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Innate Immunity

Stefan Kahlert, Lydia Renner, Jeannette Kluess, Jana Frahm, Tanja Tesch, Erik Bannert, Susanne Kersten, Sven Dänicke, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter
Low concentration of LPS can be detected in healthy mammals without triggering systemic inflammation. Here we analysed the influence of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on very low LPS concentrations and the role of DON in the physiology of pigs challenged with high artificial LPS dosage mimicking septic shock. Pigs were fed for 29 d with DON-contaminated (4.59 mg/kg feed) or control feed. Samples of control animals showed 6.6 ± 13.5 pg/ml LPS in portal and 3.1 ± 7.6 pg/ml LPS in jugular serum samples...
February 13, 2019: Innate Immunity
Han Gao, Bai-Sui Feng, Jiang-Qi Liu, Li-Hua Mo, Xiao-Rui Geng, Yuan Xiao, Yuan-Yi Zhang, Jing-Yi Hong, Zhan-Ju Liu, Zhi-Gang Liu, Yisheng Feng, Ping-Chang Yang
Survivin is an anti-apoptosis protein that may be associated with the development of eosinophilia; the latter is associated with the pathogenesis of many immune disorders. Here we report that less apoptotic eosinophils (Eos) were induced in those isolated from mice suffering from food allergy (FA) than those from naive mice after treating with cisplatin in vitro. Exposure to cisplatin induced more Fas ligand (FasL) expression in Eos isolated from naive mice than in those of FA mouse. Survivin was detected in the intestinal tissue extracts in much higher amounts in the FA group than in the naive group...
February 12, 2019: Innate Immunity
Matthew N Alder, Jaya Mallela, Amy M Opoka, Patrick Lahni, David A Hildeman, Hector R Wong
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cell of the innate immune system and participate in essential immune functions. Heterogeneity within neutrophils has been documented, but it is difficult to distinguish if these are altered activation states of a single population or separate subpopulations of neutrophils determined at the time of differentiation. Several groups have identified a subset of human neutrophils that express olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) and increased OLFM4+ neutrophils during sepsis is correlated with worse outcome, suggesting these neutrophils or the OLFM4 they secrete may be pathogenic...
December 11, 2018: Innate Immunity
Hanwei Jiao, Zonglin Zheng, Xuehong Shuai, Li Wu, Jixuan Chen, Yichen Luo, Yu Zhao, Hongjun Wang, Qingzhou Huang
H5N1 avian influenza poses a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) plays an important role in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). However, the function of the NS1 gene is still unclear. In this study, illumina genome analyzer iix screening was used to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in HEK293 cells expressing H5N1 AIV NS1. There were 13 differentially expressed miRNAs (hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-31-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-222-3p, hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-3613-3p, hsa-miR-3178, hsa-miR-4505, hsa-miR-345-3p, hsa-miR-3648, and hsa-miR-455-3p) ( P < 0...
February 2019: Innate Immunity
Kartiga Natarajan, Keerthi Gangam, Velmurugan Meganathan, Koteswara R Gottipati, Courtney Mitchell, Vijay Boggaram
Exposure to organic dust is a risk factor for the development of respiratory diseases. Surfactant proteins (SP) reduce alveolar surface tension and modulate innate immune responses to control lung inflammation. Therefore, changes in SP levels could contribute to the development of organic-dust-induced respiratory diseases. Because information on the effects of organic dust on SP levels is lacking, we studied the effects of dust from a poultry farm on SP expression. We found that dust extract reduced SP-A and SP-B mRNA and protein levels in H441 human lung epithelial cells by inhibiting their promoter activities, but did not have any effect on SP-D protein levels...
February 2019: Innate Immunity
Peipei Fang, Luxia Xiang, Weilai Chen, Shaoxun Li, Shanshan Huang, Jie Li, Lu Zhuge, Lingxiang Jin, Wenke Feng, Yiping Chen, Chenwei Pan
This study aimed to explore the role of lncRNA GAS5 in the regulation of the killing effect of NK cells on liver cancer. Compared with a control group, lncRNA GAS5, RUNX3, and NCR1 were down-regulated in NK cells of patients with liver cancer, whereas miR-544 expression was up-regulated in NK cells of patients with liver cancer. Activated NK cells had higher IFN-γ level. Knockdown of GAS5 in activated NK cells decreased IFN-γ secretion, NK cell cytotoxicity, the percentage of CD107a+ NK cells, and the apoptosis rate of HepG2 and Huh7 cells...
February 2019: Innate Immunity
Benjamin Umiker, Hyun-Hee Lee, Julia Cope, Nadim J Ajami, Jean-Philippe Laine, Christine Fregeau, Heidi Ferguson, Stephen E Alves, Nunzio Sciammetta, Melanie Kleinschek, Michael Salmon
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation and intestinal epithelial injury. Loss of function mutations in the intracellular bacterial sensor NOD2 are major risk factors for the development of CD. In the absence of robust bacterial recognition by NOD2 an inflammatory cascade is initiated through alternative PRRs leading to CD. In the present study, MCC950, a specific small molecule inhibitor of NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), abrogated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation in Nod2-/- mice...
February 2019: Innate Immunity
Leanna Nguyen, Jeryl Sandoval, Robyn De Dios, Elesa Yihdego, Miguel Zarate, Odalis Castro, Sarah McKenna, Clyde J Wright
The liver plays a central role in the innate immune response to endotoxemia. While previous studies have demonstrated lobe-specific transcriptional responses to various insults, whether this is true in response to endotoxemia is unknown. We sought to assess whether there were significant intra- and inter-lobe differences in the murine hepatic innate immune transcriptional response to endotoxemia. Adult male ICR mice were exposed to i.p. LPS (5 mg/kg, 30 min, 60 min, 5 h) and primary ( Tnf, Cxcl1, Nfkbia, Tnfiap3) and secondary ( Il6, Nos2) innate immune response gene expression was assessed in the left medial, right medial, left lateral, and right lateral lobes, and the papillary and caudate processes...
February 2019: Innate Immunity
Jing Zhang, Xin Xu, Huiling Zhu, Yang Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulan Liu
Here, the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against LPS-induced liver injury in a piglet model were investigated by using RNA sequencing. Twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and the main factors included diet (5% corn oil or 5% fish oil) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline, on d 19). All piglets were slaughtered at 4 h after challenge, and liver samples were collected. Fish oil improved liver morphology and reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 productions after LPS challenge...
January 2019: Innate Immunity
Magdalena A Karaś, Anna Turska-Szewczuk, Monika Janczarek, Agnieszka Szuster-Ciesielska
Innate immunity is an evolutionarily ancient form of host defense that serves to limit infection. The invading microorganisms are detected by the innate immune system through germline-encoded PRRs. Different classes of PRRs, including TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components known collectively as PAMPs. Ligation of PAMPs with receptors triggers intracellular signaling cascades, activating defense mechanisms. Despite the fact that Gram-negative bacteria and parasitic protozoa are phylogenetically distant organisms, they express glycoconjugates, namely bacterial LPS and protozoan GPI-anchored glycolipids, which share many structural and functional similarities...
January 2019: Innate Immunity
Young Suk Lee, Eduardo Davila, Tianshu Zhang, Hugh P Milmoe, Stefanie N Vogel, Jonathan S Bromberg, Joseph R Scalea
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit T cell responses and are relevant to cancer, autoimmunity and transplant biology. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a commonly used T cell depletion agent, yet the effect of ATG on MDSCs has not been investigated. MDSCs were generated in Lewis Lung Carcinoma 1 tumor-bearing mice. MDSC development and function were assessed in vivo and in vitro with and without ATG administration. T cell suppression assays, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and arginase activity assays were used to assess MDSC phenotype and function...
January 2019: Innate Immunity
Dorien Kiers, Guus P Leijte, Jelle Gerretsen, Jelle Zwaag, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers
The experimental human endotoxemia model is used to study the systemic inflammatory response in vivo. The previously used lot of endotoxin, which was used for over a decade, is no longer approved for human use and a new Good Manufacturing Practices-grade batch has become available. We compared the inflammatory response induced by either bolus or continuous administration of either the previously used lot #1188844 or new lots of endotoxin (#94332B1 and #94332B4). Compared with lot #1188844, bolus administration of lot #94332B1 induced a more pronounced systemic inflammatory response including higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and more pronounced clinical signs of inflammation...
January 2019: Innate Immunity
Shuai Wang, Boon Chin Heng, Shuqi Qiu, Jing Deng, Gary Shun Pan Cheung, Lijian Jin, Baohong Zhao, Chengfei Zhang
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Enterococcus faecalis is a potent stimulator of inflammatory responses, but the effects of E. faecalis LTA on osteoclastogenesis remains far from well understood. This study showed that E. faecalis LTA significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis of wild type murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) in the presence of a high dose of RANKL, while the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by E. faecalis LTA was significantly removed in BMMs with deficient expression of the transcription factor RBP-J...
November 21, 2018: Innate Immunity
Ting Li, Xiaoyuan Huang, Zhechen Yuan, Linfang Wang, Miaobo Chen, Fenfen Su, Xiaojing Ling, Zhenghao Piao
Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived pigment pyocyanin (PCN) has been proved to induce cell apoptosis mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been studied mainly in epithelial cells and neutrophils. However, we previously found that the PCN-producing strain PA14 induces cell apoptosis in human NK cell line NK92 more effectively than in PCN-deficient strain PA14-phZ1/2 via a yet undetermined mechanism. In the current study, we found that PCN-induced NK92 cell apoptosis occurs through mitochondrial damage despite inhibiting intracellular ROS generation...
November 14, 2018: Innate Immunity
Abdullah B Chahin, Jason M Opal, Steven M Opal
Ninety years ago, Gregory Shwartzman first reported an unusual discovery following the intradermal injection of sterile culture filtrates from principally Gram-negative strains from bacteria into normal rabbits. If this priming dose was followed in 24 h by a second intravenous challenge (the provocative dose) from same culture filtrate, dermal necrosis at the first injection site would regularly occur. This peculiar, but highly reproducible, event fascinated the microbiologists, hematologists, and immunologists of the time, who set out to determine the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this reaction...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
Jing-Xing Yang, Te-Chih Hsiung, Fu-Chun Weng, Shiau-Li Ding, Chin-Pyng Wu, Marco Conti, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, S-L Catherine Jin
Macrophage migration is an essential step in host defense against infection and wound healing. Elevation of cAMP by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), enzymes that specifically degrade cAMP, is known to suppress various inflammatory responses in activated macrophages, but the role of PDE4 in macrophage migration is poorly understood. Here we show that the migration of Raw 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS was markedly and dose-dependently induced by the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram as assessed by scratch wound healing assay...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
Nam V Nguyen, James T Tran, David Jesse Sanchez
This study investigates the modulation of Type I IFN induction of an antiviral state by HIV. IFNs, including IFN-α, are key innate immune cytokines that activate the JAK/STAT pathway leading to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. IFN-stimulated gene expression establishes the antiviral state, limiting viral infection in IFN-α-stimulated microenvironments. Our previous studies have shown that HIV proteins disrupt the induction of IFN-α by degradation of IFN-β promoter stimulator-1, an adaptor protein for the up-regulation and release of IFN-α into the local microenvironment via the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptor signaling pathway...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2018: Innate Immunity
Erdenezaya Odkhuu, Takayuki Komatsu, Naoki Koide, Yoshikazu Naiki, Kenji Takeuchi, Yukie Tanaka, Bilegtsaikhan Tsolmongyn, Ulziisaikhan Jambalganiin, Naoko Morita, Tomoaki Yoshida, Bin Gotoh, Takashi Yokochi
To suppress virus multiplication, infected macrophages produce NO. However, it remains unclear how infecting viruses then overcome NO challenge. In the present study, we report the effects of accessory protein C from Sendai virus (SeV), a prototypical paramyxovirus, on NO output. We found that in RAW264.7 murine macrophages, a mutant SeV without C protein (4C(-)) significantly enhanced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and subsequent NO production compared to wild type SeV (wtSeV). SeV 4C(-) infection caused marked production of IFN-β, which is involved in induction of iNOS expression via the JAK-STAT pathway...
October 2018: Innate Immunity
Guangsheng Wan, Manli Xie, Hongjie Yu, Hongyu Chen
In this study we investigated the association between intestinal dysbacteriosis with colorectal cancer progress and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Tumor progression was evaluated using xenograft mice model. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were quantified by both real-time PCR and immunoblotting. The serum content of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured with ELISA kits. Cell proliferation was determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8. Intestinal dysbacteriosis was successfully simulated by the administration of a large dose of antibiotics and was demonstrated to promote xenograft tumor growth and induce EMT...
September 23, 2018: Innate Immunity
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