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Obesity Facts

Yu-Chung Tsao, Jau-Yuan Chen, Wei-Chung Yeh, Wen-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVE: Although obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease, this trend becomes nonsignificant following adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. The present study aims to investigate whether visceral obesity is independently associated with renal function impairment. METHOD: The medical records of 14,529 male and 10,561 female Chinese adults undergoing health check-ups during 2013-2015 were retrospectively collected. The baseline characteristics, including the degree of visceral fat and the percentage of body fat, were compared...
February 6, 2019: Obesity Facts
Jody C Hoenink, Jeroen Lakerveld, Harry Rutter, Sofie Compernolle, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Helga Bárdos, Helene Charreire, Jean Michel Oppert, Joreintje D Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: This paper investigated the independent and joint associations between aspects of the physical neighbourhood environment and social neighbourhood factors with BMI and overweight status in European adults. METHODS: Data from 5,199 participants in the SPOTLIGHT survey were analysed. Participants reported on their height, weight and perceptions of the neighbourhood. Objectively measured aspects of the physical neighbourhood environment included: presence of recreational facilities, features of the active transportation environment, neighbourhood aesthetics and presence of different types of food outlets...
January 23, 2019: Obesity Facts
Dominique Durrer Schutz, Luca Busetto, Dror Dicker, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Rachel Pryke, Hermann Toplak, Daniel Widmer, Volkan Yumuk, Yves Schutz
The first contact for patients with obesity for any medical treatment or other issues is generally with General Practitioners (GPs). Therefore, given the complexity of the disease, continuing GPs' education on obesity management is essential. This article aims to provide obesity management guidelines specifically tailored to GPs, favouring a practical patient-centred approach. The focus is on GP communication and motivational interviewing as well as on therapeutic patient education. The new guidelines highlight the importance of avoiding stigmatization, something frequently seen in different health care settings...
January 23, 2019: Obesity Facts
Elisa Rönnecke, Mandy Vogel, Sarah Bussler, Nico Grafe, Anne Jurkutat, Maike Schlingmann, Antje Koerner, Wieland Kiess
BACKGROUND: Skinfold thickness (ST), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) measurements are simple methods for assessing fat tissue at defined body parts. We examined these parameters in a cohort of healthy children and adolescents in Leipzig. Our study provides current percentile curves for biceps, triceps, subscapular and iliac crest ST, plus WC, HC, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. METHODS: 6,344 visits were recorded involving 2,363 individuals from 3 to 16 years in age...
January 23, 2019: Obesity Facts
Reidun Rønningen, Anne Cathrine Parelius Wammer, Nina Holte Grabner, Tone Gretland Valderhaug
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is associated with greater and more sustainable weight loss compared with lifestyle intervention programs. On the other hand, bariatric surgery may also be associated with physical and psychosocial complications. The influence of psychological evaluation on treatment choice, however, is not known. We aimed to examine variables associated with treatment choice and, specifically, if self-reported lifetime adversity influenced obesity treatment, i.e. bariatric surgery, high-intensive lifestyle treatment or low-intensive lifestyle treatment in primary care...
January 17, 2019: Obesity Facts
Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger, Anette Kersting, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Claudia Luck-Sikorski
OBJECTIVES: Identifying the underlying pathways between obesity and depression and which individuals with obesity are at risk for developing depressive symptoms is important for improving prevention and treatment efforts. The current study investigated appearance evaluation as a potential mediator of the relationship between obesity and depression. METHODS: A total of 1,000 participants with a self-reported BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 were interviewed about their experiences with an elevated body weight and completed measures on appearance evaluation and depression...
December 14, 2018: Obesity Facts
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Thomas Bøker Lund, John Brodersen, Peter Sandøe
OBJECTIVES: The study investigated whether treatment options for episodic tension-type headache vary among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark depending on the patients' weight status and gender, and whether these decisions can be explained by the GPs' own anti-fat bias and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study with responses from 240 GPs on measures of anti-fat bias, healthiness of GPs' lifestyles, and reported patient treatment decisions...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Benedict Herhaus, Katja Petrowski
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 600 million adults worldwide suffer from obesity. In addition to individual's eating behavior and lack of physical activity in the development of obesity and overweight, psychosocial stress as well as hormonal stress reactivity must also be considered as important contributing factors. In the current study we compared the cortisol stress response pathway in a psychosocial stress induction (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) with obese individuals and normal-weight controls...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Julia Langhardt, Gesine Flehmig, Nora Klöting, Stefanie Lehmann, Thomas Ebert, Matthias Kern, Michael R Schön, Daniel Gärtner, Tobias Lohmann, Miriam Dressler, Mathias Fasshauer, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Arne Dietrich, Matthias Blüher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Altered expression and circulating levels of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) have been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) across species. Here, we investigate whether GPX3 serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) GPX3 mRNA expression are related to obesity and weight loss. METHODS: GPX3 serum concentration was measured in 630 individuals, including a subgroup (n = 293) for which omental and subcutaneous (SC) GPX3 mRNA expression has been analyzed...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Izael S Costa, Amanda F Medeiros, Fabiana M C Carvalho, Vanessa C O Lima, Raphael P Serquiz, Alexandre C Serquiz, Vivian N Silbiger, Raul H Bortolin, Bruna L L Maciel, Elizeu A Santos, Ana H A Morais
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of a protein, the isolated Trypsin Inhibitor (TTI) from Tamarindus indica L. seed, as a CCK secretagogue and its action upon food intake and leptin in obese Wistar rats. METHODS: Three groups of obese rats were fed 10 days one of the following diets: Standard diet (Labina®) + water; High Glycemic Index and Load (HGLI) diet + water or HGLI diet + TTI. Lean animals were fed the standard diet for the 10 days. Food intake, zoometric measurements, plasma CCK, plasma leptin, relative mRNA expression of intestinal CCK-related genes, and expression of the ob gene in subcutaneous adipose tissue were assessed...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Wen-Yue Cao, Zhao Liu, Feng Guo, Jing Yu, Han Li, Xiao Yin
OBJECTIVES: Activation of β3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) is essential in the process of human adipose tissue browning, but obese subjects suffered from reduced ability of brown adipose tissue activation. The present study aims to detect the adipocyte ADRB3 expression in overweight individuals and the relationship between adipocyte ADRB3 expression and adiposity in adults. METHODS: Visceral adipose tissue samples were obtained from 85 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery...
2018: Obesity Facts
Felix Nickel, Lukas Schmidt, Johannes Sander, Christian Tapking, Thomas Bruckner, Beat-Peter Müller-Stich, Lars Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Obesity surgery provides sustainable weight loss, improvement of comorbidities, and improved quality of life (QOL). There is few evidence on the patient perspective and goals. This study compared expected and achieved weight loss, body shape, and QOL. METHODS: Patients completed the Moorehead-Ardelt QOL questionnaire (MAQOL) and questionnaires on actual and expected weight loss and body shape, comorbidities, and goals of obesity surgery preoperatively and within 24 months postoperatively...
2018: Obesity Facts
Dana Prídavková, Matej Samoš, Ivana Kazimierová, Ľudovít Šutarík, Soňa Fraňová, Peter Galajda, Marián Mokáň
BACKGROUND: To report changes in body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after switching from multiple daily injection (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). METHODS: 31 patients switched over from MDI to CSII. Body composition, biochemical parameters, glycaemic variability (GV) and level of physical activity were evaluated before and 6 months on CSII. RESULTS: In both sexes, we found an increase in skeletal muscle mass (SMM), (p = 0...
2018: Obesity Facts
Sabrina Maestrini, Chiara Mele, Stefania Mai, Roberta Vietti, Annamaria Di Blasio, Luigi Castello, Daniela Surico, Gianluca Aimaretti, Massimo Scacchi, Paolo Marzullo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between oxytocin, menopause and obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis on 56 obese (OB; 28 premenopausal) and 53 normal-weight women (NW; 27 premenopausal) was performed by measurement of oxytocin, leptin, adiponectin, gonadotropins, sex steroids, glucose, and lipid homeostasis as well as DXA assessment of fat mass (%FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). RESULTS: Women from NW and OB groups were comparable for age but differed in anthropometric measures...
2018: Obesity Facts
Salahedeen Abusnana, Mohammad Fargaly, Shaima Hasan Alfardan, Fatema Hasan Al Hammadi, Alaaeldin Bashier, Ghaida Kaddaha, Barbara McGowan, Rita Nawar, Amena Sadiya
With rapid urbanisation and improved living conditions as a result of rising incomes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, obesity has become a major and growing health problem for the region. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a resident population of 9.3 million (in 2016), many of whom (85.5%) lived in urban areas and led sedentary lifestyles. Based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates for 2010, 25% of Emirati men and 40% of the women were obese. Obesity rates in this country has doubled from 16 to 34% compared to the year 2000, and severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) has risen dramatically from 2 to 11%...
2018: Obesity Facts
Daniel König, Jenny Hörmann, Hans-Georg Predel, Aloys Berg
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effects of a 12-month interdisciplinary standardized lifestyle program addressing physical activity and changes in dietary and lifestyle behavior in 2,227 obese prediabetic participants. METHODS: Measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference), cardiopulmonary fitness, and metabolic parameters were determined before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: From the 2,227 participants who were initially prediabetic, 839 participants (-37...
2018: Obesity Facts
Antje Wienecke, Hannelore Neuhauser, Klaus Kraywinkel, Benjamin Barnes
OBJECTIVE: In order to quantify the preventive potential of body weight reduction in Germany, population-attributable risks (PARs) were estimated for 13 cancer types. METHODS: PARs were calculated using body weight prevalence from a nationwide survey from 1998, cancer incidence estimates for 2010 from cancer registry data and relative risk estimates from published meta-analyses. Three counterfactual scenarios were evaluated: reducing BMI to maximally 21 kg/m² (main analysis) and weight reductions among overweight and obese persons of 5% and 10%...
2018: Obesity Facts
Ofelia C Flores, Yasna Z Orellana, Bárbara D Leyton, Rodrigo B Valenzuela, Cynthia R Barrera, Atilio F Almagià, Víctor C Martínez, Daniza Ivanovic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between overnutrition and scholastic achievement (SA). METHODS: A representative and proportional sample of 477 children of the 5th elementary school grade of both genders was randomly chosen during 2010, in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. SA was measured through the 2009 Education Quality Measurement System (SIMCE) tests of language (LSA), mathematics (MSA) and understanding of the natural environment (UNESA)...
2018: Obesity Facts
Elisa Pineda, Luz Maria Sanchez-Romero, Martin Brown, Abbygail Jaccard, Jo Jewell, Gauden Galea, Laura Webber, João Breda
OBJECTIVE: To project the prevalence of obesity across the WHO European region and examine whether the WHO target of halting obesity at 2010 levels by 2025 is achievable. METHODS: BMI data were collected from online databases and the literature. Past and present BMI trends were extrapolated to 2025 using a non-linear categorical regression model fitted to nationally representative survey data. Where only 1 year of data was available, a flat trend was assumed. Where no data were available, proxy country data was used adjusted for demographics...
2018: Obesity Facts
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