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Journal of Innate Immunity

Veronica M Ringel-Scaia, Yufeng Qin, Cassidy A Thomas, Kathleen E Huie, Dylan K McDaniel, Kristin Eden, Paul A Wade, Irving C Allen
The NLRP1 inflammasome attenuates inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) progression and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. A possible mechanism postulates that the lack of the NLRP1 inflammasome creates permissive niches in the gut for pathogenic bacteria to flourish, causing dysbiosis and increased IBD susceptibility. To evaluate this hypothesis, we characterized the gut microbiome of wild-type, Nlrp1b-/-, and Asc-/- mice under naïve conditions by sequencing the V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene. For both genetically modified mouse lines, the microbiome composition reflected overrepresentation of bacteria associated with dysbiosis relative to wild-type animals...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Esmee K van der Ploeg, Ana Carreras Mascaro, Danny Huylebroeck, Rudi W Hendriks, Ralph Stadhouders
Recent studies using animal models have generated profound insight into the functions of various subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The group 2 ILC subset (ILC2) has been implicated in tissue homeostasis, defense responses against parasites, tissue repair, and immunopathology associated with type-2 immunity. In addition, progress has also been made in translating these findings from animal studies into a context of human immunity. Importantly, recent observations strongly support a role for ILC2s in several diseases of the human respiratory system...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ute Römling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Anja Grahnert, Ronald Weiss, Erik Schilling, Nancy Stanslowsky, Ulrich Sack, Sunna Hauschildt
In response to GM-CSF or M-CSF, macrophages (MΦ) can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. Given the importance of CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling, we studied the effect of anti-CD14 antibody mediated CD14 blockade on LPS-induced cytokine production, signal transduction and on the expression levels of CD14 and TLR4 in GM-MΦ and M-MΦ. We found M-MΦ to express higher levels of both surface antigens and to produce more interferon (IFN)-β and interleukin-10, but less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than GM-MΦ...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Chithra K Muraleedharan, Sharon A McClellan, Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Rebecca Francis, Alex Zmejkoski, Linda D Hazlett, Shunbin Xu
Macrophages (Mϕ) are an important component of the innate immune system; they play critical roles in the first line of defense to pathogen invasion and modulate adaptive immunity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly recognized, important level of gene expression regulation. However, their roles in the regulation of Mϕ and the immune system are still not fully understood. In this report, we provide evidence that the conserved miR-183/96/182 cluster (miR-183/96/182) modulates Mϕ function in their production of reactive nitrogen (RNS) and oxygen species (ROS) and their inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Rachel Golonka, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Iron is necessary for the survival of almost all aerobic organisms. In the mammalian host, iron is a required cofactor for the assembly of functional iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins, heme-binding proteins and ribonucleotide reductases that regulate various functions, including heme synthesis, oxygen transport and DNA synthesis. However, the bioavailability of iron is low due to its insolubility under aerobic conditions. Moreover, the host coordinates a nutritional immune response to restrict the accessibility of iron against potential pathogens...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Innate Immunity
Daniela Esser, Janina Lange, Georgios Marinos, Michael Sieber, Lena Best, Daniela Prasse, Jay Bathia, Malte C Rühlemann, Kathrin Boersch, Cornelia Jaspers, Felix Sommer
Animals are usually regarded as independent entities within their respective environments. However, within an organism, eukaryotes and prokaryotes interact dynamically to form the so-called metaorganism or holobiont, where each partner fulfils its versatile and crucial role. This review focuses on the interplay between microorganisms and multicellular eukaryotes in the context of host physiology, in particular aging and mucus-associated crosstalk. In addition to the interactions between bacteria and the host, we highlight the importance of viruses and nonmodel organisms...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Theodora A M Claushuis, Alex F de Vos, Joris J T H Roelofs, Onno J de Boer, Cornelis van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll
Platelet-dense (δ) granules are important for platelet function. Platelets contribute to host defense and vascular integrity during pneumonia and sepsis, and δ granule products, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP), can influence inflammatory responses. We therefore aimed to study the role of platelet δ granules in the host response during sepsis. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (Hps)3coa mice (with reduced δ granule content), mice treated with the platelet ADP receptor inhibitor clopidogrel, and appropriate control mice were infected with the human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae via the airways to induce pneumonia and sepsis...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Charlotte Abrial, Hélène Salvator, Marion Brollo, Emmanuel Naline, Philippe Devillier
BACKGROUND: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is involved in the recognition of and response to microbial infections. These receptors are expressed in leukocytes. TLR stimulation induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given that human lung macrophages (LMs) constitute the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, the objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of TLR subtypes in this cell population. METHODS: Human primary LMs were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Rebecca L R Powell, Alisa Fox, Vincenza Itri, Susan Zolla-Pazner
The only clinical HIV vaccine trial to demonstrate efficacy, RV144, correlated protection with the antibodies (Abs) mediating function via the "constant" immunoglobulin region, the crystallizable fragment (Fc). These data have supported a focus on the induction of Abs by vaccines that trigger antiviral activities by relevant leukocytes via Fc receptors (FcRs). Neutrophils are phagocytes that comprise > 50% of leukocytes and display unique FcRs. We sought to compare the Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity of human neutrophils to the commonly assayed THP-1 cell line...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Dominique E Williams, Elizabeth M Boon
Pathogenic bacteria have many strategies for causing disease in humans. One such strategy is the ability to live both as single-celled motile organisms or as part of a community of bacteria called a biofilm. Biofilms are frequently adhered to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are extremely antibiotic resistant. Upon biofilm dispersal, bacteria become more antibiotic susceptible but are also able to readily infect another host. Various studies have shown that low, nontoxic levels of nitric oxide (NO) may induce biofilm dispersal in many bacterial species...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
João Alfredo Moraes, Ana Clara Frony, Pedro Barcellos-de-Souza, Marcel Menezes da Cunha, Thayanne Brasil Barbosa Calcia, Claudia Farias Benjamim, Catherine Boisson-Vidal, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Exposition of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophils, PMNs) to bacterial products triggers exacerbated activation of these cells, increasing their harmful effects on host tissues. We evaluated the possibility of interfering with the classic immune innate responses of human PMNs exposed to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), and further stimulated with bacterial formyl peptide (N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine, fMLP). We showed that the low- molecular-weight fucoidan (LMW-Fuc), a polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, attenuated the exacerbated activation induced by fMLP on LPS-primed PMNs, in vitro, impairing chemotaxis, NET formation, and the pro-survival and pro-oxidative effects...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Melissa Grant, Ola Kilsgård, Sigvard Åkerman, Björn Klinge, Ryan T Demmer, Johan Malmström, Daniel Jönsson
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse family of peptides that defend the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and other locations. Many AMPs have multiple functions and properties that influence aspects of innate defense and colonization by microorganisms. The human oral cavity is home to the second-most diverse microbiome, and the health of the mouth is influenced by the presence of these bacteria as well as by extrinsic factors such as periodontitis and smoking. This study hypothesized that the AMP profile is different in the presence of extrinsic factors and that this would also be reflected in the bacteria present...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Maria V Turkina, Elena Vikström
Cell-to-cell signaling via small molecules is an essential process to coordinate behavior in single species within a community, and also across kingdoms. In this review, we discuss the quorum sensing (QS) systems used by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to sense bacterial population density and fitness, and regulate virulence, biofilm development, metabolite acquisition, and mammalian host defense. We also focus on the role of N-acylhomoserine lactone-dependent QS signaling in the modulation of innate immune responses connected together via calcium signaling, homeostasis, mitochondrial and cytoskeletal dynamics, and governing transcriptional and proteomic responses of host cells...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Gertrude O Oppong-Nonterah, Omar Lakhdari, Asami Yamamura, Hal M Hoffman, Lawrence S Prince
Early exposure to inflammatory signals may have a lasting impact on immune function. Present throughout embryogenesis, macrophages are key cells providing innate immune protection to the developing fetus and newborn. Here, we have used an established model of macrophage development to test how early inflammatory signals can impact cellular differentiation and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days after initial isolation and culture. LPS treatment during this early stage of differentiation decreased the expression of CSF1R and increased that of the mature macrophage marker F4/80...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Olivier Lesouhaitier, Thomas Clamens, Thibaut Rosay, Florie Desriac, Mélissande Louis, Sophie Rodrigues, Andrei Gannesen, Vladimir K Plakunov, Emeline Bouffartigues, Ali Tahrioui, Alexis Bazire, Alain Dufour, Pierre Cornelis, Sylvie Chevalier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Bacterial biofilms constitute a critical problem in hospitals, especially in resuscitation units or for immunocompromised patients, since bacteria embedded in their own matrix are not only protected against antibiotics but also develop resistant variant strains. In the last decade, an original approach to prevent biofilm formation has consisted of studying the antibacterial potential of host communication molecules. Thus, some of these compounds have been identified for their ability to modify the biofilm formation of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Angelica Montenegro Riestra, J Andrés Valderrama, Kathryn A Patras, Sharon D Booth, Xing Yen Quek, Chih-Ming Tsai, Victor Nizet
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted, eukaryotic parasite that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, sexually transmitted disease in the USA and worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the host immune response to this widespread parasite. Here we report that T. vaginalis induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human macrophages, leading to caspase-1 activation and the processing of pro-IL-1β to the mature and bioactive form of the cytokine. Using inhibitor-based approaches, we show that NLRP3 activation by T...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Maxwell T Hincke, Mylène Da Silva, Nicolas Guyot, Joël Gautron, Marc D McKee, Rodrigo Guabiraba-Brito, Sophie Réhault-Godbert
The integrated innate immune features of the calcareous egg and its contents are a critical underpinning of the remarkable evolutionary success of the Aves clade. Beginning at the time of laying, the initial protective structures of the egg, i.e., the biomineralized eggshell, egg-white antimicrobial peptides, and vitelline membrane, are rapidly and dramatically altered during embryonic development. The embryo-generated extra-embryonic tissues (chorioallantoic/amniotic membranes, yolk sac, and associated chambers) are all critical to counteract degradation of primary egg defenses during development...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Nicolò Baranzini, Laura Monti, Marta Vanotti, Viviana T Orlandi, Fabrizio Bolognese, Debora Scaldaferri, Rossana Girardello, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor, Jacopo Vizioli, Roberto Taramelli, Francesco Acquati, Annalisa Grimaldi
Recent studies demonstrated that allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and RNASET2 act as chemoattractants for macrophages and modulate the inflammatory processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The expression of these proteins significantly increases after bacterial infection; however, the mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are still poorly defined. Here, we evaluate the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection on the expression pattern of these genes and the interrelation between them during innate immune response in the medicinal leech, an invertebrate model with a simple anatomy and a marked similarity with vertebrates in inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
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