Yuan-Yuan Cao, Shu-Wen Xiao, Feng Yang, Xiao-Ya Liu, Hui Lu, Jin-Cheng Zhang, Yong-Hong Hu
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Vaccination is an effective and environmentally friendly method for tick control. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is an important glycometabolism enzyme that is a candidate vaccine against parasites. However, the immune protection of FBA in ticks is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 1092-bp open reading frame (ORF) of FBA from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlFBA), encoding a 363-amino acid protein, was cloned using PCR methodology...
May 25, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Hongbo Zhang, Chunyan Zhao, Xichen Zhang, Jianhua Li, Pengtao Gong, Xiaocen Wang, Xin Li, Xin Wang, Xu Zhang, Shuqin Cheng, Taotao Yue, Nan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis (referred to as Giardia) is a flagellated binucleate protozoan parasite, which causes one of the most common diarrheal diseases, giardiasis, worldwide. Giardia can be infected by Giardiavirus (GLV), a small endosymbiotic dsRNA virus belongs to the Totiviridae family. However, the regulation of GLV and a positive correlation between GLV and Giardia virulence is yet to be elucidated. METHODS: To identify potential regulators of GLV, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen to search for interacting proteins of RdRp...
May 25, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Davi Alvarenga Lima, Leilane Oliveira Gonçalves, João Luís Reis-Cunha, Paul Anderson Souza Guimarães, Jeronimo Conceição Ruiz, Daniel Barbosa Liarte, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD), caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious public health concern in Latin America. Nifurtimox and benznidazole (BZ), the only two drugs currently approved for the treatment of CD, have very low efficacies in the chronic phase of the disease and several toxic side effects. Trypanosoma cruzi strains that are naturally resistant to both drugs have been reported. We performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild-type and BZ-resistant T...
May 22, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Tse-Yu Chen, Jovana Bozic, Derrick Mathias, Chelsea T Smartt
BACKGROUND: Vector competence in Aedes aegypti is influenced by various factors. Crucial new control methods can be developed by recognizing which factors affect virus and mosquito interactions. METHODS: In the present study we used three geographically distinct Ae. aegypti populations and compared their susceptibility to infection by dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). To identify any differences among the three mosquito populations, we evaluated expression levels of immune-related genes and assessed the presence of microbiota that might contribute to the uniqueness in their vector competence...
May 19, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Xiaoxiao Ma, Xue Bai, Hongchang Li, Jing Ding, Huiyuan Zhang, Yangyuan Qiu, Jing Wang, Xiaolei Liu, Mingyuan Liu, Bin Tang, Ning Xu
BACKGROUND: Fish-borne zoonotic clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is an emerging public health problem in several countries with more than 15 million people infected globally. However, a lack of accurate point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests in resource-limited areas is still a critical barrier to effective treatment and control of clonorchiasis. The development of the recombinase polymerase amplification(RPA) assay, a POC diagnostic test based on the amplification of pathogen DNA, has provided a new, simple and inexpensive tool for disease detection with high sensitivity and specificity...
May 19, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Wen-Yu Song, Yan Lv, Peng-Wu Yin, Yi-Yu Yang, Xian-Guo Guo
BACKGROUND: Leptotrombidium scutellare is one of the six main vectors of scrub typhus in China and is a putative vector of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). This mite constitutes a large portion of the chigger mite community in southwest China. Although empirical data on its distribution are available for several investigated sites, knowledge of the species' association with human well-being and involvement in the prevalence of mite-borne diseases remains scarce. METHODS: Occurrence data on the chigger mite were obtained from 21 years (2001-2021) of field sampling...
May 16, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Marja Klazina de Jong, Aukje Rappoldt, Femke Broere, Christine Jantine Piek
BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Leishmaniosis is increasingly diagnosed in non-endemic areas due to the relocation of dogs from endemic areas and the travel of dogs to and from these areas. The prognosis of leishmaniosis in these dogs may differ from that of those in endemic areas. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Kaplan-Meier estimated survival time for dogs with leishmaniosis in the Netherlands (a non-endemic country), (2) to determine if clinicopathological variables at the time of diagnosis predicted the survival of these dogs, and (3) to evaluate the effect of a two-phase therapy protocol of allopurinol monotherapy followed by meglumine antimoniate and/or miltefosine in the case of incomplete remission or relapse...
May 15, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Ingo Schäfer, Albert Schmidt, Fritz Gräßer, Andrea Schieszler, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Gerhard Loesenbeck, Michaela Gentil, Elisabeth Müller, Torsten J Naucke
BACKGROUND: In Europe, feline leishmaniosis is commonly caused by Leishmania infantum. There is little knowledge regarding pathogenesis, ocular manifestations and long-term follow-ups in cats with leishmaniosis. FINDINGS: A 6-year-old female, spayed European Shorthair cat was imported from Spain to Germany 2 years prior to its first clinical presentation. The cat showed lethargy, weight loss, ulcerative lesions on the front limbs and high-grade chronic uveitis. The diagnosis of L...
May 12, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Cristina da Silva Ferreira Lima, Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo, Josiane Nogueira Müller, Ana Paula Sales de Andrade Corrêa, Kaio Augusto Nabas Ribeiro, Guilherme Abbad Silveira, Andrea Valladão Hijjar, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Roch Bauzer, José Bento Pereira Lima
BACKGROUND: Most cases of malaria in Brazil are concentrated in the Amazon region. One of the vector control alternatives recommended by the WHO is the long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). This tool is used in the nine federal states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, where LLINs are essential for reducing vector density and disease transmission as they prevent contact between the mosquito and the individual. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residuality and use of LLIN insecticides in different health regions in a city located in the Brazilian Amazon...
May 12, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Daniel Chieh-Ding Lin, Shih-Che Weng, Po-Nien Tsao, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Shin-Hong Shiao
BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits two of the most serious mosquito-borne viruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which results in significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. The quickly shifting landscapes of DENV and ZIKV endemicity worldwide raise concerns that their co-circulation through the Ae. aegypti mosquito vector could greatly exacerbate the disease burden in humans. Recent reports have indicated an increase in the number of co-infection cases in expanding co-endemic regions; however, the impact of co-infection on viral infection and the detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be defined...
May 11, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Raquel L Souza, Romero J Nazare, Hernan D Argibay, Maysa Pellizzaro, Rosângela O Anjos, Moyra M Portilho, Leile Camila Jacob-Nascimento, Mitermayer G Reis, Uriel D Kitron, Guilherme S Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Low-income urban communities in the tropics often lack sanitary infrastructure and are overcrowded, favoring Aedes aegypti proliferation and arboviral transmission. However, as Ae. aegypti density is not spatially homogeneous, understanding the role of specific environmental characteristics in determining vector distribution is critical for planning control interventions. The objectives of this study were to identify the main habitat types for Ae. Aegypti, assess their spatial densities to identify major hotspots of arbovirus transmission over time and investigate underlying factors in a low-income urban community in Salvador, Brazil...
May 6, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
László Zsolt Garamszegi, Zoltán Soltész, Kornélia Kurucz, Tamara Szentiványi
BACKGROUND: Urbanization can be a significant contributor to the spread of invasive mosquito vector species, and the diseases they carry, as urbanized habitats provide access to a great density of food resources (humans and domestic animals) and offer abundant breeding sites for these vectors. Although anthropogenic landscapes are often associated with the presence of invasive mosquito species, we still have little understanding about the relationships between some of these and the built environment...
May 5, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Erin Easland, Stefan Biendl, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Few anthelminthics are currently available, manifesting the urgent need for new treatment options. In vitro profiling of current anthelminthics against larval and adult stage helminths displayed varying effects on closely related worm species and between life stages of the same species. Conversely, limited research has been performed on the egg stage of human hookworms, and the effects of investigational compounds on the egg stage are not routinely assessed. METHODS: We profiled the development and hatching of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus eggs isolated from rodent faeces in liquid media with various nutrient levels, osmolar concentrations, and acidities in dependence on incubation temperature and light exposure...
May 4, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Katherine D Mosquera, Louise K J Nilsson, Marta Rodrigues de Oliveira, Elerson Matos Rocha, Osvaldo Marinotti, Sebastian Håkansson, Wanderli P Tadei, Antonia Queiroz Lima de Souza, Olle Terenius
BACKGROUND: The neotropical anopheline mosquito Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Americas. Studies on mosquito-associated microbiota have shown that symbiotic bacteria play a major role in host biology. Mosquitoes acquire and transmit microorganisms over their life cycle. Specifically, the microbiota of immature forms is largely acquired from their aquatic environment. Therefore, our study aimed to describe the microbial communities associated with An. darlingi immature forms and their breeding sites in the Coari municipality, Brazilian Amazon...
May 1, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Rubens Rodriguez, Javier Mora, Alberto Solano-Barquero, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Alicia Rojas
Abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) is a severe parasitic infection caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis. This disease is characterized by abdominal pain, a strong inflammatory eosinophilic response in the blood and tissues, and eventually intestinal perforation. Diagnosis of AA is challenging since there are no commercially available serological kits for A. costaricensis, and thus, histopathological analysis remains the gold standard. Herein we provide a decision flowchart for clinicians to improve the diagnosis of AA based on a patient's clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, macroscopic observations of the gut lesions, as well as characteristic microscopic alterations in biopsies...
April 29, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Cole Baril, Ben G Pilling, Milah J Mikkelsen, Jessica M Sparrow, Carlyn A M Duncan, Cody W Koloski, Stefanie E LaZerte, Bryan J Cassone
BACKGROUND: Mosquito seasonal activity is largely driven by weather conditions, most notably temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The extent by which these weather variables influence activity is intertwined with the animal's biology and may differ by species. For mosquito vectors, changes in weather can also alter host-pathogen interactions thereby increasing or decreasing the burden of disease. METHODS: In this study, we performed weekly mosquito surveillance throughout the active season over a 2-year period in Manitoba, Canada...
April 28, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Dziedzom K de Souza, Seth Offei Addo, Kwame Desewu, Chukwunonso O Nzelu, Mba T Mosore, Shirley Nimo-Paintsil, Naiki Attram, Maxwell Appawu, Michael D Wilson, Daniel A Boakye
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by species of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sand flies. Since the first reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana, in 1999, there has been limited published information on its vectors and reservoir hosts there. Previous studies have shown strong dominance of the sand fly genus Sergentomyia over the genus Phlebotomus in Ghana. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the possible sand fly vector species in Ghana, as well as their human-feeding behavior, from the time of the first reported outbreak of CL in the country...
April 28, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Kennedy Mwacalimba, Derek Sears, Christopher Brennan, Barbara Poulsen Nautrup, Jenifer Sheehy, Kristine Smith, Christopher Adolph
BACKGROUND: Compliance failure with administration of heartworm (HW) disease preventives has been reported as the main contributor to HW disease incidence in medicalized dogs. This study aimed to evaluate purchase compliance with different canine HW preventive products in the USA. METHODS: Anonymized transaction data from clinics throughout the USA served as the basis for two retrospective analyses. We first examined the monthly equivalent doses of HW preventive purchases from clinics that had implemented extended-release moxidectin injectables ProHeart® 6 (PH6) and/or ProHeart® 12 (PH12) compared to clinics that prescribed monthly HW preventatives (MHWP) only...
April 28, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Darcy B Adin, Meaghan Spalla, Heather Walden, Jeff Gruntmeir, Jorge A Hernandez, Maureen Long
BACKGROUND: Infection by the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, causes significant cardiopulmonary disease, with progression impacted by increasing parasite numbers and duration of infection. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important mediator of cardiac and pulmonary disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mitigates the maladaptive effects of angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin (1-7). We hypothesized that circulating ACE2 activity would be altered in dogs with high heartworm infection intensities relative to dogs without heartworms...
April 28, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Jane Quandt
Dogs with heartworm disease may present for procedures that require anesthesia. This article is a brief, practical review of anesthetic techniques for dogs with heartworm. Dogs with heartworm, such as in a shelter that undergo spay and neuter procedures, may be safely anesthetized prior to heartworm treatment. The dog presenting with caval syndrome may require emergent anesthesia for extraction of the heartworms; anesthetic drugs and potential adverse effects are discussed. The anesthetic agents that have been used are discussed...
April 28, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.