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Parasites & Vectors

Chiara Trevisan, Smaragda Sotiraki, Minerva Laranjo-González, Veronique Dermauw, Ziqi Wang, Age Kärssin, Aleksandar Cvetkovikj, Andrea S Winkler, Annette Abraham, Branko Bobić, Brian Lassen, Carmen Michaela Cretu, Cozma Vasile, Dimitris Arvanitis, Gunita Deksne, Ilievski Boro, István Kucsera, Jacek Karamon, Jovana Stefanovska, Břetislav Koudela, Maja Jurhar Pavlova, Marian Varady, Marina Pavlak, Mindaugas Šarkūnas, Miriam Kaminski, Olgica Djurković-Djaković, Pikka Jokelainen, Dagny Stojčević Jan, Veronika Schmidt, Zorica Dakić, Sarah Gabrië, Pierre Dorny, Brecht Devleesschauwer
In the original article [1], the authors Dr Jasmin OMERAGIĆ and Dr Davor ALAGIĆ were erroneously omitted from the co-authors list.
February 18, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Ziling Liu, Than Naing Soe, Yan Zhao, Aye Than, Cho Cho, Pyae Linn Aung, Yuling Li, Lin Wang, Huilin Yang, Xiangnan Li, Danni Li, Zhiping Peng, Jiangang Wang, Yan Li, Zhaoqing Yang, Hongning Zhou, Qinghui Wang, Myat Phone Kyaw, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden of Myanmar still remains high within the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia. An important indicator of progress towards malaria elimination is the prevalence of parasite infections in endemic populations. Information about malaria epidemiology is mostly derived from reports of confirmed acute malaria cases through passive case detection, whereas the prevalence of baseline subclinical malaria infections is much less known. METHODS: In this study, cross-sectional surveys were conducted during the rainy season of 2017 in four townships (Bilin, Thabeikkyin, Banmauk and Paletwa) of Myanmar with divergent annual malaria incidences...
February 18, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Marina Meester, Arno Swart, Huifang Deng, Annika van Roon, Chiara Trevisan, Pierre Dorny, Sarah Gabriël, Madalena Vieira-Pinto, Maria Vang Johansen, Joke van der Giessen
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm, is responsible for about a third of all preventable epilepsy human cases in endemic regions. In Europe, adequate biosecurity of pig housing and meat inspection practices have decreased the incidence of T. solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. Pigs slaughtered at home may have been raised in suboptimal biosecurity conditions and slaughtered without meat inspection. As a result, consumption of undercooked pork from home slaughtered pigs could pose a risk for exposure to T...
February 12, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Gilbert Le Goff, David Damiens, Abdoul-Hamid Ruttee, Laurent Payet, Cyrille Lebon, Jean-Sébastien Dehecq, Louis-Clément Gouagna
BACKGROUND: To develop an efficient sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, the number of sterile males to release, along with the spatial and temporal pattern of their release, has to be determined. Such parameters could be estimated from a reliable estimation of the wild population density (and its temporal variation) in the area to treat. Here, a series of mark-release-recapture experiments using laboratory-reared and field-derived Aedes albopictus males were carried out in Duparc, a selected pilot site for the future application of SIT in the north of La Reunion Island...
February 12, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Edwin O Ogola, Edith Chepkorir, Rosemary Sang, David P Tchouassi
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, malaria remains a major public health menace equally affecting the semi-arid to arid ecologies. However, entomologic knowledge of malaria vectors in such areas remains poor. METHODS: Morphologically-identified wild-caught Anopheles funestus (s.l.) specimens trapped outdoors from the semi-arid to arid area of Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya, were analysed by PCR and sequencing for species identification, malaria parasite infection and host blood-meal sources...
February 11, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Fabio Dos Santos Nogueira, Valdir Carlos Avino, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Marcio Antonio Batistella Moreira, Ana Paula Peres Lopes Romariz, Leticia M Molla, Ingrid Menz
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease with a variety of clinical signs. The main form of parasite transmission to humans and other mammalian hosts is through the bite of infected arthropod females with Lutzomyia longipalpis serving as the main vector in the Americas. Dogs are the main urban domestic reservoirs of the parasite and the main source of vector infection due to their high prevalence in endemic areas and the large number of parasites in the skin of infected animals...
February 8, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez, Belkis Corona-González, Marina L Meli, Dasiel Obregón Álvarez, Ernesto Vega Cañizares, Osvaldo Fonseca Rodríguez, Evelyn Lobo Rivero, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species. RESULTS: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Chan Yang, Xiangyang Feng, Nian Liu, Mei Li, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: In South Asia, the epidemiology of malaria is complex, and transmission mainly occurs in remote areas near international borders. Vector control has been implemented as a key strategy in malaria prevention for decades. A rising threat to the efficacy of vector control efforts is the development of insecticide resistance, thus it is important to monitor the type and frequency of insecticide resistant alleles in the disease vectors such as An. sinensis along the China-Vietnam border...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Charles Mwandawiro, Collins Okoyo, Jimmy Kihara, Elses Simiyu, Stella Kepha, Suzy J Campbell, Matthew C Freeman, Simon J Brooker, Sammy M Njenga
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and schistosome infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the world. School-aged children are particularly vulnerable to these chronic infections that can impair growth, nutritional status and cognitive ability. Mass drug administration (MDA) delivered either once or twice annually is a safe and effective approach recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce worm burden. In 2012, Kenya began a national school-based deworming programme (NSBDP) aimed at reducing infection and associated morbidity...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Juan Felipe Rocha, Rodrigo Martínez, Nicolas López-Villalobos, Steve Todd Morris
BACKGROUND: Ticks have a negative effect on dairy and beef cattle production systems around the world, with the concomitant risk they represent for the transmission of some important infectious diseases. Colombian cattle breeds are distributed across different agroecological regions and are exposed to different environmental challenges. In humid and warmer climates such as those from the tropics, tick burden and heat stress are important factors that can compromise livestock performance...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
David A Ewing, Bethan V Purse, Christina A Cobbold, Stefanie M Schäfer, Steven M White
BACKGROUND: Many mosquito-borne diseases exhibit substantial seasonality, due to strong links between environmental variables and vector and pathogen life-cycles. Further, a range of density-dependent and density-independent biotic and abiotic processes affect the phenology of mosquito populations, with potentially large knock-on effects for vector dynamics and disease transmission. Whilst it is understood that density-independent and density-dependent processes affect seasonal population levels, it is not clear how these interact temporally to shape the population peaks and troughs...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Melissa Bell, Seth Irish, Wolf Peter Schmidt, Soumya Nayak, Thomas Clasen, Mary Cameron
BACKGROUND: There are many different traps available for studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to find the most suitable trap to collect synanthropic fly populations to assess the impact of increased latrine coverage in the state of Odisha, India. METHODS: Different baits were assessed for use in sticky pot traps (60% sucrose solution, 60 g dry sucrose, half a tomato and an non-baited control), followed by different colours of trap (blue versus yellow) and finally different types of trap (baited sticky pot trap versus sticky card traps)...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Xavier Badia-Rius, Hannah Betts, David H Molyneux, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is caused by the filarial parasite Loa loa, which is widespread through Central and West Africa and largely confined the tropical equatorial rainforests. The tabanid flies Chrysops silacea and Chrysops dimidiata are the main vectors driving transmission. This study aimed to better define the spatial distribution and ecological niche of the two vectors to help define spatial-temporal risk and target appropriate, timely intervention strategies for filariasis control and elimination programmes...
February 6, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Luca Facchinelli, Ace R North, C Matilda Collins, Miriam Menichelli, Tania Persampieri, Alessandro Bucci, Roberta Spaccapelo, Andrea Crisanti, Mark Q Benedict
BACKGROUND: Novel transgenic mosquito control methods require progressively more realistic evaluation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a transgene that causes a male-bias sex ratio on Anopheles gambiae target populations in large insectary cages. METHODS: Life history characteristics of Anopheles gambiae wild type and Ag(PMB)1 (aka gfp 124L-2) transgenic mosquitoes, whose progeny are 95% male, were measured in order to parameterize predictive population models...
February 6, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Swaid Abdullah, Chris Helps, Séverine Tasker, Hannah Newbury, Richard Wall
BACKGROUND: Fleas (Siphonaptera) are the most clinically important ectoparasites of dogs and cats worldwide. Rising levels of pet ownership, climate change and globalisation are increasing the importance of a detailed understanding of the endemicity and prevalence of flea-borne pathogens. This requires continued surveillance to detect change. This study reports a large-scale survey of pathogens in fleas collected from client-owned cats and dogs in the UK. METHODS: Recruited veterinary practices were asked to follow a standardised flea inspection protocol on a randomised selection of cats and dogs brought into the practice in April and June 2018...
February 6, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Muhammad Irfan Malik, Mohsin Nawaz, Ibrahim A Hassan, Houshuang Zhang, Haiyan Gong, Jie Cao, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tick saliva contains many bioactive molecules that are involved in attachment to the host, blood-feeding and transmission of pathogens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs with a length of 19-24 nucleotides. They act as regulators of gene expression by binding to their target mRNA at the post-transcriptional level and control a variety of cellular functions, including regulation of growth, metabolism and development. The detection and characterizations of miRNAs from tick saliva may help explain the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between ticks, pathogens and hosts...
February 1, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Grazia Greco, Emanuele Brianti, Canio Buonavoglia, Grazia Carelli, Matthias Pollmeier, Bettina Schunack, Giulia Dowgier, Gioia Capelli, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp...
February 1, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Weldegebrial G Aregawi, Getahun E Agga, Reta D Abdi, Philippe Büscher
BACKGROUND: Surra is an animal trypanosomosis, caused by infection with Trypanosoma evansi and leading to severe economic loss due to mortality and morbidity. Compared to tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomoses, little attention is given to the epidemiology and control of surra. Understanding its epidemiology is a first step in local and global efforts to control the disease. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on distribution, host ranges and prevalence of T...
January 31, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Courtney C Nawrocki, Nadda Kiatsopit, Jutamas Namsanor, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Elizabeth J Carlton
BACKGROUND: Like many trematodes of human health significance, the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is spread via fecal contamination of snail habitat. Methods for assessing snail exposure to fecal waste can improve our ability to identify snail infection hotspots and potential sources of snail infections. We evaluated the feasibility of culturing fecal indicator bacteria from Bithynia snail intestinal tubes as a method for assessing snail exposure to fecal waste. Snails and water samples were collected from a site with a historically high prevalence of O...
January 30, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Senyang Li, Jing Yang, Luyao Wang, Fen Du, Junlong Zhao, Rui Fang
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that can cause serious clinical illnesses in both humans and animals. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding RNAs that can regulate the expression of target genes. A previous study found that many miRNAs were differentially expressed after T. gondii infection and exert significant effects and revealed that both host survival and the virulence of different strains can be regulated by different miRNAs. Macrophages play an important role in T...
January 29, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
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