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Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair

Marike M van Beuge, Evert-Jan P M Ten Dam, Paul M N Werker, Ruud A Bank
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's disease is a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, which usually manifests as two different phenotypes within the same patient. The disease first causes a nodule in the palm of the hand, while later, a cord develops, causing contracture of the fingers. RESULTS: We set out to characterize the two phenotypes by comparing matched cord and nodule tissue from ten Dupuytren's patients. We found that nodule tissue contained more proliferating cells, CD68-positive macrophages and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblastic cells...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Lina He, James Gubbins, Zhechu Peng, Vivian Medina, Fan Fei, Kinji Asahina, Jiaohong Wang, Michael Kahn, Carl B Rountree, Bangyan L Stiles
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is a prominent pathological feature associated with chronic liver disease including non-alcoholic hepatosteatosis (NASH), and a precursor for liver cancer development. We previously reported that PTEN loss in the liver, which leads to hyperactivated liver insulin signaling results in NASH development. Here we used the same mouse model to study the progression from steatosis to fibrosis. RESULTS: The Pten null livers develop progressive liver fibrosis as indicated by Sirius Red staining and increased expression of collagen I, Timp 1, SMAα, and p75NTR...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Verónica Miguel, Oscar Busnadiego, Marta Fierro-Fernández, Santiago Lamas
BACKGROUND: Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is the hallmark of fibrotic diseases, including skin fibrosis. This response relies on the activation of dermal fibroblasts that evolve into a pro-fibrogenic phenotype. One of the major players in this process is the cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression affecting a wide range of pathophysiological events including fibrogenesis...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Robert M DiFazio, Joshua T Mattila, Edwin C Klein, Lauren R Cirrincione, Mondraya Howard, Eileen A Wong, JoAnne L Flynn
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy clears bacterial burden in the lungs of patients and allows the tuberculous lesions to heal through a fibrotic process. The healing process leaves pulmonary scar tissue that can impair lung function. The goal of this study was to identify fibrotic mediators as a stepping-stone to begin exploring mechanisms of tissue repair in TB. METHODS: Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome stain were utilized to determine levels of collagenization in tuberculous granulomas from non-human primates...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Cecilie K Nesset, Xiang Yi Kong, Markus Damme, Camilla Schjalm, Norbert Roos, Else Marit Løberg, Winnie Eskild
BACKGROUND: Mice lacking glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein (Glmp (gt/gt) mice) have liver fibrosis as the predominant phenotype due to chronic liver injury. The Glmp (gt/gt) mice grow and reproduce at the same rate as their wild-type siblings. Life expectancy is around 18 months. METHODS: Wild-type and Glmp (gt/gt) mice were studied between 1 week and 18 months of age. Livers were analyzed using histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and qPCR analyses...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Jennifer M McCracken, Lu Jiang, Krutika T Deshpande, Maura F O'Neil, Michele T Pritchard
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix (ECM) glycosaminoglycan synthesized by three different enzymes, hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1, 2, and 3. HA synthesis mediated by HAS3 promotes inflammation and is pathogenic in animal models of human lung and intestinal disease. Liver fibrosis is a common endpoint to chronic liver injury and inflammation for which there is no cure. Although plasma HA is a commonly used biomarker for liver disease, if and how HA contributes to disease pathogenesis remains unclear...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Eseelle K Hendow, Pauline Guhmann, Bernice Wright, Panagiotis Sofokleous, Nina Parmar, Richard M Day
Tissue engineering is a rapidly advancing field that is likely to transform how medicine is practised in the near future. For hollow organs such as those found in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems or gastrointestinal tract, tissue engineering can provide replacement of the entire organ or provide restoration of function to specific regions. Larger tissue-engineered constructs often require biomaterial-based scaffold structures to provide support and structure for new tissue growth. Consideration must be given to the choice of material and manufacturing process to ensure the de novo tissue closely matches the mechanical and physiological properties of the native tissue...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Yangyang Ouyang, Jinsheng Guo, Chenzhao Lin, Jie Lin, Yirong Cao, Yuanqin Zhang, Yujin Wu, Shiyao Chen, Jiyao Wang, Luonan Chen, Scott L Friedman
BACKGROUND: Intact Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the primary fibrogenic cell type in liver. Here, we investigated the impact of TLR4 signaling on the gene expression network of HSCs by comparing the transcriptomic changes between wild-type (JS1) and TLR4 knockout (JS2) murine HSCs in response to two TLR4 ligands, lipopolysacchride (LPS), or high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). RESULTS: Whole mouse genome microarray was performed for gene expression analysis...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Sen Shi, Daisuke Koya, Keizo Kanasaki
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence revealed that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may exhibit a protective effect against DN. In fact, the kidney is the organ where the DPP-4 activity is the highest level per organ weight. A preclinical analysis revealed that DPP-4 inhibitors also ameliorated kidney fibrosis. In this review, we analyzed recent reports in this field and explore the renoprotective effects and possible mechanism of the DPP-4 inhibitors...
2016: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Fabiana Postolow, Jena Fediuk, Nora Nolette, Martha Hinton, Shyamala Dakshinamurti
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Remodeling is believed to be a response to physical or chemical stimuli including pro-mitotic inflammatory mediators such as thromboxane. Our objective was to examine the effects of hypoxia and thromboxane signaling ex vivo and in vitro on phenotype commitment, cell cycle entry, and proliferation of PPHN and control neonatal pulmonary artery (PA) myocytes in tissue culture...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Katharine M Irvine, Andrew D Clouston, Victoria L Gadd, Gregory C Miller, Weng-Yew Wong, Michelle Melino, Muralidhara Rao Maradana, Kelli MacDonald, Richard A Lang, Matthew J Sweet, Antje Blumenthal, Elizabeth E Powell
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play critical roles in liver regeneration, fibrosis development and resolution. They are among the first responders to liver injury and are implicated in orchestrating the fibrogenic response via multiple mechanisms. Macrophages are also intimately associated with the activated hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) niche or ductular reaction that develops in parallel with fibrosis. Among the many macrophage-derived mediators implicated in liver disease progression, a key role for macrophage-derived Wnt proteins in driving pro-regenerative HPC activation towards a hepatocellular fate has been suggested...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Roisin Neary, Chris J Watson, John A Baugh
Fibrosis is a progressive and potentially fatal process that can occur in numerous organ systems. Characterised by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagens and fibronectin, fibrosis affects normal tissue architecture and impedes organ function. Although a considerable amount of research has focused on the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis, current therapeutic options do not directly target the pro-fibrotic process. As a result, there is a clear unmet clinical need to develop new agents...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Mitsuko Hara, Ikuyo Inoue, Yuta Yamazaki, Akiko Kirita, Tomokazu Matsuura, Scott L Friedman, Daniel B Rifkin, Soichi Kojima
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis, which is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrices (ECMs) produced mainly from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), develops to cirrhosis over several decades. There are no validated biomarkers that can non-invasively monitor excessive production of ECM (i.e., fibrogenesis). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a key driver of fibrogenesis, is produced as an inactive latent complex, in which active TGF-β is enveloped by its pro-peptide, the latency-associated protein (LAP)...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Michael Zeisberg, Elisabeth M Zeisberg
Based on extensive pre-clinical achievements over the past decades, it appears to be due time for a successful clinical translation in the renal fibrosis field-but what is the quickest road to get there? In light of the recent launch of the Precision Medicine Initiative and success of molecularly informed drugs in oncology, we here discuss what it may take to bring molecularly targeted anti-fibrotic to clinical use in chronic progressive kidney disease.
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Rebecca Lee, Charles Reese, Beth Perry, Jonathan Heywood, Michael Bonner, Marina Zemskova, Richard M Silver, Stanley Hoffman, Elena Tourkina
BACKGROUND: A major health disparity suffered by African Americans (AA) is a predisposition toward fibrotic diseases of the skin, lung, and other organs. We previously showed that healthy AA and scleroderma (systemic sclerosis (SSc)) patient monocytes share biochemical and functional differences from control Caucasian (C) monocytes that may predispose AA to SSc. The central difference is a decrease in caveolin-1. Low caveolin-1 levels promote monocyte migration, their differentiation into fibrocytes, and fibrocyte recruitment into fibrotic tissues...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Louise Catherine Stone, Lorna Susan Thorne, Christopher John Weston, Mark Graham, Nikolas John Hodges
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a physiological response to cellular injury in the liver and is mediated by the activation of hepatic stellate cells resulting in the replacement of hepatocytes with extracellular matrix comprised principally of collagen 1 to form a hepatic scar. Although the novel hexaco-ordinated globin cytoglobin was identified in activated hepatic stellate cells more than 10 years ago, its role in stellate cell biology and liver fibrosis remains enigmatic. RESULTS: In the current study, we investigated the role of different extracellular matrix proteins in stellate cell proliferation, activation (alpha smooth muscle actin expression and retinoic acid uptake) and cytoglobin expression...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Adil El Taghdouini, Mustapha Najimi, Pau Sancho-Bru, Etienne Sokal, Leo A van Grunsven
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive formation and accumulation of matrix proteins as a result of wound healing in the liver. A main event during fibrogenesis is the activation of the liver resident quiescent hepatic stellate cell (qHSC). Recent studies suggest that reversion of the activated HSC (aHSC) phenotype into a quiescent-like phenotype could be a major cellular mechanism underlying fibrosis regression in the liver, thereby offering new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of liver fibrosis...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
David M Charytan, Angeles Cinelli, Elisabeth M Zeisberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development and severity of coronary artery disease (CHD) and endothelial dysfunction. There is an increase in the circulating angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin (END), thrombospondin-2 (TSP), angiopoietin-2 (ANG) and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) in CKD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of the serum level of these factors and of the related angiogenesis inhibitor, endoglin (ENG), with burden of coronary atherosclerosis...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Masao Nakasatomi, Akito Maeshima, Keiichiro Mishima, Hidekazu Ikeuchi, Toru Sakairi, Yoriaki Kaneko, Keiju Hiromura, Yoshihisa Nojima
BACKGROUND: The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is generally defined by phenotypic changes of injured tubules such as loss of epithelial markers or acquisition of mesenchymal markers, implies various activating steps, including proliferation, migration, and ability to produce extracellular matrix proteins. We established here a novel approach for the detection of tubular cell migration into the interstitium during renal fibrosis in vivo. RESULTS: Using an osmotic pump, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was continuously given to 7-week-old Wistar rats for 4 weeks, and BrdU-positive cells were detected by immunostaining...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
Damaris Elena Lopera, Tonny Williams Naranjo, José Miguel Hidalgo, Laura Echeverri, Jairo Hernando Patiño, Ángela Restrepo Moreno, Henrique Leonel Lenzi, Luz Elena Cano
BACKGROUND: Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine compound with immunomodulatory and antifibrotic properties. The simultaneous use of PTX and antifungal therapy (itraconazole) has previously been evaluated in an experimental model of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic fungal disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) and characterized by chronic inflammation and lung fibrosis that appears even after a successful course of antifungal therapy. The results revealed prompt and statistically significant reductions in inflammation and fibrosis when compared to itraconazole alone...
2015: Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
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