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BMB Reports

Naresh Poondla, Arun Pandian Chandrasekaran, Kye-Seong Kim, Suresh Ramakrishna
Cancer remains a life-threatening disease and accounts for the major mortality rates worldwide. The practice of using biomarkers for early detection, staging, and customized therapy may increase cancer patients' survival. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a family of proteases that remove ubiquitin tags from proteins of interest undergoing proteasomal degradation. DUBs play several functional roles other than deubiquitination. One of the important roles of DUBs is regulation of tumor progression. Several reports have suggested that the DUB family members were highly-elevated in various cancer cells and tissues in different stages of cancer...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Won Kyung Lee, Myeon Haeng Cho
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. They protect the chromosome ends from various external attacks to avoid the loss of genetic information. Telomeres are maintained by cellular activities associated with telomerase and telomere-binding proteins. In addition, epigenetic regulators have pivotal roles in controlling the chromatin state at the telomeres and the subtelomeric regions, contributing to the maintenance of chromosomal homeostasis in yeast, animals, and plants...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Hyo Min Cho, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Although many studies have reported that the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents one of the major pathological changes in aging, the mechanism underlying this process remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we described that acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) derived from endothelial cells plays a critical role in BBB disruption in aging. ASM levels were elevated in the brain endothelium and plasma of aged humans and mice, resulting in BBB leakage through an increase in caveolae-mediated transcytosis...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun
Mitochondrial morphology is known to be continuously changing via fusion and fission, but it is unclear what the biological importance of this energy-consuming process is and how it develops. Several data have suggested that mitochondrial fission executed by Drp1 is necessary to select out a damaged spot from the interconnected mitochondrial network, but the precise mechanism for the recognition and isolation of a damaged sub-mitochondrial region during mitochondrial fission is yet unclear. Recently, Cho et al...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Yitao Wang, Chunxue Zhang, Li Mai, Yulong Niu, Yulong Niu, Youquan Bu
Our previous study found that two novel cancer-related genes, PRR11 and SKA2, constituted a classic gene pair that was regulated by p53 and NF-Y in lung cancer. However, their role and regulatory mechanism in breast cancer remain elusive. In this study, we found that the expression levels of PRR11 and SKA2 were upregulated and have a negative prognotic value in breast cancer. Loss-of-function experiments showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of PRR11 and/or SKA2 inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Hyun Sook Hwang, Mi Hyun Lee, Min Ha Choi, Hyun Ah Kim
The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) is an innate pattern recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. The 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment (29-kDa FN-f) is a matrix degradation product found in the synovial fluids of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether NOD2 was involved in 29-kDa FN-f-induced pro-catabolic gene expression in human chondrocytes. The expression of mRNA and protein was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-PCR) and Western blot analysis...
February 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Bong-Woo Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Young-Gyu Ko
Using tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), various pathological molecules and viruses disseminate to adjacent cells intercellularly. Here, we show that the intracellular invasion of Mycoplasma hyorhinis induces the formation of actin- and tubulin-based TNTs in various mammalian cell lines. M. hyorhinis was found in TNTs generated by M. hyorhinis infection in NIH3T3 cells. Because mycoplasma-free recipient cells received mycoplasmas from M. hyorhinis-infected donor cells in a mixed co-culture system and not a spatially separated co-culture system, direct cell-to-cell contact via TNTs was necessary for the intracellular dissemination of M...
January 24, 2019: BMB Reports
Marie Fernandes, Leslie Duplaquet, David Tulasne
Membrane-anchored full-length MET stimulated by its ligand HGF/SF induces various biological responses, including survival, growth, and invasion. This panel of responses, referred to invasive growth, is required for embryogenesis and tissue regeneration in the adult. In contrast, MET deregulation is associated with tumorigenesis in many kinds of cancer. In addition to its well-documented ligand-stimulated downstream signaling, the receptor can be cleaved by proteases such as secretases, caspases, and calpains...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Youngsook Park, Jongmin Kim
The role of tumor-proximal factors in tumor plasticity during chemoresistance and metastasis following chemotherapy is well studied. However, the role of endothelial cell (EC) derived paracrine factors in tumor plasticity, their effect on chemotherapeutic outcome, and the mechanism by which these paracrine factors modulate the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. In this study, we report a novel mechanism by which endothelial miR-125a and let-7e-mediated regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling can manipulate vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Tae-Sung Kim, Hag Dong Kim, Yong Jun Park, EunBin Kong, Hee Woong Yang, Youjin Jung, YongJoong Kim, Joon Kim
Translation is a costly, but inevitable, cell maintenance process. To reduce unnecessary ATP consumption in cells, a fine-tuning mechanism is needed for both ribosome biogenesis and translation. Previous studies have suggested that the ribosome functions as a hub for many cellular signals such as ribotoxic stress response, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between ribosomes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation under ribotoxic stress conditions and found that the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) was suppressed by ribosomal protein knockdown but that of p38 was not...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Sang-Won Park, Yong-Woo Jun, Ha-Eun Choi, Jin-A Lee, Deok-Jin Jang
Arginine methylation plays crucial roles in many cellular functions including signal transduction, RNA transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8), a unique brain-specific protein, is localized to the plasma membrane. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying PRMT8 plasma membrane targeting remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the N-terminal 20 amino acids of PRMT8 are sufficient for plasma membrane localization and that oligomerization enhances membrane localization...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Sunju Lee, Sangsu Park, Minh Tan Nguyen, Eunyoung Lee, Julee Kim, Sangki Baek, Chong Jai Kim, Yeon Jin Jang, Han Choe
Conventionally, immunotoxins have been produced as a single polypeptide from fused genes of an antibody fragment and a toxin. In this study, we adopted a unique approach of chemical conjugation of a toxin protein and an antibody fragment. The two genes were separately expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to high levels of purity. The two purified proteins were conjugated using a chemical linker. The advantage of this approach is its ability to overcome the problem of low recombinant immunotoxin production observed in some immunotoxins...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Lian Xu, Mengxia Fu, Dongrui Chen, Weiqing Han, Michael C Ostrowski, Paul Grossfeld, Pingjin Gao, Maoqing Ye
Cardiac fibrosis is a common feature in chronic hypertension patients with advanced heart failure, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is known to promote Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis. Previous studies have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor, ETS-1, in Ang II-mediated cardiac remodeling, however the mechanism are not well defined. In this study, we found that mice with endothelial Ets-1 deletion showed reduced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy following Ang II infusion...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Jusong Kim, Gaunghai Jin, Jisu Lee, Kyeong Lee, Yun Soo Bae, Jaesang Kim
We have previously reported the effects of 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl (R)-3-methoxy-3-oxo-2-stearamidopropyl phosphate [(R)-TEMOSPho], a synthetic phospholipid, on megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Here, we demonstrate that (R)-TEMOSPho enhances megakaryopoiesis and plateletogenesis from primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) induced by thrombopoietin (TPO). Specifically, we demonstrate at sub-saturation levels of TPO, the addition of (R)-TEMOSPho enhances differentiation and maturation of megakaryocytes (MKs) from murine HSCs derived from fetal liver...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Jiwon Ryu, Dong-Gyu Kim, Young-Sun Lee, Yeonju Bae, Ajung Kim, Nammi Park, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park
TTYH2 is a calcium-activated, inwardly rectifying anion channel that has been shown to be related to renal cancer and colon cancer. Based on the topological prediction, TTYH2 protein has five transmembrane domains with the extracellular N-terminus and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. In the present study, we identified a vesicle transport protein, β-COP, as a novel specific binding partner of TTYH2 by yeast two-hybrid screening using a human brain cDNA library with the C-terminal region of TTYH2 (TTYH2-C) as a bait...
January 23, 2019: BMB Reports
Sora Han, Young Yang
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) was originally identified in natural killer (NK) cells activated by IL-2 in 1992. Thus, it was named NK cell transcript 4 (NK4) because of its unknown function at that time. The function of IL-32 has been elucidated over the last decade. IL-32 is primarily considered to be a booster of inflammatory reactions because it is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates the production of those cytokines and vice versa. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to studying the roles of IL-32 in inflammation-associated cancers, including gastric, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Kyung-Sun Heo
The small ubiquitin-related modification molecule (SUMO), one of the post-translational modification molecules, is involved in a variety of cellular functions where it regulates protein activity and stability, transcription, and cell cycling. Modulation of protein SUMOylation or deSUMOylation modification has been associated with regulation of carcinogenesis in breast cancer. In the dynamic processes of SUMOylation and deSUMOylation in a variety of cancers, SUMO proteases (SENPs), reverse SUMOylation by isopeptidase activity and SENPs are mostly elevated, and are related to poor patient prognosis...
January 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Seon Min Woo, Taeg Kyu Kwon
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway through formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), followed by activation of effector caspases. TRAIL receptors are composed of death receptors (DR4 and DR5), decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2), and osteoprotegerin. Among them, only DRs activate apoptotic signaling by TRAIL. Since the levels of DR expressions are higher in cancer cells than in normal cells, TRAIL selectively activates apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells...
January 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Jae-Seon Lee
Cellular senescence is a state of permanent cell cycle arrest which exhibits large and flattened morphological characteristics. Cellular senescence might evolve to a beneficial process to suppress the accumulation of severely damaged cells. However, senescent cells are considered as the cause of age-related pathologies and diseases. In contrast replicative senescence, premature senescence could be rapidly induced through intrinsic and extrinsic insults. Cancer cell senescence has been accepted as an alternative and attractive tumor suppressive mechanism...
January 14, 2019: BMB Reports
Sang-Min Kim, Jae-Wan Huh, Eun-Young Kim, Min-Kyung Shin, Ji-Eun Park, Seong Who Kim, Wooseong Lee, Bongkun Choi, Eun-Ju Chang
Endothelial dysfunction-induced lipid retention is an early feature of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the major modulating factors of atherogenesis, which accelerates atherosclerosis progression by causing plaque destabilization and rupture. However, the mechanism underlying VSMC apoptosis mediated by endothelial dysfunction in relation to atherosclerosis remains elusive. In this study, we reveal differential expression of several genes related to lipid retention and apoptosis, in conjunction with atherosclerosis, by utilizing a genetic mouse model of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficiency manifesting endothelial dysfunction...
January 14, 2019: BMB Reports
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