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New Biotechnology

Faezeh Borzooee, Mani Larijani
AID/APOBEC3 enzymes are cytidine deaminases that mutate antibody and retroviral genes and also mediate extensive tumor genome mutagenesis. The study of purified AID/APOBEC3 proteins is challenged by difficulties with their expression and purification arising from genotoxicity in expression hosts, extensive non-specific protein-protein/DNA/RNA interactions and haphazard oligomerization. To date, expression hosts for purification of AID/APOBEC3 enzymes include bacteria, insect and mammalian cells. Here the establishment and optimization of a yeast expression/secretion system for AID/APOBEC3s are reported, followed by comparison with the same enzymes expressed in bacterial and mammalian hosts...
February 26, 2019: New Biotechnology
Nancy Coconi Linares, Marcos Di Falco, Isabelle Benoit-Gelber, Birgit S Gruben, Mao Peng, Adrian Tsang, Miia R Mäkelä, Ronald P de Vries
Guar gum consists mainly of galactomannan and constitutes the endosperm of guar seeds that acts as a reserve polysaccharide for germination. Due to its molecular structure and physical properties, this biopolymer has been considered as one of the most important and widely used gums in industry. However, for many of these applications this (hemi-)cellulosic structure needs to be modified or (partially) depolymerized in order to customize and improve its physicochemical properties. In this study, transcriptome, exoproteome and enzyme activity analyses were employed to decipher the complete enzymatic arsenal for guar gum depolymerization by Aspergillus niger...
February 20, 2019: New Biotechnology
Rosa Gaglione, Katia Pane, Eliana Dell'Olmo, Valeria Cafaro, Elio Pizzo, Giuseppe Olivieri, Eugenio Notomista, Angela Arciello
Among bioactive peptides, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also referred to as host defence peptides (HDPs), are valuable tools to treat infections, being able to kill a wide variety of microbes directly and/or modulate host immunity. HDPs have great therapeutic potential against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, viruses and even parasites. However, high manufacturing costs have greatly limited their development as drugs, thus highlighting the need to develop novel and competitive production strategies...
February 18, 2019: New Biotechnology
Tomasz Zimny, Sławomir Sowa, Agata Tyczewska, Tomasz Twardowski
The comparatively low adoption rate of GMO products in the European Union (EU) market seems to be connected with the strictness of authorization regulations and inefficiency of the authorization process itself. These problems will apply to any product deemed to be a GMO that could potentially be marketable in the EU. Since modern methods of plant breeding involving oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODMs) or site-directed nucleases (SDNs), including Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), are becoming ever more popular, it is crucial to establish whether the products of such new breeding techniques (NBTs), in particular those which involve precise methods of mutagenesis, are exempted from the EU legislation on GMOs or not...
February 16, 2019: New Biotechnology
Ruiyong Zhang, Thomas R Neu, Véronique Blanchard, Mario Vera, Wolfgang Sand
Bioleaching of metal sulfides represents an interfacial process where biofilm formation is important in the initial steps of this process. In technical applications of bioleaching, such as reactor leaching in the temperature range of 50 up to 90 °C and also in (self-heating) heaps, thermophilic archaea play an important role and often are the leaching organisms of choice. Nevertheless, to date there is little information available on the interactions between thermoacidophilic archaea and their natural mineral substrates such as pyrite...
February 8, 2019: New Biotechnology
Antonio León-Vaz, Rosa León, Encarnación Díaz-Santos, Javier Vigara, Sara Raposo
There has been growing interest in the use of microalgae for the production of biofuels, but production costs continue to be too high to compete with fossil fuel prices. One of the main limitations for photobioreactor productivity is light shielding, especially at high cell densities. The growth of the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana, a robust industrial species, has been evaluated under different trophic conditions with traditional carbon sources, such as glucose and sucrose, and alternative low cost carbon sources, such as carob pod extract, industrial glycerol and acetate-rich oxidized wine waste lees...
February 7, 2019: New Biotechnology
Sara Vecchiato, Lukas Skopek, Hannes Russmayer, Matthias G Steiger, Alexia Aldrian, Bianca Beer, Enrique Herrero Acero, Georg M Guebitz
Rayon filaments composed of regenerated cellulose are used as reinforcement materials in tires and to a lower extent in the clothing industry as personal protective equipment e.g. flame retardant cellulosic based materials. After use, these materials are currently transferred to landfills while chemical degradation does not allow the recovery of the cellulose (as glucose) nor the separation of the high valuable flame-retardant pigment. In this study, rayon fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed to allow recovery of glucose and valuable additives...
February 1, 2019: New Biotechnology
Cristiana C Castro, Clarisse Nobre, Guy De Weireld, Anne-Lise Hantson
Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) mixtures produced by fermentation contain large amounts of non-prebiotic sugars. Here we propose a mixed culture of Aureobasidium pullulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to produce FOS and consume the small saccharides simultaneously, thereby increasing FOS purity in the mixture. The use of immobilised A. pullulans in co-culture with encapsulated S. cerevisiae, inoculated after 10 hours fermentation, enhanced FOS production in a 5 L bioreactor. Using this strategy, a maximal FOS concentration of 119 g L-1 , and yield of 0...
January 29, 2019: New Biotechnology
Gabriella Cerullo, Simona Varriale, Sophie Bozonnet, Io Antonopoulou, Paul Christakopoulos, Ulrika Rova, Olga Gherbovet, Régis Fauré, Alexander Piechot, Peter Jütten, Joana L A Brás, Carlos M G A Fontes, Vincenza Faraco
The need to develop competitive and eco-friendly processes in the cosmetic industry leads to the search for new enzymes with improved properties for industrial bioconversions in this sector. In the present study, a complete methodology to generate, express and screen diversity for the type C feruloyl esterase from Fusarium oxysporium FoFaeC was set up in a high-throughput fashion. A library of around 30,000 random mutants of FoFaeC was generated by error prone PCR of fofaec cDNA and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica...
January 24, 2019: New Biotechnology
Viniti Vaidya, Eleonora Carota, Dario Calonzi, Maurizio Petruccioli, Alessandro D'Annibale
The high-molecular weight fraction of olive mill wastewater (HMW-OMW), a byproduct of olive oil biorefinery, was used at the reactor level as the basal medium for production of laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP) by Trametes ochracea. Three reactor systems, namely stirred tank reactors equipped with either Rushton turbines or marine impeller and draft tube (STR and STR-MD, respectively) and an air-lift reactor (ALR) were compared for this purpose. Although inocula were supplied as intact pellets, in both STR-based systems fungal growth evolved rapidly into a dispersed form while the ALR enabled the maintenance of the pellet growth mode...
January 19, 2019: New Biotechnology
Màrius Tomàs-Gamisans, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans Ødum, Mhairi Workman, Pau Ferrer, Joan Albiol
Metabolic flux analysis based on 13 C-derived constraints has proved to be a powerful method for quantitative physiological characterisation of one of the most extensively used microbial cell factory platforms, Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.). Nonetheless, the reduced number of carbon atoms and the symmetry of the glycerol molecule has hampered the comprehensive determination of metabolic fluxes when used as the labelled C-source. Moreover, metabolic models typically used for 13 C-based flux balance analysis may be incomplete or misrepresent the actual metabolic network...
January 16, 2019: New Biotechnology
Simone Becarelli, Ilaria Chicca, Giovanna Siracusa, Salvatore La China, Alessandro Gentini, Roberto Lorenzi, Giulio Munz, Giulio Petroni, David Levin, Simona Di Gregorio
Four new Ascomycete fungi capable of degrading diesel oil were isolated from sediments of a river estuary mainly contaminated by shipyard fuels or diesel oil. The isolates were identified as species of Lambertella, Penicillium, Clonostachys, and Mucor. The fungal candidates degraded and adsorbed the diesel oil in suspension cultures. The Lambertella sp. isolate displayed the highest percentages of oxidation of diesel oil and was characterised by the capacity to utilise the latter as a sole carbon source. This isolate showed extracellular laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities in the presence of diesel oil...
January 14, 2019: New Biotechnology
Priscillia Lagoutte, Adrien Lugari, Céline Elie, Supanee Potisopon, Stéphanie Donnat, Charlotte Mignon, Natacha Mariano, Alain Troesch, Bettina Werle, Gustavo Stadthagen
CTX-M15 is one of the most widespread, extended spectrum β-lactamases, a major determinant of antibiotic resistance representing urgent public health threats, among enterobacterial strains infecting humans and animals. Here we describe the selection of binders to CTX-M15 from a combinatorial affibody library displayed on ribosomes. Upon three increasingly selective ribosome display iterations, selected variants were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS). Nine affibody variants with high relative abundance bearing QRP and QLH amino acid motifs at residues 9-11 were produced and characterized in terms of stability, affinity and specificity...
January 8, 2019: New Biotechnology
Xiaofei Wang, Simon Bengtsson, Adrian Oehmen, Gilda Carvalho, Alan Werker, Maria A M Reis
Mixed microbial cultures are a viable means for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production, which can produce polymers of commercial quality with high yields. Various PHA co-polymer blends can be produced by surplus full-scale municipal activated sludge fed with fermented waste feedstocks. In biological nutrient removal, ammonia is converted to nitrate by ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (AOBs and NOBs) through nitrification and removed as nitrogen gas through denitrification. Activated sludge can be enriched with significant PHA storage potential alongside nitrogen removal by denitrifying heterotrophic and nitrifying autotrophic bacteria...
January 8, 2019: New Biotechnology
Julia Hennicke, David Reinhart, Friedrich Altmann, Renate Kunert
IgM antibodies are arousing considerable interest as biopharmaceuticals. Despite their immunotherapeutic potential, little is known about the impact of environmental conditions on product quantity and quality of these complex molecules. Process conditions influence the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of therapeutic proteins and thus are important parameters for biological safety and efficacy. Here, the results of a systematic study are presented that characterized the influence of temperature and pH on cell-specific productivity and IgM quality attributes...
January 7, 2019: New Biotechnology
Maria Elena de la Calle, Gema Cabrera, Domingo Cantero, Antonio Valle, Jorge Bolivar
Benzohydroxamic acids, such as DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2 H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one), are plant products that exhibit interesting herbicidal, fungicidal and bactericidal properties. A feasible alternative to their purification from natural sources is the synthesis of analogous compounds such as D-DIBOA (2-deoxy-DIBOA) and their chlorinated derivatives. Their chemical synthesis has been simplified into two steps. However, the second step is an exothermic reaction and involves hydrogen release, which makes this methodology expensive and difficult to scale up...
January 7, 2019: New Biotechnology
Karolin Dietrich, Marie-Josée Dumont, Luis F Del Rio, Valérie Orsat
In emerging bioeconomies, the compostable biopolymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are desirable products due to their similarity to petropolymers. While industrial PHA production has been growing rapidly, obtaining a cheap and sustainable carbon source is still a challenge. Among biobased feedstocks, lignocellulose is a cheap, abundant and potentially sustainable carbon source. However, because of its recalcitrance, separation and depolymerization processes that have not reached industrial maturity are usually required...
March 25, 2019: New Biotechnology
Petr Sedlacek, Eva Slaninova, Martin Koller, Jana Nebesarova, Ivana Marova, Vladislav Krzyzanek, Stanislav Obruca
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are microbial polyesters which accumulate as intracellular granules in numerous prokaryotes and mainly serve as storage materials; beyond this primary function, PHA also enhance the robustness of bacteria against various stress factors. We have observed that the presence of PHA in bacterial cells substantially enhances their ability to maintain cell integrity when suddenly exposed to osmotic imbalances. In the case of the non-halophilic bacterium Cupriavidus necator, the presence of PHA decreased plasmolysis-induced cytoplasmic membrane damage during osmotic up-shock, which subsequently enabled the cells to withstand subsequent osmotic downshock...
March 25, 2019: New Biotechnology
Žnidaršič-Plazl Polona, Zelić Bruno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Gabriela Kalčíková, Gregor Marolt, Anita Jemec Kokalj, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Extensive production of nanomaterials of various properties needs to be coupled with rapid toxicity testing in order to provide information about their potential risks to the environment and human health. Miniaturization of toxicity tests may accelerate economical testing of nanomaterials, but is not a common practice. We describe a case study to miniaturize a commonly used toxicity test with plant duckweed Lemna minor. 6-well, 12-well and 24-well culture plates were used to assess their potential use for the duckweed toxicity test with potassium chloride as reference material...
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
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