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Journal of Neuropsychology

Caterina Bertini, Francesca Starita, Claudia Passamonti, Francesca Santoro, Nelia Zamponi, Roberto Michelucci, Cristina Scarpazza
Tactile perception on one's own face is enhanced when viewing a fearful face being touched - as opposed to just approached - by fingers, compared to viewing other expressions, a phenomenon known as the emotional modulation of Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT). This effect seems to be related to a preferential activation of the somatosensory system in response to threat. To test the contribution of the amygdala to this mechanism, a group of patients with unilateral lesions to the amygdala, a control group of patients with lesions in the extra-temporal regions, and a group of healthy participants completed an eVRT paradigm...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hanne Huygelier, Céline R Gillebert
Spatial neglect is characterized by a spatial bias in response to stimuli. The disorder is often assessed with a cancellation task, where several measures can be used to quantify the spatial bias of cancellation responses (e.g., the difference between cancellations on the left and right side, the average location of cancelled targets, and the total number of omissions). Typically, measures of cancellation performance are validated by studying the correlation with measures derived from other tasks to assess neglect (e...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Joana C Carmo, Fábio Martins, Sandra Pinho, Bernardo Barahona-Correa, Paulo Ventura, Carlos N Filipe
Semantic meaning can be extracted from pictures presented very briefly, in the order of tens of milliseconds. This ultra-rapid categorization processing appears to respect a coarse-to-fine path where lower level representations of concepts, or more detailed information, need additional time. We question whether variations in the levels of typicality of the target-item would implicate additional processing for correct classification, both in neurotypical (NT) individuals and with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura Serra, Marco Bozzali, Lucia Fadda, Maria Stefania De Simone, Michela Bruschini, Roberta Perri, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni A Carlesimo
The role of the hippocampus and neocortical areas in the retrieval of past memories in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was investigated. The aim was to assess whether the hippocampus has a temporary role in memory trace formation, according to the Cortical Reallocation Theory (CRT), or whether it continuously updates and enriches memories, according to the Multiple Trace Theory. According to the former theory, hippocampal damage should affect more recent memories, whereas the association cortex is expected to affect memories of the entire lifespan...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Lauriane A Spreij, Antonia F Ten Brink, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
BACKGROUND: Visuo-spatial neglect (VSN) is generally assessed with neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tasks, which are often not sensitive enough to detect mild and/or well-compensated VSN. It is of utmost importance to develop dynamic tasks, resembling the dynamics of daily living. OBJECTIVE: A simulated driving task was used to assess (1) differences in performance (i.e., position on the road and magnitude of sway) between patients with left- and right-sided VSN, recovered VSN, without VSN, and healthy participants; (2) the relation between average position and VSN severity; and (3) its diagnostic accuracy in relation to traditional tasks...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Sara Becker, Alena Bäumer, Walter Maetzler, Susanne Nussbaum, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Giacomo Salvadore, Detlev Zaunbrecher, Benjamin Roeben, Kathrin Brockmann, Johannes Streffer, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
The core criterion for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) function primarily caused by cognitive, not motor symptoms. There is evidence to assume that mild ADL impairments in mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) characterize those patients at high risk for dementia. Data of 216 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients assessed with comprehensive motor and neuropsychological assessments were analysed. Based on linear regression models, subscores of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) primarily reflecting patients' global cognitive status (FAQC ) or PD-related motor severity (FAQM ) were developed...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Yoshiko Kurosaki, Yuri Terasawa, Yukiro Ibata, Ryusaku Hashimoto, Satoshi Umeda
Time estimation in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage is often inaccurate. The relationship between PFC and estimation of short time intervals has been examined. However, it remains unclear whether PFC damage affects estimation of longer time intervals. Here, we investigated the ability of patients and healthy subjects to verbally estimate a period of 30 min, using a method easily applied in clinical settings. In 99 patients with brain damage, we compared under and normal ranges of time in patients with PFC damage or damage to other brain areas with the chi-squared test...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Bruno Rossion
The sudden inability to recognize individual faces following brain damage was first reported in a scientific journal 150 years ago and termed 'prosopagnosia' 70 years ago. While the term originally identified a face-selective neurological condition, it is now obscured by a sequence of imprecisions. First, prosopagnosia is routinely used to define symptoms of individual face recognition (IFR) difficulties in the context of visual object agnosia or other neurological conditions, or even in the normal population...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Elena Nava, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Gamberini, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Chiara Turati, Ruggero Capra, Nadia Bolognini
In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Ulrich Ettinger, Désirée S Aichert, Nicola Wöstmann, Sandra Dehning, Michael Riedel, Veena Kumari
The ability to inhibit inappropriate responses and suppress irrelevant information is a core feature of executive control. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of prepotent response inhibition and interference in patients with schizophrenia. To further test the role of genetic factors and subclinical schizophrenia-like traits, we additionally studied clinically unaffected, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and assessed dimensions of schizotypy in both relatives and healthy controls. Inhibition and interference control were assessed using a battery comprising the antisaccade, Stroop, stop signal, go/no-go, flanker, and Simon tasks...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Francesco Saccà, Teresa Costabile, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Fiore Manganelli, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla
INTRODUCTION: Despite neurological patients show frequent physical impairment, timed neuropsychological tests do not take this into account during scoring procedures. OBJECTIVE: We propose a normalization method based on the PATA Rate Task (PRT) and on the nine-hole pegboard test (9HPT) as a measure of dysarthria and upper limb dysfunction. METHODS: We tested 65 healthy controls on timed neuropsychological tests (Attentional Matrices [AM], Trail Making Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Verbal Fluencies) to determine the time spent on phonation or on hand movement during test execution...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Josselin Baumard, Mathieu Lesourd, Chrystelle Remigereau, Christophe Jarry, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Valérie Chauviré, François Osiurak, Didier Le Gall
Recent works showed that tool use can be impaired in stroke patients because of either planning or technical reasoning deficits, but these two hypotheses have not yet been compared in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to address the relationships between real tool use, mechanical problem-solving, and planning skills in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 32), semantic dementia (SD, n = 16), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS, n = 9). Patients were asked to select and use ten common tools, to solve three mechanical problems, and to complete the Tower of London test...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Gioele Gavazzi, Matteo Lenge, Emanuele Bartolini, Andrea Bianchi, Herdis Agovi, Francesca Mugnai, Renzo Guerrini, Flavio Giordano, Maria Pia Viggiano, Mario Mascalchi
Right-IFG and pre-SMA are associated with inhibitory responses. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore whether the contralateral homotopic regions can functionally replace them. An adolescent, with an extensive traumatic lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere having occurred 5 years earlier, performed a motor response inhibition task (Go/Nogo), which was properly accomplished and associated to activations in the left-IFC, precuneus and occipital cortex. Such functional remodelling is in line with the theory of 'near equipotentiality' of the cerebral hemispheres...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Byron Creese, Christopher P Albertyn, Sasha Dworkin, Rebecca S Thomas, Yi Min Wan, Clive Ballard
INTRODUCTION: Visual hallucinations (VH) have a significant impact on quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A major reason for this is the well-established link with cognitive impairment, but there is still a need for more longitudinal studies examining the specific cognitive domains which may be affected. The aim of this study was to profile decline in cognition associated with VH in a cohort of 69 individuals with PD over 1 year. METHOD: Visual hallucinations assessments were carried out every 3 months...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Elizabeth Shephard, Madeleine J Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Roberta Perri, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Marco Monaco, Carlo Caltagirone, Gian Daniele Zannino
Experiments with semantic priming (SP) paradigms have documented early hypopriming in patients with AD when concepts are used as primes and attribute concept features as targets, suggesting that concept attributes are vulnerable to damage very early in the disease course. The aims of this study were to confirm early priming reduction in the attribute condition in patients with AD and to determine which of several semantic indexes (such as the level of distinctiveness, correlation or feature dominance of concept features) best predicts the priming effect size in AD...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Ferenc Kemény, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány, István Valálik, Ágnes Lukács
The striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with deficits in skill learning in numerous studies, but some of the findings remain controversial. Our aim was to explore the generality of the learning deficit using two widely reported skill learning tasks in the same group of Parkinson's patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (mean age: 62.83 years, SD: 7.67) were compared to age-matched healthy adults. Two tasks were employed: the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), testing the learning of motor sequences, and the Weather Prediction (WP) task, testing non-sequential probabilistic category learning...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses [SCRs]) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
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