Shibo Wei, Yan Zhang, Baeki E Kang, Wonyoung Park, He Guo, Seungyoon Nam, Jong-Sun Kang, Jee-Heon Jeong, Yunju Jo, Dongryeol Ryu, Yikun Jiang, Ki-Tae Ha
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the predominant primary hepatic malignancy, is the prime contributor to mortality. Despite the availability of multiple surgical interventions, patient outcomes remain suboptimal. Immunotherapies have emerged as effective strategies for HCC treatment with multiple clinical advantages. However, their curative efficacy is not always satisfactory, limited by the dysfunctional T cell status. Thus, there is a pressing need to discover novel potential biomarkers indicative of T cell exhaustion (Tex) for personalized immunotherapies...
March 25, 2024: BMB Reports
Seyeon Joo, See Young Joo, Su Yeon Lee, Yeseong Hwang, Minki Kim, Jae Woong Jeong, Sung Ill Jang, Sungsoon Fang
We conducted a comprehensive series of molecular biological studies aimed at unraveling the intricate mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) when used in conjunction with fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) for the management of benign biliary strictures (BBS). To decipher the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-fibrotic effects of corticosteroids on gallbladder mucosa, we conducted a comprehensive analysis. This analysis included various methodologies such as immunohistochemistry, ELISA, real-time PCR, and transcriptome analysis, enabling us to examine alterations in factors related to fibrosis and inflammation at both the protein and RNA levels...
March 25, 2024: BMB Reports
Hongryeol Park, Chan Hee Lee
Cancer progression is driven by genetic mutations, environmental factors, and intricate interactions within the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME comprises of diverse cell types, such as cancer cells, immune cells, stromal cells, and neuronal cells. These cells mutually influence each other through various factors, including cytokines, vascular perfusion, and matrix stiffness. In the initial or developmental stage of cancer, neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor are associated with poor prognosis of various cancers by communicating with cancer cells, immune cells, and peripheral nerves within the TME...
March 25, 2024: BMB Reports
Sung Yong Ahn
Overexpression of mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a mitochondrial fusion protein, is frequently associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer patients. Here, I aimed to investigate the involvement of MFN2 in cervical cancer progression and determine the effect of MFN2 on prognosis in cervical cancer patients. After generating MFN2-knockdown SiHa cells derived from squamous cell carcinoma, I investigated the effect of MFN2 on SiHa cell proliferation using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and determined the mRNA levels of proliferation markers...
March 7, 2024: BMB Reports
Hyun Jung Kim, Yea Bin Cho, Kyun Heo, Ji Woong Kim, Ha Gyeong Shin, Eun-Bi Lee, Seong-Min Park, Jong Bae Park, Sukmook Lee
Gastric cancer (GC), a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, remains a significant challenge despite recent therapeutic advancements. In this study, we explore the potential of targeting cell surface glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) with antibodies as a novel therapeutic approach for GC. Our comprehensive analysis of GRP94 expression across various cancer types, with a specific focus on GC, revealed a substantial overexpression of GRP94, highlighting its potential as a promising target. Through in vitro and in vivo efficacy assessments, as well as toxicological analyses, we found that K101...
March 7, 2024: BMB Reports
Sun-Min Lee
DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, known to play crucial roles in various organisms. It has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin changes, ranging from global alterations during cell state transitions to locus-specific modifications. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is produced by a major oxidation, from 5-methylcytosine (5mC), catalyzed by the ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, and is gradually being recognized for its significant role in genome regulation...
March 7, 2024: BMB Reports
Eunhyong Chang, Joon-Yong An
Whole-genome doubling (WGD), characterized by the duplication of an entire set of chromosomes, is commonly observed in various tumors, occurring in approximately 30-40% of patients with different cancer types. The effect of WGD on tumorigenesis varies depending on the context, either promoting or suppressing tumor progression. Recent advances in genomic technologies and large-scale clinical investigations have led to the identification of the complex patterns of genomic alterations underlying WGD and their functional consequences on tumorigenesis progression and prognosis...
March 7, 2024: BMB Reports
Yunji Kim, Dayeon Kang, Ga-Eun Choi, Sang Dae Kim, Sun-Ja Yang, Hyosang Kim, Dalsan You, Choung Soo Kim, Nayoung Suh
We investigated the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) on immortalized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC/ TERT1) in a fibrotic environment. To replicate the increased stiffness characteristic of kidneys in chronic kidney disease, we utilized polyacrylamide gel platforms. A stiff matrix was shown to increase α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels, indicating fibrogenic activation in RPTEC/TERT1 cells. Interestingly, treatment with BMSC-CM resulted in significant reductions in the levels of fibrotic markers (α-SMA and vimentin) and increases in the levels of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and aquaporin 7, particularly under stiff conditions...
February 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Soyeon Lim, Youngeun Ha, Boram Lee, Junho Shin, Taiyoun Rhim
Lung cancer carries one of the highest mortality rates among all cancers. It is often diagnosed at more advanced stages with limited treatment options compared to other malignancies. This study focuses on calnexin as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Calnexin, a molecular chaperone integral to N-linked glycoprotein synthesis, has shown some associations with cancer. However, targeted therapeutic or diagnostic methods using calnexin have been proposed. Through 1D-LCMSMS, we identified calnexin as a biomarker for lung cancer and substantiated its expression in human lung cancer cell membranes using Western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry...
February 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Byung Chul Jung, Sung-Hun Woo, Sung Hoon Kim, Yoon Suk Kim
Gefitinib exerts anticancer effects on various types of cancer, such as lung, ovarian, breast, and colon cancers. However, the therapeutic effects of gefitinib on cervical cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore whether gefitinib can be used to treat cervical cancer and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that gefitinib induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis of HeLa cells, which consequently became round and detached from the surface of the culture plate...
February 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Jong Hee Kim, Jihyeon Yu, Jin Young Kim, Yong Jin Park, Sangsu Bae, Kwon Kyoo Kang, Yu Jin Jung
Pre-harvest sprouting is a critical phenomenon involving germination of seeds in the mother plant before harvest under relative humid conditions and reduced dormancy. In this paper, we generated HDR mutant lines with one region SNP (C/T) and an insertion of 6 bp (GGT/GGTGGCGGC) in OsERF1 genes for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance using CRISPR/Cas9 and a geminiviral replicon system. The incidence of HDR was 2.6% in transformed calli. T1 seeds were harvested from 12 HDR-induced calli and named ERF1-hdr line...
February 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Yuna Kim, Baeki E Kang, Karim Gariani, Joanna Gariani, Junguee Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Chang-Woo Lee, Kristina Schoonjans, Johan Auwerx, Dongryeol Ryu
The mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1-SIRT7) has shown diverse biological roles in the regulation and maintenance of genome stability under genotoxic stress. SIRT7, one of the least studied sirtuin, has been demonstrated to be a key factor for DNA damage response (DDR). However, conflicting results have proposed that Sirt7 is an oncogenic factor to promote transformation in cancer cells. To address this inconsistency, we investigated properties of SIRT7 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) regulation under DNA damage and found that loss of hepatic Sirt7 accelerated HCC progression...
February 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Zhe Shi, Liyuan Zhou, Yan Zhou, Xiaoyan Jia, Xiangjun Yu, Xiaohong An, Yanzhen Han
[Retraction to: BMB Rep. 2022 June 30; 55(6): 299-304.] Retraction: "Inhibition of ClC-5 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway," by Zhe Shi, Liyuan Zhou, Yan Zhou, Xiaoyan Jia, Xiangjun Yu, Xiaohong An and Yanzhen Han, BMB Rep. 2022; 55(6) 299-304: The above article, published online on 30 June 2022 in BMB Reports BMBRep.2022.55.6.044), has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal's Editor in Chief...
February 2024: BMB Reports
Kaiyun Qin, Fenghua Zhang, Hongxia Wang, Na Wang, Hongbing Qiu, Xinzhuan Jia, Shan Gong, Zhengmao Zhang
[Erratum to: BMB Reports 2023; 56(3): 184-189, PMID: 36617466, PMCID: PMC10068343] The BMB Reports would like to correct in BMB Rep. 56(3): 184-189, titled "circRNA circSnx12 confers Cisplatin chemoresistance to ovarian cancer by inhibiting ferroptosis through a miR-194-5p/SLC7A11 axis". The original version of this article unfortunately contained image error in the Fig. 3. This article has been updated to correct an error in the image in Fig. 3D. The author apologizes for any inconvenience or confusion this error may cause...
February 2024: BMB Reports
Kayeong Lim
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a multicopy genome found in mitochondria, is crucial for oxidative phosphorylation. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to severe mitochondrial dysfunction in tissues and organs with high energy demand. MtDNA mutations are closely associated with mitochondrial and age-related disease. To better understand the functional role of mtDNA and work toward developing therapeutics, it is essential to advance technology that is capable of manipulating the mitochondrial genome. This review discusses ongoing efforts in mitochondrial genome editing with mtDNA nucleases and base editors, including the tools, delivery strategies, and applications...
January 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Chul-Sung Park, Omer Habib, Younsu Lee, Junho K Hur
Advancements in gene and cell therapy have resulted in novel therapeutics for diseases previously considered incurable or challenging to treat. Among the various contributing technologies, genome editing stands out as one of the most crucial for the progress in gene and cell therapy. The discovery of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) and the subsequent evolution of genetic engineering technology have markedly expanded the field of target-specific gene editing. Originally studied in the immune systems of bacteria and archaea, the CRISPR system has demonstrated wide applicability to effective genome editing of various biological systems including human cells...
January 5, 2024: BMB Reports
Ju-Chan Park, Sangsu Bae
Since the identification of DNA as a genetic material, manipulating DNA in various organisms has been a long standing dream of humanity. In pursuit of this objective, technologies to edit genome have been extensively developed over the recent decades. The emergence of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems enabled site-specific DNA cleavage in a programmable manner...
January 2024: BMB Reports
Dong-Hyeok Kwon, Gyeong-Min Gim, Soo-Young Yum, Goo Jang
The application of gene engineering in livestock is necessary for various reasons, such as increasing productivity and producing disease resistance and biomedicine models. Overall, gene engineering provides benefits to the agricultural and research aspects, and humans. In particular, productivity can be increased by producing livestock with enhanced growth and improved feed conversion efficiency. In addition, the application of the disease resistance models prevents the spread of infectious diseases, which reduces the need for treatment, such as the use of antibiotics; consequently, it promotes the overall health of the herd and reduces unexpected economic losses...
December 6, 2023: BMB Reports
A Reum Han, Tae Kwon Moon, Im Kyeung Kang, Dae Bong Yu, Yechan Kim, Cheolhwan Byon, Sujeong Park, Hae Lin Kim, Kyoung Jin Lee, Heuiran Lee, Ha-Na Woo, Seong Who Kim
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in maintaining cognitive brain function; however, this process diminishes with age, particularly in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. While small, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cell maintenance, their involvement in neurodegenerative disorders remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms through which miRNAs regulate HCN cell death and their potential involvement in neurodegenerative disorder...
December 6, 2023: BMB Reports
Wei He, Yanqin Zhang, Yi Qu, Mengmeng Liu, Guodong Li, Luxiang Pan, Xinyao Xu, Gege Shi, Qiang Hao, Fen Liu, Yuan Gao
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin tumors, and conventional treatment modalities are not effective in treating advanced melanoma. Although immunotherapy is an effective treatment for melanoma, it has disadvantages, such as a poor response rate and serious systemic immune-related toxic side effects. The main solution to this problem is the use of biological materials such as hydrogels to reduce these side effects and amplify the immune killing effect against tumor cells. Hydrogels have great advantages as local slow-release drug carriers, including the ability to deliver antitumor drugs directly to the tumor site, enhance the local drug concentration in tumor tissue, reduce systemic drug distribution and exhibit good degradability...
December 6, 2023: BMB Reports
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