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Topics in Companion Animal Medicine

Laurie Cook, Wm Tod Drost
A 10-year-old spayed female Bichon Frise presented to the neurology service for back pain and pelvic limb weakness for approximately 2 months duration. Neurologic examination revealed T3-L3 and L4-S3 myelopathies with multifocal spinal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the vertebral column revealed multiple mild disc protrusions but no obvious cause for the neurologic deficits. Attempts to collect cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbar spine and cerebellomedullary cistern were unsuccessful. Following anesthesia, the dog was noted to be paraplegic with flaccid pelvic limb muscle tone and absent nociception...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Rebecca Zaremba, Aimee Brooks, Elizabeth Thomovsky
Red blood cell transfusions have become an integral component in the treatment of anemic patients and the number of transfusions continues to increase from year to year in both veterinary and human medicine. Although crucial, red blood cell transfusions are not benign and can lead to serious adverse reactions. Therefore, determining the most appropriate donor unit to use for transfusion can be challenging. As transfusion medicine evolves, greater numbers of blood surface antigens are being documented and pretransfusion testing protocols are becoming more complex...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Diana Di Mattia, Filippo De Bellis
The coexistence of Leishmania and neoplasia is rarely reported in humans or animals. An 11-year-old intact male mixed-breed dog was presented with a well-demarcated perianal nodule. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations were consistent with the diagnosis of perianal gland adenoma with the presence of Leishmania amastigotes. The dog was considered to be in leishmaniasis stage C (clinically diseased) based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, and serological status. A novel finding in this case report was the presence of Leishmania within the perianal adenoma, probably resulting from an atypical dissemination of the parasites...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Ghazal Aftab, Seyed Mehdi Rajaei, Simon A Pot, Houman Faghihi
This study was performed to determine the normal seasonal aerobic and an-aerobic corneoconjunctival bacterial flora in cats. Thirty eyes of 15 clinically normal client-owned Persian cats were evaluated. All cats lived in a similar indoor/outdoor home environment being fed the same diet for the entire year. The cats did not receive any medications and were found to be clinically healthy 1 week prior to each microbial sampling. The cats were not exposed to other cats during the study period. Microbial samples were collected at the same time of day on the first day of the second month of each of the four seasons...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Samantha Vitale, Kari Foss
Immune-mediated inflammation is responsible for about 25% of central nervous system disease in dogs. The disease can affect all ages and breeds, but young to middle-aged small breed dogs are over-represented for most forms. Diagnosis consists of advanced imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and infectious disease testing, but biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis and classification of the disease into one of the many subtypes. Treatment consists of immunosuppressive medication with the goal being to control and/or improve clinical signs...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Paula Yuma, Jennifer Fowler, Felix Duerr, Lori Kogan, Jonathan Stockman, Dan J Graham, Colleen Duncan
Regular physical activity (PA) is a health promoting behavior that transcends species. The collective evidence of a positive relationship between PA and health in both people and animals suggests that implementation of outdoor, dog-associated activities to increase PA may synergistically enhance both human and dog health. A systematic literature review was performed to identify research investigating objective, quantitative health outcomes in both dogs and people exercising together. Within the confines of the search, only 2 studies fulfilled the criteria for complete review...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Yauheni Zhalniarovich, Andrzej Sobolewski, Grzegorz Waluś, Zbigniew Adamiak
This article reports a major complication of tibial tuberosity advancement with cranial fixation for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a Boxer. Twelve days postoperatively the dog underwent revision surgery for fracture of the tibia and tibial tuberosity. The tibial tuberosity fracture was secured to the tibial diaphysis using the 2 K-wires and a medial 3.5 dynamic compression plate was used to stabilize the tibial diaphysis fracture. The fracture was reduced and the plate applied using minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis to preserve the blood supply to the bone...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Abdul Rahman Alashraf, Seng Fong Lau, Kuan Hua Khor, Siti Khairani-Bejo, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Mohd Azri Roslan, Mohd Sabri Abdul Rahman, Soon Heng Goh, Rozanaliza Radzi
Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases and despite extensive research, there is still a paucity of information regarding this disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of leptospirosis among the shelter cat population in Malaysia and to determine the most common infective Leptospira serogroups among them. Blood samples were collected from a total of 110 cats from 4 different shelters. The sampled cats appeared healthy, with minimal evidence of feline upper respiratory disease...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Alison Gardner, Allison Dockery, Vivian Quam
To review indications and risk factors for exploratory celiotomy secondary to acute colic in the horse; decision making for and during surgery; and prognosis for return to function after exploratory celiotomy for the practicing veterinarian. Data sources included scientific reviews and original research publications from veterinary sources, as well as clinical data specifically in regard to underlying disease and survival rates from a tertiary referral hospital where exploratory celiotomy is commonly performed...
March 2019: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Hariklia Mastora Dvm, Lysimachos G Papazoglou, Michail Patsikas, Glykeria Kirmanidou, Athanasios Donas
An 18-month-old domestic short hair male castrated cat presented with a history of fever of unknown origin of 1-year duration. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mixed echogenicity mass. Cytological examination of the fluid obtained through fine needle aspiration was consistent with a retroperitoneal abscess. The cat underwent a midline celiotomy and the abscess was opened, lavaged, and omentalized. Antibiotics were also administered. Two months after surgery, the cat represented with a fluctuant swelling in the right flank region at the lumbodorsal triangle...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Marzieh Rahimi Niyyat, Mohammad Azizzadeh, Javad Khoshnegah
Recent discoveries have shown that the chances of a dog developing a behavioral disorder may depend upon a number of factors including nutrition. The current pilot study was designed to provide an assessment of the efficacy of a dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, and zinc on some common behavioral disorders in a population of Iranian domestic dogs. In total, 48 dogs including 6 dogs without any behavior disorder (control group) and 42 dogs with at least 1 common behavioral disorder, namely excessive activity, inappropriate elimination, fearfulness, destructiveness, and aggression toward unfamiliar people and dogs (test group), were given daily oral dose of gelatin capsules of fish oil supplements containing 330 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 480 mg docosahexaenoic acid...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Elena T Contreras, Kristy L Dowers, Scott Moroff, Michael R Lappin
Persistent infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (AP) after treatment and immunosuppression has not been studied in dogs infected with AP after Ixodes scapularis infestation. This descriptive pilot study evaluated 6 laboratory-reared beagles that were persistently positive for AP antibodies after infestation with wild-caught I. scapularis. After 20 weeks, 3 of 6 dogs were administered doxycycline orally for 28 days, and all 6 dogs were then administered prednisolone at 2.2 mg/kg orally for 14 days. Blood was collected from all 6 dogs and evaluated by complete blood count, AP antibodies, and AP DNA at the beginning of the study and on Week 24 through Week 28...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Labrini V Athanasiou, Constantina N Tsokana, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou
Histograms, which are an integral part of the automated complete blood count, are now available through most of the automatic hematology analyzers used in veterinary clinical practice. Data concerning the size and number of blood cells are graphically presented in histograms, and their variations are also illustrated. Important information that is not apparent from numerical results are sometimes provided by histograms. Histograms are also referred to as frequency distribution curves and are essentially graphs resulting from the placement of the sizes of cells on the x-axis and the number of cells on the y-axis...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Taylor Fiorini, Eric T Hostnik
Degenerative joint disease of the stifle is a common canine osseous pathology. Early degenerative changes may show mild mineral proliferation of periarticular margins with soft tissue, resulting in joint distension. If the joint is chronically unstable, osseous changes become more complex. Moderate to severe stifle degenerative disease then transitions to a combination of bony proliferation and resorption as subchondral cystic changes develop. The radiographic descriptions of moderate to severe degenerative disease overlap with those of subtle aggressive disease...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Genevieve M Forster, Jonathan Stockman, Noelle Noyes, Adam L Heuberger, Corey D Broeckling, Collin M Bantle, Elizabeth P Ryan
The aim of this study was to compare fecal microbiome, plasma, fecal and urine metabolomes, and serum biochemistry of adult companion dogs according to body condition scores. Blood, serum/plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy, adult companion dogs of either normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or obese dogs (OB). analyses included fecal microbiome analyses via 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon; sequencing, nontargeted plasma, fecal, and urine metabolomics using liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass; spectrometry, and serum biochemistry for each dog...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Valentina Stefanetti, Agnese Compagnone, Chiara Sordini, Fabrizio Passamonti, Elisa Rampacci, Livia Moscati, Maria Luisa Marenzoni
Abortion and neonatal mortality are events that can occur in breeding bitches and queens. It has been reported that up to 55% and 33% of these cases remain without a known cause, respectively, in canine and feline pregnancies. Unusual abortigenic and potentially zoonotic agents, including Coxiella burnetii and Leptospira spp., may be involved in these cases. C. burnetii is able to cause reproductive disorders in cattle, sheep and goats, and cases of abortion have been observed in dogs and cats. Moreover, several outbreaks of C...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Giorgia De Lorenzi, Karen Kamphuisen, Giuseppe Biscontini, Maria Pacciarini, Mariagrazia Zanoni, Andrea Luppi
Mycobacterium genavense infection was diagnosed in an adult ferret with ptosis of the left eye, a proliferative lesion of the conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane, conjunctival swelling, and tumefaction of the periorbital tissues with a watery ocular discharge and the presence of a retrobulbar mass. The diagnosis was based on characteristic cytology of the retrobulbar mass and left mandibular lymph node that revealed granulomatous inflammation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed the presence of positive acid-fast bacilli in the cytoplasm of the macrophages...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Jiayou Liu, Jan Drexel, Blaine Andrews, Matt Eberts, Ed Breitschwerdt, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar
Vector-borne agents comprise medically important infections affecting dogs throughout much of the world. Sensitive detection of antibodies directed at tick-borne disease-causing organisms in dogs is diagnostically important for veterinarians, pets and their owners, and epidemiologically important for public health surveillance. The SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) identifies antibodies to or infection with multiple tick-borne pathogens and canine heartworm antigen in a single assay...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Rafael Guerra, Ricardo Cabeças, Jesus Diaz, Tim Knott, Inês Freitas, Hugo Vilhena, Sofia Duarte
Cataracts are among the most common ocular diseases, and are a leading cause of vision loss in humans and dogs. Jack Russell Terriers (JRT) and Labrador Retrievers (LR) are among the most popular canine breeds in the United Kingdom, and also among the most affected by cataracts. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features and the surgical outcome of cataracts in JRT and LR in an ophthalmologic reference Veterinary Hospital in the United Kingdom. For that purpose, medical records from JRT and LR diagnosed with cataracts between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Salvatore Alonge, Monica Melandri, Giulio Aiudi, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra
In last years, following the increased canine life expectancy and the rising attention pet-owners devote to their animals, several authors have carried on investigations concerning new techniques to early identify canine prostatic disorders that might affect the dog's quality of life. Prostatic disorders often have an asymptomatic onset and their early diagnosis is difficult: hence, they are usually identified at an advanced stage, only. Traditionally, the diagnosis of prostatic disorders is based on noninvasive tools, such as transrectal and abdominal palpation, seminal or prostatic fluid evaluation, and urinalysis and imaging...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
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