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Evolutionary Applications

Steven P Brady, Emily Monosson, Cole Matson, John W Bickham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Mark E Hahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Corinna S Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P Kellman, Jerry J Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea exclusively in humans and uses multiple strategies to infect, including acquisition of host sialic acids that cap and mask lipooligosaccharide termini, while restricting complement activation. We hypothesized that gonococci selectively target human anti-inflammatory sialic acid-recognizing Siglec receptors on innate immune cells to blunt host responses and that pro-inflammatory Siglecs and SIGLEC pseudogene polymorphisms represent host evolutionary adaptations to counteract this interaction...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Jiyeon Kim, Gang Ni, Taeho Kim, Jae-Yong Chun, Elizabeth M A Kern, Joong-Ki Park
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) threaten crop production worldwide. Yet few studies have examined their intraspecific genetic diversity or patterns of invasion, critical data for managing the spread of these cryptic pests. The sugar beet nematode Heterodera schachtii , a global invader that parasitizes over 200 plant species, represents a model for addressing important questions about the invasion genetics of PPNs. Here, a phylogeographic study using 15 microsatellite markers was conducted on 231 H. schachtii individuals sampled from four continents, and invasion history was reconstructed through an approximate Bayesian computation approach, with emphasis on the origin of newly discovered populations in Korea...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Cédric Lippens, Emmanuel Guivier, Sarah E Reece, Aidan J O'Donnell, Stéphane Cornet, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Aging is associated with a decline of performance leading to reduced reproductive output and survival. While the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging has attracted considerable attention, the molecular/physiological functions underlying the early-life benefits/late-life costs paradigm remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that while early activation of the inflammatory response confers benefits in terms of protection against infection, it also incurs costs in terms of reduced reproductive output at old age and shortened longevity...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Yevgeniy Raynes, Daniel M Weinreich
Most solid cancers are characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN)-an elevated rate of large-scale chromosomal aberrations and ploidy changes. Chromosomal instability may arise through mutations in a range of genomic integrity loci and is commonly associated with fast disease progression, poor prognosis, and multidrug resistance. However, the evolutionary forces promoting CIN-inducing alleles (hereafter, CIN mutators) during carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a stochastic, individual-based model of indirect selection experienced by CIN mutators via genomic associations with fitness-affecting mutations...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Minhui Chen, Guosheng Su, Jinluan Fu, Aiguo Wang, Jian-Feng Liu, Mogens S Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen
The distribution of Asian ancestry in the genome of Danish Duroc pigs was investigated using whole-genome sequencing data from European wild boars, Danish Duroc, Chinese Meishan and Bamaxiang pigs. Asian haplotypes deriving from Meishan and Bamaxiang occur widely across the genome. Signatures of selection on Asian haplotypes are common in the genome, but few of these haplotypes have been fixed. By defining 50-kb windows with more than 50% Chinese ancestry, which did not exhibit extreme genetic differentiation between Meishan and Bamaxiang as candidate regions, the enrichment of quantitative trait loci in candidate regions supports that Asian haplotypes under selection play an important role in contributing genetic variation underlying production, reproduction, meat and carcass, and exterior traits...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Catherine E Grueber, Samantha Fox, Elspeth A McLennan, Rebecca M Gooley, David Pemberton, Carolyn J Hogg, Katherine Belov
For bottlenecked populations of threatened species, supplementation often leads to improved population metrics (genetic rescue), provided that guidelines can be followed to avoid negative outcomes. In cases where no "ideal" source populations exist, or there are other complicating factors such as prevailing disease, the benefit of supplementation becomes uncertain. Bringing multiple data and analysis types together to plan genetic management activities can help. Here, we consider three populations of Tasmanian devil, Sarcophilus harrisii , as candidates for genetic rescue...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Pirmin Nietlisbach, Stefanie Muff, Jane M Reid, Michael C Whitlock, Lukas F Keller
Inbreeding depression, the deterioration in mean trait value in progeny of related parents, is a fundamental quantity in genetics, evolutionary biology, animal and plant breeding, and conservation biology. The magnitude of inbreeding depression can be quantified by the inbreeding load, typically measured in numbers of lethal equivalents, a population genetic quantity that allows for comparisons between environments, populations or species. However, there is as yet no quantitative assessment of which combinations of statistical models and metrics of inbreeding can yield such estimates...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Eric D Crandall, Robert J Toonen, Kimberly A Selkoe
Assessing the geographic structure of populations has relied heavily on Sewell Wright's F -statistics and their numerous analogues for many decades. However, it is well appreciated that, due to their nonlinear relationship with gene flow, F -statistics frequently fail to reject the null model of panmixia in species with relatively high levels of gene flow and large population sizes. Coalescent genealogy samplers instead allow a model-selection approach to the characterization of population structure, thereby providing the opportunity for stronger inference...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Terry D Beacham, Colin Wallace, Kim Jonsen, Brenda McIntosh, John R Candy, David Willis, Cheryl Lynch, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Louis Bernatchez, Ruth E Withler
Wild Pacific salmon, including Coho salmon Onchorynchus kisutch , have been supplemented with hatchery propagation for over 50 years in support of increased ocean harvest and conservation of threatened populations. In Canada, the Wild Salmon Policy for Pacific salmon was established with the goal of maintaining and restoring healthy and diverse Pacific salmon populations, making conservation of wild salmon and their habitats the highest priority for resource management decision-making. A new approach to the assessment and management of wild coho salmon, and the associated hatchery production and fishery management is needed...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Lukas B DeFilippo, Daniel E Schindler, Jan Ohlberger, Kevin L Schaberg, Matt Birch Foster, Darin Ruhl, André E Punt
Males of many fish species exhibit alternative reproductive tactics, which can influence the maturation schedules, fishery productivity, and resilience to harvest of exploited populations. While alternative mating phenotypes can persist in stable equilibria through frequency-dependent selection, shifts in tactic frequencies have been observed and can have substantial consequences for fisheries. Here, we examine the dynamics of precocious sneaker males called "jacks" in a population of sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) from Frazer Lake, Alaska...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Joshua P Jahner, Marjorie D Matocq, Jason L Malaney, Mike Cox, Peregrine Wolff, Mitchell A Gritts, Thomas L Parchman
Conservation biologists have increasingly used translocations to mitigate population declines and restore locally extirpated populations. Genetic data can guide the selection of source populations for translocations and help evaluate restoration success. Bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are a managed big game species that suffered widespread population extirpations across western North America throughout the early 1900s. Subsequent translocation programs have successfully re-established many formally extirpated bighorn herds, but most of these programs pre-date genetically informed management practices...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Annemarie Gous, Dirk Z H Swanevelder, Connal D Eardley, Sandi Willows-Munro
Pollination is a key component in agricultural food production and ecosystem maintenance, with plant-pollinator interactions an important research theme in ecological and evolutionary studies. Natural history collections provide unique access to samples collected at different spatial and temporal scales. Identification of the plant origins of pollen trapped on the bodies of pollinators in these collections provides insight into historic plant communities and pollinators' preferred floral taxa. In this study, pollen was sampled from Megachile venusta Smith bees from the National Collection of Insects, South Africa, spanning 93 years...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Bruce A Robertson, Gábor Horváth
Evolutionary traps are scenarios in which animals are fooled by rapidly changing conditions into preferring poor-quality resources over those that better improve survival and reproductive success. The maladaptive attraction of aquatic insects to artificial sources of horizontally polarized light (e.g., glass buildings, asphalt roads) has become a first model system by which scientists can investigate the behavioral mechanisms that cause traps to occur. We employ this field-based system to experimentally investigate (a) in which portion(s) of the spectrum are polarizationally water-imitating reflectors attractive to nocturnal terrestrial and aquatics insects, and (b) which modern lamp types result in greater attraction in this typical kind of nocturnal polarized light pollution...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Marcus V Warwell, Ruth G Shaw
Drought-related selection during seedling emergence and early development may play a strong role in adaptation. Yet this process is poorly understood and particularly so in relation to ongoing climate change. To evaluate drought-induced differences in selection during early life stages, a total of 50 maternal families sampled from three climatically disparate ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Doug.) populations were grown from seed in two common garden field experiments at a location that was warmer and drier than seed origins...
February 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Maria E López, Laura Benestan, Jean-Sebastien Moore, Charles Perrier, John Gilbey, Alex Di Genova, Alejandro Maass, Diego Diaz, Jean-Paul Lhorente, Katharina Correa, Roberto Neira, Louis Bernatchez, José M Yáñez
Selective breeding and genetic improvement have left detectable signatures on the genomes of domestic species. The elucidation of such signatures is fundamental for detecting genomic regions of biological relevance to domestication and improving management practices. In aquaculture, domestication was carried out independently in different locations worldwide, which provides opportunities to study the parallel effects of domestication on the genome of individuals that have been selected for similar traits. In this study, we aimed to detect potential genomic signatures of domestication in two independent pairs of wild/domesticated Atlantic salmon populations of Canadian and Scottish origins, respectively...
January 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Daniel Pitt, Natalia Sevane, Ezequiel L Nicolazzi, David E MacHugh, Stephen D E Park, Licia Colli, Rodrigo Martinez, Michael W Bruford, Pablo Orozco-terWengel
Cattle have been invaluable for the transition of human society from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary farming communities throughout much of Europe, Asia and Africa since the earliest domestication of cattle more than 10,000 years ago. Although current understanding of relationships among ancestral populations remains limited, domestication of cattle is thought to have occurred on two or three occasions, giving rise to the taurine ( Bos taurus ) and indicine ( Bos indicus ) species that share the aurochs ( Bos primigenius ) as common ancestor ~250,000 years ago...
January 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Daniel Pitt, Michael W Bruford, Mario Barbato, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Rodrigo Martínez, Natalia Sevane
The introduction of Iberian cattle in the Americas after Columbus' arrival imposed high selection pressures on a limited number of animals over a brief period of time. Knowledge of the genomic regions selected during this process may help in enhancing climatic resilience and sustainable animal production. We first determined taurine and indicine contributions to the genomic structure of modern Creole cattle. Second, we inferred their demographic history using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), linkage disequilibrium (LD) and N e Slope (NeS) analysis...
January 2019: Evolutionary Applications
Cynthia C Vigueira, Xinshuai Qi, Beng-Kah Song, Lin-Feng Li, Ana L Caicedo, Yulin Jia, Kenneth M Olsen
Agricultural weeds serve as productive models for studying the genetic basis of rapid adaptation, with weed-adaptive traits potentially evolving multiple times independently in geographically distinct but environmentally similar agroecosystems. Weedy relatives of domesticated crops can be especially interesting systems because of the potential for weed-adaptive alleles to originate through multiple mechanisms, including introgression from cultivated and/or wild relatives, standing genetic variation, and de novo mutations...
January 2019: Evolutionary Applications
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