Dor Shwartz, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Stephanie Oren, Kobi Aharoni, Nir Edery, Lior Moss, Roni King, Roi Lapid, Reinhard K Straubinger, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Borrelia persica causes tick-borne relapsing fever in Israel, the eastern Mediterranean basin, and Asia. Relapsing fever is associated with severe illness and potentially death in humans and animals. Since B. persica infection has rarely been described in wild animals, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of infection with B. persica in wild carnivores in Israel. METHODS: Spleen and blood clot samples from wild carnivores, which underwent necropsy, were tested for the presence of Borrelia DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 26, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Alvimar José da Costa, João Ricardo de Souza Martins, Fernando de Almeida Borges, Luis Fernando Vettorato, Francisco Bonomi Barufi, Heitor de Oliveira Arriero Amaral, Luara Carolina Abujamra, Daniel de Castro Rodrigues, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes
BACKGROUND: This study describes the effectiveness of a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient, fluralaner (isoxazoline class), against important ectoparasites infesting cattle in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 13 studies involving a 5% fluralaner-based pour-on formulation (Exzolt 5%; further referred to as Exzolt) were conducted. Specifically, the effectiveness of this formulation was studied against Rhipicephalus microplus (6 studies), Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae (4 studies), Dermatobia hominis larvae (1 study) and Haematobia irritans flies (2 studies)...
September 26, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Godfrey Nattoh, Brenda Onyango, Edward Edmond Makhulu, Diana Omoke, Lilian Mbaisi Ang'ang'o, Luna Kamau, Maxwell Machani Gesuge, Eric Ochomo, Jeremy Keith Herren
BACKGROUND: The demonstration that the recently discovered Anopheles symbiont Microsporidia MB blocks malaria transmission in Anopheles arabiensis and undergoes vertical and horizontal transmission suggests that it is a promising candidate for the development of a symbiont-based malaria transmission-blocking strategy. The infection prevalence and characteristics of Microsporidia MB in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), another primary vector species of malaria in Kenya, were investigated...
September 25, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Xianyu Piao, Ning Jiang, Shuai Liu, Jiamei Duan, Hang Dai, Nan Hou, Qijun Chen
BACKGROUND: Interruption of parasite reproduction by targeting migrating schistosomula is a promising strategy for managing schistosomiasis. Hepatic schistosomula proteins previously identified based on second-generation schistosome DNA sequencing were found to hold excellent potential for schistosomiasis japonica diagnosis and as vaccine candidates. However, there are still many unknown schistosomula proteins that warrant further investigations. Herein, a novel schistosomula protein, the Schistosoma japonicum erythroid Krüppel-like factor (SjEKLF/KLF1), was explored...
September 23, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Maria A González-Morales, Andrea E Thomson, James Yeatts, Hiroko Enomoto, Ahmed Haija, Richard G Santangelo, Olivia A Petritz, Rocio Crespo, Coby Schal, Ronald Baynes
BACKGROUND: Bed bug infestations are re-emerging in the poultry industry throughout the USA. Although the impacts of bed bugs on birds' health and welfare are poorly understood, adverse outcomes are expected, including stress, anemia, infections and lower production rates. Worker welfare is also an important consideration in commercial poultry farms. A limited number of insecticides are available for use in the complex spatial environment of commercial farms. Systemic drugs have the potential to overcome the limitations of existing pest management tactics...
September 21, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Nicole L Mendell, Laura N Robayo-Sánchez, Arlex Rodríguez-Durán, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, Diana Fernández, Alejandro Ramírez-Hernández, Donald H Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are the causative agent of rickettsioses and are spread to vertebrate hosts by arthropods. There are no previous reports of isolation of Rickettsia amblyommatis for Colombia. METHODS: A convenience sampling was executed in three departments in Colombia for direct collection of adult ticks on domestic animals or over vegetation. Ticks were screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplifying the citrate synthase gene (gltA), and the positive sample was processed for isolation and further molecular characterization by conventional PCR...
September 20, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Hai-Yang Song, Meng-Ling Deng, Jian-Fa Yang, Jun Ma, Fan-Fan Shu, Wen-Jie Cheng, Xing-Quan Zhu, Feng-Cai Zou, Jun-Jun He
BACKGROUND: Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that invades the chicken cecum and causes coccidiosis, which induces acute lesions and weight loss. Elucidating the anticoccidial mechanism of action of green tea polyphenols could aid the development of anticoccidial drugs and resolve the problem of drug resistance in E. tenella. METHODS: We constructed a model of E. tenella infection in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens, an indigenous breed of Yunnan Province, China, to study the efficacy of green tea polyphenols against the infection...
September 19, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Abdoulaye Diop, Fatou Ndiaye, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Lassana Konate, Massila Senghor, El Hadji Diouf, Abdoulaye Kane Dia, Seynabou Diedhiou, Badara Samb, Doudou Sene, Sarah Zohdy, Ellen Dotson, Mame Birame Diouf, Valerie Koscelnik, Lilia Gerberg, Abdoulaye Bangoura, Ousmane Faye, Tiffany Clark, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Joseph Chabi
BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in Senegal, with seasonal transmission, and the entire population is at risk. In recent years, high malaria incidence has been reported in urban and peri-urban areas of Senegal. An urban landscape analysis was conducted in three cities to identify the malaria transmission indicators and human behavior that may be driving the increasing malaria incidence occurring in urban environments. Specifically, mosquito vector bionomics and human sleeping behaviors including outdoor sleeping habits were assessed to guide the optimal deployment of targeted vector control interventions...
September 19, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Qianqian Chen, Jingzhong Li, Zhensheng Wang, Wei Meng, Heng Wang, Zenglei Wang
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis parasites has become an important concern in trichomoniasis treatment. Fast and reliable growth assessment is critical for validating in vitro drug susceptibility and high-throughput screening of newly developed drugs. METHODS: Modified media without yeast extract were evaluated for their ability to support the growth of T. vaginalis parasites. The potential of the nucleic acid-binding dye SYBR Green I for detecting T...
September 18, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Laura Blanco-Sierra, Simone Mariani, Santi Escartin, Roger Eritja, John R B Palmer, Frederic Bartumeus
BACKGROUND: Age structure and longevity constitute fundamental determinants of mosquito populations' capacity to transmit pathogens. However, investigations on mosquito-borne diseases primarily focus on aspects such as abundance or dispersal rather than survival and demography. Here, we examine the post-capture longevity of wild-caught populations of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus to investigate the influence of environmental factors and individual frailty on longevity. METHODS: We captured females of Ae...
September 16, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Junnan Zheng, Jingwei Xu, Ruiming Zhang, Jiajia Du, Huan Wang, Jinze Li, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Female mosquitoes need a blood meal after mating for their eggs to develop, and this behavior leads to the spread of pathogens. Therefore, understanding the molecular regulation of reproduction in female mosquitoes is essential to control mosquito vector populations. In this study, we reported that microRNA-989 (miR-989), which targets 5-HTR1 (encoding secreted 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor1), is essential for mosquito reproduction. METHODS: The spatiotemporal expression profile of miR-989 was detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR)...
September 13, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Fathiah Zakham, Essi M Korhonen, Petteri T Puonti, Robert S Castrén, Ruut Uusitalo, Teemu Smura, Ravi Kant, Olli Vapalahti, Tarja Sironen, Paula M Kinnunen
BACKGROUND: Ticks carry microbes, some of which are pathogenic for humans and animals. To assess this One Health challenge, 342 ticks were collected from pet dogs and cats at 10 veterinary clinics in Finland as part of the European project "Protect Our Future Too". METHODS: The tick species were identified, and ticks were screened with quantitative PCR (qPCR) for tick-borne pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp...
September 13, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Mustafa Alsarraf, Elena Carretón, Lavinia Ciuca, Anastasia Diakou, Dorota Dwużnik-Szarek, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Marco Genchi, Angela Monica Ionică, Agnieszka Kloch, Laura Helen Kramer, Andrei D Mihalca, Martina Miterpáková, Rodrigo Morchón, Elias Papadopoulos, Mateusz Pękacz, Laura Rinaldi, Mohammed Alsarraf, Mariia Topolnytska, Alice Vismarra, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna Bajer
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis, also known as heartworm, is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of domestic dogs, causing a potentially serious disease, cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, which can be lethal. This species seems to be less 'expansive' than its sister species Dirofilaria repens, and it is believed that climate change facilitates the spread of this parasite to new non-endemic regions. METHODS: In total, 122 heartworm isolates were analysed from nine endemic countries in Europe (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine) and a single isolate from Bangladesh by amplification and sequencing of two mitochondrial (mt) DNA markers: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH)...
September 12, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Eva Legendre, Florian Girond, Vincent Herbreteau, Sokeang Hoeun, Stanislas Rebaudet, Aung Myint Thu, Jade Dean Rae, Laurent Lehot, Sokhna Dieng, Gilles Delmas, François Nosten, Jean Gaudart, Jordi Landier
BACKGROUND: In the Greater Mekong Subregion, case-control studies and national-level analyses have shown an association between malaria transmission and forest activities. The term 'forest malaria' hides the diversity of ecosystems in the GMS, which likely do not share a uniform malaria risk. To reach malaria elimination goals, it is crucial to document accurately (both spatially and temporally) the influence of environmental factors on malaria to improve resource allocation and policy planning within given areas...
September 12, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Ennio Bandino, Maria Angeles Gomez-Morales, Diego Brundu, Manuela Soddu, Alessandra Ludovisi, Piera Angela Cabras, Federica Loi, Antonio Pintore, Edoardo Pozio
BACKGROUND: Worms of the nematode genus Trichinella are zoonotic pathogens with a worldwide distribution. The first report of Trichinella on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia was for Trichinella britovi, one of the four species of this genus circulating in Europe, which was identified in 2005 following an outbreak of trichinellosis in humans due to the consumption of pork from pigs reared in the wild. Since then, T. britovi larvae have been repeatedly isolated from free-ranging pigs, foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) sampled in the central-eastern region of the island (Orgosolo municipality), but have never been isolated from samples from other areas of the island...
September 11, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Jiang-Wei Gao, Jian-Wei Sun, Xiang-Rong Tong, Hao Wang, Qing-Mei Hu, Yan-Ru Cao, Zhan-Han Zhou, Zi-Chao Liu
BACKGROUND: Dinobdella ferox is the most frequently reported leech species parasitizing the mammalian nasal cavity. However, the molecular mechanism of this special parasitic behavior has remained largely unknown. METHODS: PacBio long-read sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and Hi-C sequencing were employed in this study to generate a novel genome of D. ferox, which was annotated with strong certainty using bioinformatics methods. The phylogenetic and genomic alterations of D...
September 11, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Xiaopeng Wang, Ruolin Lin, Chunxue Fu, Chun Yang, Dan Dong, Xiangwei Wu, Xueling Chen, Lianghai Wang, Jun Hou
BACKGROUND: Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF) weakens macrophage inflammatory responses, thereby enabling the parasite to evade the immune system. However, the role of histone modification in this process remains to be explored. METHODS: The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, H3K4me3, and KDM5B were detected using quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The enrichment of H3K4me3 and KDM5B at the promoter of inflammatory factors was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation...
September 9, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Gildas Hounkanrin, Carine Tchibozo, Felix Gregor Sauer, Eric Agboli, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Anges Yadouleton, Renke Lühken, Hanna Jöst
BACKGROUND: The impact of the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti is of major concern for global public health as the viruses that it transmits affect millions of people each year worldwide. Originating in Africa, Ae. aegypti has now spread throughout much of the world. While the genetic makeup of Ae. aegypti in the New World has been extensively studied, there is limited knowledge on its genetic diversity in Africa, particularly at a microgeographical level. METHODS: We investigated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I of four Ae...
September 9, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Minghui Zhao, Xin Ran, Yu Bai, Zu Ma, Jian Gao, Dan Xing, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Xianyi Jian, Wei Liu, Yun Liao, Kan Chen, Hengduan Zhang, Tongyan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important human arbovirus vectors that can spread arboviral diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika. These two mosquito species coexist on Hainan Island and the Leizhou Peninsula in China. Over the past 40 years, the distribution of Ae. albopictus in these areas has gradually expanded, while Ae. aegypti has declined sharply. Monitoring their genetic diversity and diffusion could help to explain the genetic influence behind this phenomenon and became key to controlling the epidemic of arboviruses...
September 8, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
Xiaomin Tang, Rongting Li, Yanfei Qi, Weiyi Li, Zhihao Liu, Jiahong Wu
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes carry a variety of viruses that can cause disease in humans, animals and livestock. Surveys for viruses carried by wild mosquitoes can significantly contribute to surveillance efforts and early detection systems. In addition to mosquito-borne viruses, mosquitoes harbor many insect-specific viruses (ISVs). Quang Binh virus (QBV) is one such example, categorized as an ISV within the Flavivirus genus (family Flaviviridae). QBV has been specifically documented in Vietnam and China, with reports limited to several mosquito species...
September 7, 2023: Parasites & Vectors
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