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Thyroid Research

Adriana Handra-Luca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Thyroid Research
Eiman Alseddeeqi, Raqwana Baharoon, Rawia Mohamed, Jenan Ghaith, Abeer Al-Helali, Luai A Ahmed
Objectives: Thyroid malignancy constitutes the sixth common cancer type in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). There are no epidemiological data outlining the prevalence of cancer in thyroid nodules, nor previous analysis of ultra-sonographic features correlating with thyroid malignancy in the UAE. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of thyroid malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and to describe the ultra-sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules harbouring malignancy...
2018: Thyroid Research
Rumi Hino, Naoko Inoshita, Toyoki Yoshimoto, Makiko Ogawa, Daishu Miura, Ryoko Watanabe, Kenta Watanabe, Mako Kamiya, Yasteru Urano
Background: Nodular lesions of the thyroid gland, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), may be difficult to diagnose by imaging, such as in ultrasonic echo testing, or by needle biopsy. Definitive diagnosis is made by pathological examination but takes several days. A more rapid and simple method to clarify whether thyroid nodular lesions are benign or malignant is needed. Fluorescence imaging with γ-glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (gGlu-HMRG) uses γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), a cell-surface enzyme, to hydrolyze the γ-glutamyl peptide and transfer the γ-glutamyl group...
2018: Thyroid Research
Minoru Kihara, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Takumi Kudo, Toshitetsu Hayashi, Masatoshi Yamamoto, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Yasuhiro Ito, Akihiro Miya, Akira Miyauchi
Purpose: For the differential diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) on thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is a useful and safe procedure, but its diagnostic accuracy is not high enough. As an ancillary method to accurately diagnose MTC, the calcitonin in fine-needle aspirate washout fluid (FNA-Ct) is used. However, no data are available about cut-off values of FNA-Ct using the currently available electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Methods: We investigated 180 thyroid nodules in 141 patients...
2018: Thyroid Research
Naoki Edo, Koji Morita, Miki Sakamoto, Tatsuro Kaminaga, Hiromi Edo, Erina Okamura, Masumi Ogawa, Kazuhisa Tsukamoto, Hiroko Okinaga, Toshio Ishikawa
Background: On 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), diffuse uptake in the thyroid gland is often observed in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In this study, we evaluated the factors associated with diffuse uptake by comparing Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with or without diffuse uptake in the thyroid. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who underwent blood tests, thyroid ultrasonography, and FDG-PET during the period from 2014 to 2015...
2018: Thyroid Research
Honglai Zhang, Dong Chen
Background and Aims: The activating mutation BRAFV600E is a frequent genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Mutation BRAFV600E is associated with the loss of a sodium/iodine symporter (NIS), and subsequent radioiodide-refractory (RAI) metastatic disease. Use of BRAF V600E inhibitors could partly restore NIS expression and Iodide uptake by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Previous study has reported that the BRAF V600E inhibitors could re-activate MAPK signals...
2018: Thyroid Research
Bryce C Simes, Alozie A Mbanaso, Carlos A Zapata, Chukwuma M Okoroji
Background: The hallmark of gestational trophoblastic disease is the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) due to the hyperproliferation of extraembryonic trophoblast cells. Previous studies show hCG has thyrotropic action due to its structural similarity with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) molecules. Germ cell tumors represent 15-20% of all ovarian tumors and can be malignant or benign. Case presentation: We present a case of a 53-year old African American female with a history of hyperthyroidism secondary to a complete hydatidiform mole and an associated finding of a mature cystic ovarian teratoma...
2018: Thyroid Research
Jing Yang, Carmen Sarita-Reyes, David Kindelberger, Qing Zhao
Background: Malignant biphasic tumor also known as carcinosarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm that is composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most reported cases of carcinosarcoma affect the female genital tract; however, other sites including head and neck, lung, and breast have been described. Carcinosarcoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare and aggressive malignancy with an ominous clinical course similar to anaplastic carcinoma. Case presentation: We report a case of a 45-year-old female who was found to have a biphasic thyroid carcinosarcoma...
2018: Thyroid Research
Mohamed S Al Hassan, Tamer Saafan, Walid El Ansari, Afaf A Al Ansari, Mahmoud A Zirie, Hanan Farghaly, Abdelrahman Abdelaal
Background: Malignant struma ovarii (MSO) is a very rare, germ cell tumor of the ovary, histologically identical to differentiated thyroid cancers. Struma ovarii (SO) is difficult to diagnose on clinical basis or imaging and is mostly discovered incidentally, with few published cases in the literature. Case presentation: A 42-year old primiparous woman presented with abdominal pain and midline pelvic palpable firm mass arising from the pelvis. Imaging showed pelvic solid cystic mass...
2018: Thyroid Research
Bridget A Knight, Beverley M Shields, Xuemei He, Elizabeth N Pearce, Lewis E Braverman, Rachel Sturley, Bijay Vaidya
Background: Iodine is important for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair fetal neurological development. As perchlorate and thiocyanate inhibit sodium-iodide symporter reducing the transport of iodine from circulation into the thyroid follicular cells, environmental exposure to these substances in pregnancy may impair maternal thyroid hormone synthesis. We aimed to explore the impact of perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure on thyroid status in a cohort of pregnant mothers from South West England...
2018: Thyroid Research
Tim I M Korevaar
Physiological changes necessitate the use of pregnancy-specific reference ranges for TSH and FT4 to diagnose thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Although many centers use fixed upper limits for TSH of 2.5 or 3.0 mU/L, this comment describeds new data which indicate that such cut-offs are too low and may lead to overdiagnosis or even overtreatment. The new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association have considerably changed recommendations regarding thyroid function reference ranges in pregnancy accordingly...
2018: Thyroid Research
Tomoe Nakao, Mitsushige Nishikawa, Mako Hisakado, Toshihiko Kasahara, Takumi Kudo, Eijun Nishihara, Mitsuru Ito, Shuji Fukata, Hirotoshi Nakamura, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Akira Miyauchi
Background: There is little information regarding the natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions that are probable or possible thyroid lymphoma based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results. Methods: Sixty-five patients who were diagnosed as probable or possible thyroid lymphoma by ultrasonography (US) and FNAC were investigated. Forty-three patients with strong suspicion underwent thyroid surgery for the diagnosis at our hospital, and 22 patients were followed up with periodic US examination...
2018: Thyroid Research
Kris Poppe, Flora Veltri, Candice Autin
Evidence on the treatment of euthyroid infertile women and thyroid autoimmunity with thyroid hormone is scare, and therefore the recent study by Wang et al. is a welcome addition to it. Based on their results, thyroid hormone seems not to be indicated to decrease the miscarriage rate in that particular group of infertile women. This comment is meant to put the study results into perspective with the available evidence and the current guidelines, and to highlight its strengths and weaknesses.
2018: Thyroid Research
Jackline Namulema, Miriam Nansunga, Charles Drago Kato, Muhammudu Kalange, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
Background: Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated...
2018: Thyroid Research
Hazuki Otani, Masakazu Notsu, Sayo Koike, Miwa Morita, Masahiro Yamamoto, Mika Yamauchi, Takahumi Fuchiwaki, Ichiro Morikura, Noriaki Aoi, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Teruaki Iwabashi, Asuka Araki, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Riruke Maruyama, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Background: The thyroid gland is resistant to microbial infection, because of its organ characteristics such as encapsulation, iodine content, and rich blood supply. Therefore, acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), as a bacterial infection of the thyroid gland, is rarely seen. AST typically takes places on the left side the neck region in children, because of the coincidence of the left piriform sinus fistula, as a most common route of infection. AST is also usually seen in immunocompromised hosts...
2018: Thyroid Research
Christina Tugendsam, Veronika Petz, Wolfgang Buchinger, Brigitta Schmoll-Hauer, Iris Pia Schenk, Karin Rudolph, Michael Krebs, Georg Zettinig
Background: We aimed to study the validity of six published ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the former severely iodine deficient population of Austria. Methods: Retrospective, single centre, observer blinded study design. All patients with a history of thyroidectomy due to nodules seen in the centre between 2004 and 2014 with preoperative in-house sonography and documented postoperative histology were analyzed ( n  = 195). A board of five experienced thyroidologists evaluated the images of 45 papillary carcinomas, 8 follicular carcinomas, and 142 benign nodules regarding the following criteria: mild hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated or irregular margins, microcalcifications, taller than wide shape, missing thin halo...
2018: Thyroid Research
Marta Rydzewska, Michał Jaromin, Izabela Elżbieta Pasierowska, Karlina Stożek, Artur Bossowski
Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escaping tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of various T cell subsets...
2018: Thyroid Research
Colin Dayan, Vijay Panicker
Background: Whilst trials of combination levothyroxine/liothyronine therapy versus levothyroxine monotherapy for thyroid hormone replacement have not shown any superiority, there remains a small subset of patients who do not feel well on monotherapy. Whilst current guidelines do not suggest routine use of combination therapy they do acknowledge a trial in such patients may be appropriate. It appears that use of combination therapy and dessicated thyroid extract is not uncommon but often being used by non-specialists and not adequately monitored...
2018: Thyroid Research
Yaw Amoako-Tuffour, M Elise Graham, Martin Bullock, Matthew H Rigby, Jonathan Trites, S Mark Taylor, Robert D Hart
BACKGROUND: Recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) beyond the first two decades of definitive treatment (i.e. total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation) is a rare occurrence. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 71-year old Caucasian female with a distant history of PTC treated with total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation who experienced recurrence of her disease 43 years following initial diagnosis and definitive treatment. She presented with palpable left-sided neck mass and subsequently underwent a level II, III, neck dissection and adjuvant iodine ablation...
2017: Thyroid Research
Dustin J Jones, Christopher R Kieliszak, Sanjay S Patel, Christopher R Selinsky
BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors (HTT) are rare follicular cell-derived tumors of the thyroid gland that are infrequently reported in otolaryngology literature. We present here an interesting case of HTT which provides the basis for review of this entity's clinical characteristics, criteria useful in making the diagnosis, and any currently available therapeutic modalities. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old Caucasian female underwent a CT scan of her chest and was incidentally found to have a nodule within the right thyroid lobe...
2017: Thyroid Research
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