Atikah Fitria Muharromah, Thaddeus M Carvajal, Maria Angenica F Regilme, Kozo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The adaptive divergence of Aedes aegypti populations to heterogeneous environments can be a driving force behind the recent expansion of their habitat distribution and outbreaks of dengue disease in urbanized areas. In this study, we investigated the population genomics of Ae. aegypti at a regional scale in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines. METHODS: We used the Pool-Seq double digestion restriction-site association DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) approach to generate a high number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the aim to determine local adaptation and compare the population structure with 11 microsatellite markers...
May 21, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Ziyun Huang, Xingzhuo Liu, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum eggs lodge in the liver and induce a fibrotic granulomatous immune response in the liver of host. Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a protein implicated in fibrosis in multiple organs. However, the pathology and molecular mechanisms promoting hepatic granuloma formation remain poorly understood. METHODS: To investigate the effect of blocking galectin-receptor interactions by α-lactose on liver immunopathology in mice with S. japonicum infection, C57BL/6 mice were infected with S...
May 20, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Joel O Odero, Ismail H Nambunga, John P Masalu, Gustav Mkandawile, Hamis Bwanary, Emmanuel E Hape, Rukiyah M Njalambaha, Patrick Tungu, Halfan S Ngowo, Emmanuel W Kaindoa, Salum A Mapua, Najat F Kahamba, Luca Nelli, Charles Wondji, Lizette L Koekemoer, David Weetman, Heather M Ferguson, Francesco Baldini, Fredros O Okumu
BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus is a leading vector of malaria in most parts of East and Southern Africa, yet its ecology and responses to vector control remain poorly understood compared with other vectors such as Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. This study presents the first large-scale survey of the genetic and phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in An. funestus populations in Tanzania. METHODS: We performed insecticide susceptibility bioassays on An...
May 17, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Lee R Haines, Giovanni Petrucci, Alexandra Beliavskaia, Catherine Hartley, Jing Jing Khoo, Benjamin L Makepeace, Adly M M Abd-Alla, Alistair C Darby
BACKGROUND: Insect cell lines play a vital role in many aspects of research on disease vectors and agricultural pests. The tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans is an important vector of salivarian trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa and, as such, is a major constraint on human health and agricultural development in the region. METHODS: Here, we report establishment and partial characterisation of a cell line, GMA/LULS61, derived from tissues of adult female G...
May 17, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
A L Joyce, Miguel Moreno, Leonel Palomo, Raul O'Connor, Denis Escobar
BACKGROUND: This study examined population genetics of Aedes aegypti in El Salvador and Honduras, two adjacent countries in Central America. Aedes aegypti is associated with yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Each year, thousands of cases of dengue are typically reported in El Salvador and Honduras. METHODS: In El Salvador, collections were obtained from five Departments. In Honduras, samples were obtained from six municipalities in four Departments. Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced, and consensus sequences were combined with available sequences from El Salvador to determine haplotype number, haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, and Tajima's D...
May 16, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Ben P Jones, Kezia Kozel, Allen Jethro I Alonte, Kennesa Klariz R Llanes, Alexandra Juhász, Umer Chaudhry, Sara Roose, Peter Geldhof, Vicente Y Belizario, Peter Nejsum, J Russell Stothard, E James LaCourse, Arnoud H M van Vliet, Vachel Gay V Paller, Martha Betson
BACKGROUND: The giant roundworm Ascaris is an intestinal nematode, causing ascariasis by infecting humans and pigs worldwide. Recent estimates suggest that Ascaris infects over half a billion people, with chronic infections leading to reduced growth and cognitive ability. Ascariasis affects innumerable pigs worldwide and is known to reduce production yields via decreased growth and condemnation of livers. The predominant anthelminthic drugs used to treat ascariasis are the benzimidazoles...
May 16, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Marcos Antonio Bezerra-Santos, Giovanni Benelli, Giacinto Salvatore Germinara, Petr Volf, Domenico Otranto
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals emitted as products of cell metabolism, which reflects the physiological and pathological conditions of any living organisms. These compounds play a key role as olfactory cues for arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks, which act in the transmission of pathogens to many animal species, including humans. Some VOCs may influence arthropod behaviour, e.g., host preference and oviposition site selection for gravid females. Furthermore, deadly vector-borne pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania infantum are suggested to manipulate the VOCs profile of the host to make them more attractive to mosquitoes and sand fly vectors, respectively...
May 16, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Monique A M Shepherd-Gorringe, Marie W Pettit, Frances M Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is a well-tolerated anthelminthic drug with wide clinical and veterinary applications. It also has lethal and sublethal effects on mosquitoes. Mass drug administration with ivermectin has therefore been suggested as an innovative vector control tool in efforts to curb emerging insecticide resistance and reduce residual malaria transition. To support assessments of the feasibility and efficacy of current and future formulations of ivermectin for vector control, we sought to establish the relationship between ivermectin concentration and its lethal and sublethal impacts in a primary malaria vector...
May 16, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Richard Thomas, Adriana Santodomingo, Liliana Saboya-Acosta, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Lucila Moreno, Juan E Uribe, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Pattarapon Khemrattrakool, Thitipong Hongsuwong, Phornpimon Tipthara, Rattawan Kullasakboonsri, Theerawit Phanphoowong, Patchara Sriwichai, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Podjanee Jittamala, Joel Tarning, Kevin C Kobylinski
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin mass drug administration to humans or livestock is a potential vector control tool for malaria elimination. Racemic ivermectin is composed of two components, namely a major component (> 80%; ivermectin B1a ), which has an ethyl group at C-26, and a minor component (< 20%; ivermectin B1b ), which has a methyl group at C-26. There is no difference between the efficacy of ivermectin B1a and ivermectin B1b efficacy in nematodes, but only ivermectin B1b has been reported to be lethal to snails...
May 15, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Anna Heitmann, Magdalena Laura Wehmeyer, Renke Lühken, Konstantin Kliemke, Hanna Jöst, Norbert Becker, Michelle Helms, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Stephanie Jansen
BACKGROUND: Batai virus (BATV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of veterinary importance. A high seroprevalence in cows, sheep and goats and infection in different mosquito species has been observed in Central Europe. Therefore, we studied indigenous as well as exotic species of the genera Culex and Aedes for BATV vector competence at different fluctuating temperature profiles. METHODS: Field caught Culex pipiens biotype pipiens, Culex torrentium, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus from Germany and Aedes aegypti laboratory colony were infected with BATV strain 53...
May 15, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Jinze Li, Jiajia Du, Guangshuo Ding, Wenxing Zhang, Yinghui Zhou, Yidan Xu, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Xiaoqiu Liu, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Culex pipiens pallens is a well-known mosquito vector for several diseases. Deltamethrin, a commonly used pyrethroid insecticide, has been frequently applied to manage adult Cx. pipiens pallens. However, mosquitoes can develop resistance to these insecticides as a result of insecticide misuse and, therefore, it is crucial to identify novel methods to control insecticide resistance. The relationship between commensal bacteria and vector resistance has been recently recognized...
May 15, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Amy C Murillo, Alireza Abdoli, Richard A Blatchford, Eammon J Keogh, Alec C Gerry
BACKGROUND: The chicken body louse is an obligate ectoparasite of domestic chickens. Chicken body lice feed on feathers, and infestation with this louse is linked to decreases in egg production, hen weight, and feed conversion efficiency. However, it is unknown how chicken body lice impact egg-laying chickens in cage-free environments. Welfare and behavior metrics were collected from flocks of egg-laying chickens either infested with chicken body lice or left uninfested. METHODS: In two trials, two flocks of cage-free commercial egg-laying chickens were infested with chicken body lice or maintained as uninfested controls...
May 14, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Franklin Ayisi, Dziedzom Komi de Souza, Jamie Tallant, Benjamin Didier Biholong, Eric Bertrand Fokam, Daniel Adjei Boakye
BACKGROUND: The main vectors of onchocerciasis in Africa are Simulium damnosum sensu lato, which transmit the causative agent Onchocerca volvulus. The force of transmission is driven by the vector density, hence influencing the disease prevalence and intensity. Onchocerciasis is currently targeted for elimination using mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, a potent microfilaricide. MDA in Cameroon began in 1987 in the Vina Valley, an endemic cross-border area with Chad, known for high vector densities and precontrol endemicity...
May 13, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Janina Krambrich, Dario Akaberi, Johanna F Lindahl, Åke Lundkvist, Jenny C Hesson
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an emerging mosquito-borne Orthoflavivirus that poses a significant public health risk in many temperate and tropical regions in Asia. Since the climate in some endemic countries is similar to temperate climates observed in Europe, understanding the role of specific mosquito species in the transmission of JEV is essential for predicting and effectively controlling the potential for the introduction and establishment of JEV in Europe. METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the vector competence of colonized Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes for JEV...
May 13, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Tingwei Pei, Miao Zhang, Ziwen Gao, Lu Li, Ziyan Bing, Jianglei Meng, Chuks Fidel Nwanade, Chaohui Yuan, Zhijun Yu, Jingze Liu
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications of histones play important roles in the response of eukaryotic organisms to environmental stress. However, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are responsible for histone acetylation, and their roles in mediating the tick response to cold stress have yet to be identified. In the present study, HATs were molecularly characterized and their associations with the cold response of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis explored. METHODS: HATs were characterized by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on published genome sequences, followed by multiple bioinformatic analyses...
May 12, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Di Li, Lingjun Wang, Liang Wang, Yanting Gou, Bo Luo, Rong Yan, Hui Liu
BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria, which serve as essential modulators, exert a significant impact on insect physiology and behavior and have substantial application potential in pest management. The dynamics of gut bacteria and their impact on Phortica okadai behavior remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, the dynamics of gut bacteria at different developmental stages in P. okadai were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, and the species and abundance of gut bacteria that affect host behavior were examined via behavioral experiments...
May 11, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Nataša Bušić, Ana Klobučar, Nediljko Landeka, Toni Žitko, Goran Vignjević, Nataša Turić, Mirta Sudarić Bogojević, Enrih Merdić, Mladen Kučinić, Branka Bruvo Mađarić
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes pose a risk to human health worldwide, and correct species identification and detection of cryptic species are the most important keys for surveillance and control of mosquito vectors. In addition to traditional identification based on morphology, DNA barcoding has recently been widely used as a complementary tool for reliable identification of mosquito species. The main objective of this study was to create a reference DNA barcode library for the Croatian mosquito fauna, which should contribute to more accurate and faster identification of species, including cryptic species, and recognition of relevant vector species...
May 11, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Cynthia Mmalebna Amisigo, Gloria Amegatcher, Jack D Sunter, Theresa Manful Gwira
BACKGROUND: Animal African trypanosomiasis, which is caused by different species of African trypanosomes, is a deadly disease in livestock. Although African trypanosomes are often described as blood-borne parasites, there have been recent reappraisals of the ability of these parasites to reside in a wide range of tissues. However, the majority of those studies were conducted on non-natural hosts infected with only one species of trypanosome, and it is unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs during natural animal infections, where multiple species of these parasites may be present...
May 11, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
Tianyi Fu, Xiaohui Wang, Xiaoyue Zhao, Yuzhu Jiang, Xianbing Liu, Haixia Zhang, Yushan Ren, Zhidan Li, Xuemei Hu
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly in early pregnancy. Previous studies have illustrated the landscape of decidual immune cells. However, the landscape of decidual immune cells in the maternal-fetal microenvironment during T. gondii infection remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze the changes in human decidual immune cells following T...
May 10, 2024: Parasites & Vectors
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