Steven J Wu, Jay F Sarthy, Michael P Meers, Carrie H Myers, James M Olson, Kami Ahmad, Steven Henikoff
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation is limited by the complexity of protein-DNA interactions that comprise the chromatin landscape and by inefficient methods for characterizing these interactions. We recently introduced CUT&RUN, an antibody-targeted nuclease cleavage method that profiles DNA-binding proteins, histones and chromatin-modifying proteins in situ with exceptional sensitivity and resolution. RESULTS: Here, we describe an automated CUT&RUN platform and apply it to characterize the chromatin landscapes of human cells...
December 21, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Prim B Singh, Andrew G Newman
Age reprogramming represents a novel method for generating patient-specific tissues for transplantation. It bypasses the de-differentiation/redifferentiation cycle that is characteristic of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) and nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cell technologies that drive current interest in regenerative medicine. Despite the obvious potential of iPS and NT-ES cell-based therapies, there are several problems that must be overcome before these therapies are safe and routine. As an alternative, age reprogramming aims to rejuvenate the specialized functions of an old cell without de-differentiation; age reprogramming does not require developmental reprogramming through an embryonic stage, unlike the iPS and NT-ES cell-based therapies...
December 20, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Youni Kim, Youngeun Jeong, Kujin Kwon, Tayaba Ismail, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Chowon Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Oh-Shin Kwon, Beom-Sik Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Tae Joo Park, Taejoon Kwon, Hyun-Shik Lee
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific histone demethylase 5C (KDM5C) belongs to the jumonji family of demethylases and is specific for the di- and tri-demethylation of lysine 4 residues on histone 3 (H3K4 me2/3). KDM5C is expressed in the brain and skeletal muscles of humans and is associated with various biologically significant processes. KDM5C is known to be associated with X-linked mental retardation and is also involved in the development of cancer. However, the developmental significance of KDM5C has not been explored yet...
December 6, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Weipeng Mu, Joshua Starmer, Della Yee, Terry Magnuson
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for establishing and maintaining histone H3K27 methylation during cell differentiation and proliferation. H3K27 can be mono-, di-, or trimethylated, resulting in differential gene regulation. However, it remains unknown how PRC2 specifies the degree and biological effects of H3K27 methylation within a given cellular context. One way to determine PRC2 specificity may be through alternative splicing of Ezh2, PRC2's catalytic subunit, during cell differentiation and tissue maturation...
December 6, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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