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Current Drug Abuse Reviews

Amir Jalali, Bistoun Shabrandi, Rostam Jalali, Nader Salari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is a psychosocial disorder, whose emergence, continuation, and treatment are associated with personality factors, spiritual well-being, and social support. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of personality traits with spiritual well-being and perceived social support in methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in 2016 in the clinics of Kermanshah, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 117 methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in addiction clinics of Kermanshah, Iran...
October 17, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Emanuela Colasante, Francesco Fabi, Sabrina Molinaro, Carla Rossi, Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba
BACKGROUND: Drug use indicators that are capable of measuring the individual levels of harm following drug use, and in particular poly-drug use, have previously been proposed, based on individual drug and frequency of use data and expert rankings of harms related to various substances. These indicators allow the estimation of risk profiles for selected groups of individuals and comparisons, both over time and between populations. Recent advances regarding the ranking of drug use harms allow a refinement of these indicators, separating the effects on self and others...
September 24, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Saskia Preissner, Vishal B Siramshetty, Mathias Dunkel, Paul Steinborn, Friedrich C Luft, Robert Preissner
BACKGROUND: Pain-relief prescriptions have led to an alarming increase in drug-related abuse. In this study we estimate the pain reliever prescription rates at a major German academic hospital center and compare with the nationwide trends from Germany and prescription reports from the USA. METHODS: We analysed >500,000 discharge summaries from Charite, encompassing the years 2006 to 2015, and extracted the medications and diagnoses from each discharge summary...
September 10, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Coma blisters or coma bullae are bullous lesions that have been associated with cases of drug overdose-induced coma. Previous history of suicide attempt with benzodiazepines, barbiturates, ethanol, antipsychotics, antidepressants or opioids have been particularly implicated. Patients may present also painful deep skin and soft tissue involvement, edema and functional impairment. The pathophysiology remains unknown and lesions are usually self-limited and typically resolve without scarring. This work, aims to fully review the state of the art regarding cause, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of drug overdose induced coma blisters...
July 29, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Linda Matua, Guido Muharremi, Elizana Petrela, Mirnela Kocibelli, Gentian Vyshka, Bledar Xhemali
AIM: To create a representative picture of the prevalence and the total number of drug users in Albania from 2012 to 2016, and compare those numbers to previous years with other available data. METHODS: The required data for the conductance of this study was collected from three different fronts, namely The Institute of Forensic Medicine (IFM), Clinical Toxicology and Addictions Service, University Hospital "Mother Theresa" Tirana (CTS) and Methadone Maintenance Treatment Centers...
July 19, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Livia Beraldo, Felipe Gil, Antonio Ventriglio, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Antonio Geraldo da Silva, Julio Torales, Priscila Dib Goncalves, Dinesh Bhugra, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Substance use disorders are an important public health problem with a multifactorial etiology and limited effective treatment options. Within this context, spirituality-based approaches may provide interesting and useful options in managing substance use disorders. This kind of intervention can have positive effects in alleviating some core symptoms associated with substance use, such as aggressiveness. Improvement in cessation rates for alcohol, cocaine and opioid use disorders have also been described in some clinical studies...
June 11, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Amir Jalali, Mahvash Kashkouli Behrouzi, Nader Salari, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Mahmoud Rahmati
BACKGROUND: Drug dependence or substance use disorder not only affects a person's life but also brings a lot of challenges for families and communities and imposes heavy burdens on them. There are various therapies in the domain of addiction whose main purposes are to reduce or to cut down substance abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of group spiritual intervention on self-esteem and happiness among male clients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment...
May 10, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
The article entitled, “The Behavioral Profile of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α– pyrrolidinopentiophenone (PVP) - A Systematic Review”, submitted in Current Drug Abuse Reviews (CDAR) by Dr. Cornel N Stanciu has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with BSP Editorial Policies.
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Luke A Downey, Talitha Ford, Amie Hayley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Dushyant Mital, Steve Conway, Joanne Trueman
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Milton Keynes (MK) Council waste management team shows an increase in the numbers of abandoned used needles being found across MK. MK is an area of high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence and high Hepatitis C (HCV) in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), the overriding concern was for the safety of the public. METHODS: Analysis of data collection to understand the scale and spread of the problem, preventing/ reducing the incidence of abandoned needles and looking at access to the designated Drug Dependency Unit (DDU) and the Blood Borne Virus (BBV) service...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Matteo Dal Ben, Silvia Gazzin, Claudio Tiribelli
BACKGROUND: Drinking more than the recommended limits is a worldwide emerging problem, difficult to circumscribe, and alcohol-related brain damages are an under-recognized health problem. Alcohol-cognitive disruption can be considered as transient and recoverable if the alcohol consumption is limited and occasional; if not, it can progress to the so-called Alcohol-Related Dementia (ARD), or to the Wernicke encephalopathy, or it can even induce the Korsakoff syndrome, an irreversible and long-lasting medical condition...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Doug James, Anthony Shakeshaft, Alice Munro, Ryan J Courtney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the importance of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation, the knowledge supporting these services is limited. This paper aims to: (i) identify the research output related to Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services; (ii) classify identified studies according to their methodology; and (iii) describe key characteristics of clients and services, and critique the research methods. METHODS: A PRISMA compliant search of 10 electronic databases for studies of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services from Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand, published between 1 January 2000 and 28 March 2016, was conducted...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Agnese Merlo, Sally Adams, Sarah Benson, Lydia Devenney, Craig Gunn, Jacqueline Iversen, Sean J Johnson, Marlou Mackus, Andrew Scholey, Ann-Katrin Stock, Aurora J A E van de Loo, Marith van Schrojenstein Lantman, Livia J F Wilod Versprille, Joris C Verster
BACKGROUND: Alcohol hangover is a common occurrence among individuals who have experienced an episode of heavy alcohol consumption the previous night. Until now defined as the general feeling of misery that develops once the Blood Alcohol Concentration approaches zero. Despite its prevalence and several related adverse consequences, insufficient research has been conducted with regards to this matter and further understanding of the pathology of alcohol hangover is necessary. During the 9th Alcohol Hangover Research Group meeting, held on April 29th 2017, Utrecht, The Netherlands, numerous aspects of alcohol hangover were presented and many advances with regards to determinants, biological and cognitive consequences and potential treatment have been presented...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Ramkrishna Makani, Basant Pradhan, Umang Shah, Tapan Parikh
BACKGROUND: Addiction and related disorders are devastating with their tremendous social, psychological, and physical consequences for which development of optimally effective treatments is long overdue. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is relatively safe and is becoming an emerging therapeutic tool for these conditions. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychiatryOnline and Cochrane Library ranging from year 2001 to 2017...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Giovambattista De Sarro
BACKGROUND: Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) represent a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy of each drug. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this review was to analyze the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library databases were searched for articles published until January 10, 2017...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Felix-Martin Werner, Rafael Covenas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. Acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure. Although the cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have positive health outcomes with its antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, high-potency cannabis is particularly damaging due to its high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), low CDB concentration...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Matthew Tyler Boden, Adrienne J Heinz, Todd B Kashdan
BACKGROUND: People commonly use psychoactive substances to increase physical and psychological pleasure. Neuroadaptations in the brain's reward system coupled with changes in social functioning and networking resulting from chronic substance use impede the ability to derive pleasure from non-substance related activities. OBJECTIVE: We elucidate and validate the hypothesis that treatments for substance use disorders would potentially have a stronger and broader impact by helping recipients to experience pleasure as part of an expansive focus of increasing adaptive functioning, well-being, and personal fulfillment and actualization...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Marith van Schrojenstein Lantman, Aurora Jae van de Loo, Marlou Mackus, Joris C Verster
Up to now, there is no adequate definition of the alcohol hangover. The purpose of the current study was to develop a useful definition, and consensus among those who will use it in scientific publications. A survey was conducted among N=1099 social drinkers who recently had a hangover. They were asked to provide their definition of the alcohol hangover. Text mining and content analysis revealed 3 potential definitions. These were submitted to members of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group, who were asked to give their expert opinion on the proposed definitions...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Celeste T Tipple, Sarah Benson, Andrew Scholey
Alcohol hangovers are a commonly experienced consequence of drinking and are frequently associated with worsened mood and cognitive functioning. The physiological changes that occur with an alcohol-induced hangover state are largely unknown. This review focuses on key physiological factors of an alcohol-induced hangover, more specifically, oxidative stress, hormonal fluctuations, dehydration and changes to the immune system. The role of sleep disturbances and headaches will also be briefly discussed. Increased understanding of the relationship between the physiological factors and symptoms of a hangover is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of an alcohol-induced hangover and potentially identify a treatment...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
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