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Journal of Breath Research

Davide Marzorati, Luca Mainardi, Giulia Sedda, Roberto Gasparri, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Pietro Cerveri
One of the main causes of the high mortality rate in lung cancer is the late-stage tumor detection. Early diagnosis is therefore essential to increase the chances of obtaining an effective treatment quickly thus increasing the survival rate. Current screening techniques are based on imaging, with low dose computed tomography (LDCT) as the pivotal approach. Even if LDCT has high accuracy, its invasiveness and high false positive rate limit its application to high risk population screening. A non-invasive, cost-efficient, and easy to use test should instead be designed as an alternative...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Michael Oldham, Owen R Moss
Analysis of human and animal exhaled breath has identified numerous compounds including proteins and surfactant constituents from the deep lung. Some mechanisms such as coughing, breaking of surfactant/mucus plugs, or "bronchiole film bursting" have been proposed to explain the presence of these proteins from the deep lung but do not include possible contributions from Pores of Kohn. A re-examination of the change in diameter as well as forces exerted by surfactant film in the Pores of Kohn during normal inspiration, demonstrates that these channels should open following rupture of the surfactant film; which could generate aerosols of surfactant film constituents...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Paolo Cameli, Elena Bargagli, Laura Bergantini, Rosa Metella Refini, Maria Pieroni, Piersante Sestini, Paola Rottoli
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive and reproducible marker of nitrosative stress and lung inflammation. More recently, FeNO has been proposed as a marker of severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis associated ILD.
 AIM AND OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the role of FeNO in the diagnostic pathway of ILDs.
 METHODS: According to ERS guidelines for exhaled biomarkers in lung diseases, FeNO at multiple flow-rates (50-100-150 and 350 ml/s) and alveolar concentration of NO (CaNO) were collected in 60 healthy controls and 134 patients affected by ILD: 50 with IPF, 19 with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with chronic hypersensitivitis pneumonia (cHP) and 46 with connective tissue disease related ILD (CTD-ILD)...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Antonio Molino, Salvatore Fuschillo, Marco Mosella, Sofia Accardo, Pietro Guida, Andrea Motta, Mauro Maniscalco
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is a simple and non-invasive method for monitoring eosinophilic airway inflammation. New portable analyzers for FeNO measurements have been developed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the agreement of FeNO measured by new portable analyzers.
 Materials and methods: FeNO was measured in 20 healthy subjects, 20 asthmatic and 20 chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases patients by using the analyzers NIOX VERO, Vivatmo pro and HypAir FeNO. Linear relationship was estimated with Pearson's coefficient (r), absolute agreement by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and bias with limits of agreement (95% of paired differences) were assessed according to Bland-Altman method...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Meiqing Lei, Lingfeng Sun, Xian-Sheng Luo, Xiaoyang Yang, Feng Yu, Xiaoxia Chen, Zhiming Wang
Extant indices for distinguishing between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia (Thal) have substantial practical limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the predictive value of red blood cell lifespan (RBCLS), as determined by an automated CO breath test analysis approach, in the differential diagnosis of these two common forms of microcytic hypochromic anemia (MHA).
 Methods: RBCLS measurements were conducted in 35 healthy controls (HCs) and 114 patients diagnosed with MHA (IDA, N = 59; and Thal, N = 55) with ELS TESTER that provides a direct RBCLS value read-out...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Ramin Ghorbani, Florian M Schmidt
Real-time breath gas analysis coupled to gas exchange modeling is emerging as promising strategy to enhance the information gained from breath tests. It is shown for exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eCO), a potential biomarker for oxidative stress and respiratory diseases, that a weighted, nonlinear least-squares fit of simulated to measured expirograms can be used to extract physiological parameters, such as airway and alveolar concentrations and diffusing capacities. Experimental CO exhalation profiles are acquired with high time-resolution and precision using mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and online breath sampling...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Bhagaban Behera, Rathin Joshi, Anil Vishnu G K, Sanjay Bhalerao, Hardik J Pandya
In human-exhaled breath, more than 3000 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found which are directly or indirectly related to internal biochemical processes in the body. Electronic noses (E-noses) could play a potential role in screening/analyzing various respiratory and systemic diseases by studying breath signatures. E-nose integrates sensor array and an artificial neural network that responds to specific patterns of VOCs and thus can act as a non-invasive technology for disease monitoring. Gold standard blood glucose monitoring for diabetes diagnostics is invasive and highly uncomfortable...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Carolina Cardoso Guedes, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Raimar Weber, Lara Motta, Ana Carolina Ciarcia, Olga Maria Silverio Amancio
Halitosis is a condition that can have negative social impacts. Although common, its prevalence and associated etiological factors have been studied little in the child/adolescent population. The aim of the present study was to associate the occurrence of halitosis with oral etiological factors in children aged six to 12 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 male and female children and adolescents. The organoleptic test was used to determine halitosis. All patients and caregivers answered a questionnaire addressing personal data, general health and oral health, including hygiene habits, and received clarifications regarding the procedures to which the children/adolescents would be submitted in a second session...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Else Bijl, George Groeneweg, Daan Wesselius, Dirk Stronks, Frank Huygen

 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a complication after surgery or trauma and is characterized by a continuing regional pain in a distal extremity. The pain is disproportionate in severity and duration in relation to the preceding trauma. Currently, the diagnosis is based on the patients' signs and symptoms. There is no objective clinically applicable test available to confirm the diagnoses of CRPS, however this could contribute to a more reliable and valid diagnosis...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Uziel Jeffet, Nir Sterer
Mucoadhesive tablets containing herbal formulation have been previously shown to reduce oral malodour. The aim of the present in vitro study was to test the effect of the mucoadhesive agent hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) added to a liquid phase herbal extract formulation on the mucoadhesive retention of the active ingredients and their effect against malodour production. Experimental oral biofilms were grown on mucin coated glass slides treated with liquid phase solutions of herbal extract with or without HEC as well as saline and 0...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Ileana Andreea Ratiu, Tomasz Ligor, Victor Bocos-Bintintan, Jacek Szeliga, Katarzyna Machała, Marek Jackowski, Boguslaw Buszewski
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the headspace air over human tissues infected with different bacteria were investigated in this work. The above-mentioned VOCs result both from bacterial metabolic processes (pathogen-specific signals) and from the matrix (tissue samples themselves). The objective of this study was to investigate whether one could reliably identify various microorganism strains that exist inside infected tissue samples by direct monitoring of the headspace atmosphere above their cultures...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Agne Krilaviciute, Marcis Leja, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Orna Barash, Salam Khatib, Haitham Amal, Yoav Broza, Inese Polaka, Sergej Parshutin, Aiga Rudule, Hossam Haick, Hermann Brenner
Detection of diseases via exhaled breath remains an attractive idea despite persisting gaps in understanding the origin of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their relationship with the disease of interest. Data on factors potentially influencing the results of breath analysis remain rather sparse and often controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of common VOCs in exhaled breath of average-risk individuals with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, medical conditions as well as diet...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Pia-Merete Jervøe-Storm, Hendrik Schulze, Søren Jepsen
This randomized controlled cross-over-design-study investigated short-term effects on oral malodour of a zinc-lactate-containing mouthwash. 
 Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects (18-65 years) with an organoleptic score (OLS) ≥ 2 were included. Following rinses were used: A: a zinc-lactate-containing mouthwash (10ml/30s); B: a zinc-lactate-containing mouthwash (15ml/60s); C: a rinse without zinc-lactate (3 droplets/10ml tap water/30s) and D: tap water (10ml/30s). Each formulation was evaluated by two blinded examiners comparing OLS and three volatile-sulphur-compounds (VSC; H2S (hydrogen sulphide), CH3SH (methyl mercaptan) and (CH3)2S (dimethyl sulphide)) before, one and three hours after rinsing...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Madara Tirzïte, Māris Bukovskis, Gunta Strazda, Normunds Jurka, Immanuels Taivans
Lung cancer is a very common malignancy with a low five-year survival rate. Artificial olfactory sensor (electronic nose) is a tool that recently has been studied as a probable optimal screening tool for early detection of lung cancer, but still no statistical method has been put forward as the preferable one. The aim of the study was to explore the use of logistic regression analysis (LRA) to analyse patients' exhaled breath samples with electronic nose in order to differentiate lung cancer patients (regardless of the stage of the cancer) from patients with other lung diseases and healthy individuals...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Joachim D Pleil, M Ariel Geer Wallace, James McCord
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) is an important tool for performing non-targeted analysis for investigating complex organic mixtures in human or environmental media. This perspective demonstrates HR-MS compound identification strategies using atom counting, isotope ratios, and fragmentation pattern analysis based on 'exact' or 'accurate' mass, which allows analytical distinction among mass fragments with the same integer mass, but with different atomic constituents of the original molecules. Herein, HR-MS technology is shown to narrow down the identity of unknown compounds for specific examples, and ultimately inform future analyses when these compounds reoccur...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Filippo Patrucco, Francesco Gavelli, Paolo Ravanini, Matteo Daverio, Giulia Statti, Luigi Mario Castello, Stefano Andreoni, Piero Emilio Balbo

 The aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections is challenging to investigate. Despite the wide array of diagnostic tools, invasive techniques, such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), are often required to obtain adequate specimens. PneumoniaCheck™ is a new device that collects aerosol particles from cough, allowing microbiological analyses. Up to now it has been tested only for bacteria detection, but no study has investigated its usefulness for virus identification.
 In this pilot study we included 12 consecutive patients with pneumonia...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marco Beccaria, Carly Bobak, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Theodore R Mellors, Giorgia Purcaro, Flavio A Franchina, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Andrew Black, Jane E Hill
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease, and yet accurate diagnostics for the disease are unavailable for many subpopulations. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using human breath for the diagnosis of active TB among TB suspect patients, considering also several risk factors for TB for smokers and those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, non-invasive, and readily available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Waqar M Ahmed, Paul Brinkman, Hans Weda, Hugo H Knobel, Yun Xu, Tamara M Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Nicholas Rattray, Teunis J Vink, Marco Santonico, Giorgio Pennazza, Paolo Montuschi, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Methods for breath sampling and analysis require robust quality assessment to minimise the risk of false discoveries. Planning large-scale multi-site breath metabolite profiling studies also requires careful consideration of systematic and random variation as a result of sampling and analysis techniques. In this study we use breath sample data from the recent U-BIOPRED cohort to evaluate and discuss some important methodological considerations such as batch variation and correction, variation between sites, storage and transportation, as well as inter-instrument analytical differences...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Mithun Pal, Sanchi Maithani, Abhijit Maity, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
Over the past several decades, it has been generally believed that microbial nitrification and denitrification are not significant processes in the human gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the underlying physiological link between exhaled nitrous oxide (N2 O) and aerobic denitrification in the gastric environment is still largely unknown. In this report, we provide direct experimental evidence of the aerobic denitrification process in the human gastrointestinal tract by evaluating concentrations of dissolved N2 O and its precursor nitrite ([Formula: see text]) ion in the gastric juice along with exhaled N2 O concentration using a high-precision laser spectroscopy technique...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Tobias Hüppe, Thomas Volk, Sascha Kreuer
Critically ill patients typically need some kind of functional organ support or replacement. Cardiopulmonary and renal replacement therapies are well established measures in intensive care units. However, there are also inherent risks associated with these treatments. The appropriate and timely commencement, maintenance and termination of organ replacement procedures currently use weak surrogates as decision support in clinical practice. A more reasonable application of extracorporeal organ support can be expected to potentially lower adverse events and save costs in healthcare systems, if a precise online monitoring was available...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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