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Anatomical Sciences Education

Alejandro Quiroga-Garza, Rodrigo Teran-Garza, Rodrigo Enrique Elizondo-Omana, Santos Guzman-Lopez
Clinical skills and medical knowledge enable physicians to overcome the uncertainty of emergent and rare clinical scenarios. Recently, a growing emphasis on evidence-based medicine has flooded medical curricula of universities across the globe with guideline-based material, and while it has given teachers and students new tools to improve medical education, clinical reasoning must be reaffirmed in its capacity to provide physicians with the ability to solve unexpected clinical scenarios. Anatomical education in medical school should have two main objectives: to acquire anatomical knowledge, and to develop the skill of applying that knowledge in clinical scenarios...
February 14, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Adeline L Goss, Vidya Viswanathan, Horace M DeLisser
Medical schools are increasingly integrating professionalism training into their gross anatomy courses, teaching ethical behavior and humanistic attitudes through the dissection experience. However, many schools continue to take a traditional, technical approach to anatomical education while teaching professionalism in separate courses. This interview-based study explored how students viewed the body donor and the professional lessons they learned through dissection at one such medical school. All students oscillated involuntarily between seeing the cadaver as a specimen for learning and seeing the cadaver as a person, with some students intentionally cultivating one of these ways of seeing over the other...
February 10, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Polly R Husmann, Valerie D O'Loughlin, James J Brokaw
The inaugural Anatomy Education Research Institute (AERI) was held in Bloomington, Indiana in July of 2017. This workshop style conference paired experienced educational researchers (invited speakers) with individuals interested in learning more about the field (accepted applicants). In 2017, AERI was held over a five-day period and entailed plenary style presentations, break-out sessions, and specific times for small group mentorship. All participants (applicants and invited speakers) completed a pre-conference survey at the beginning of the institute and a post-conference survey at the end of the institute...
February 4, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Maria Alessandra Sotgiu, Vittorio Mazzarello, Pasquale Bandiera, Roberto Madeddu, Andrea Montella, Bernard Moxham
Neuroanatomy has been deemed crucial for clinical neurosciences. It has been one of the most challenging parts of the anatomical curriculum and is one of the causes of "neurophobia", whose main implication is a negative influence on the choice of neurology in the near future. In the last decades, several educational strategies have been identified to improve the skills of students and to promote a deep learning. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify the most effective method/s to teach human neuroanatomy...
January 31, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Felix Bork, Leonard Stratmann, Stefan Enssle, Ulrich Eck, Nassir Navab, Jens Waschke, Daniela Kugelmann
Early exposure to radiological cross-section images during introductory anatomy and dissection courses increases students' understanding of both anatomy and radiology. Novel technologies such as augmented reality (AR) offer unique advantages for an interactive and hands-on integration with the student at the center of the learning experience. In this article, the benefits of a previously proposed AR Magic Mirror system are compared to the Anatomage, a virtual dissection table as a system for combined anatomy and radiology teaching during a two-semester gross anatomy course with 749 first-year medical students, as well as a follow-up elective course with 72 students...
January 29, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Laura J Weinkle, Jennifer M Stratford, Lisa M J Lee
Instructor evaluations are influenced by implicit age and gender bias, with lower ratings and negative feedback given to instructors believed to stray from stereotypical age and gender norms. Female instructors exhibiting typically male-associated qualities such as leadership and authority, are often negatively impacted. Implicit bias also influences evaluation of digital resources and instructors, regardless of students' positive learning outcomes. As digital learning resources become the norm in education, it is crucial to explore the impact of implicit bias at various educational levels...
January 28, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Hui-Ling Lai, Shoa-Jen Perng, Chiung-Yu Huang
Anatomy is a core course in undergraduate nursing curriculum. In today's nursing profession, the integration of biosciences and humanities is increasingly emphasized. Anatomy is considered one of the most essential bioscience subjects for nursing practice. Thus, integrating a silent mentor program into the anatomy course can enrich the knowledge of undergraduate nursing students regarding biosciences and humanities and enhance their future patient-centered care competencies. This paper aimed to understand students' perceptions of integrating a silent mentor program into the anatomy course...
January 21, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sarah J Greene
Dissection videos are commonly utilized in gross anatomy courses; however, the actual usage of such videos, as well as the academic impact of student use of these videos, is largely unknown. Understanding how dissection videos impact learning is important in making curricular decisions. In this study, 22 dissection videos were created to review structures identified in laboratory sessions throughout the Organ Systems 1 (OS1), 2 (OS2), and 3 (OS3) courses. Dissection videos were provided to 201 first-year medical students, and viewing data were recorded...
January 21, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Andrew R Thompson, Aaron M Marshall
The role of human dissection in modern medical curricula has been a topic of intense debate. In part, this is because dissection can be time consuming and curricular hours are being monitored more carefully. This has led many to question the efficacy and importance of dissection as a teaching method. While this topic has received considerable attention in the literature, the question of how dissection impacts learning has been difficult to evaluate in a real-world, high-stakes setting since participation in dissection is often one of many variables...
January 20, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Michael Hortsch
When educators develop and introduce new learning approaches or resources, they usually have specific didactic goals in mind that they want to achieve. However, these goals may not always match the needs of their students, who often confound such plans by finding new and different uses for the educational tools that are offered to them. Originating from the author's work as the histology component director at the University of Michigan, the experience described here provides an example of a learning resource being re-appropriated by the learning community...
January 19, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Janet M Cope, Mackenzie C Precht, Mary C Hannah, Cynthia C Bennett
In this novel study, the researchers quantify cadaver information provided to Physical Therapy (PT) and Physician Assistant (PA) anatomy faculty and ask what portion of that information is then shared with students. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics of study respondents and to report survey responses. The majority (60% or greater) of faculty who teach anatomy to PT and PA students have clinical degrees matching the student groups they teach. Chi square analysis showed no appreciable difference (P < 0...
January 19, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Roghayeh Barmaki, Kevin Yu, Rebecca Pearlman, Richard Shingles, Felix Bork, Greg M Osgood, Nassir Navab
Students in undergraduate premedical anatomy courses may experience suboptimal and superficial learning experiences due to large class sizes, passive lecture styles, and difficult-to-master concepts. This study introduces an innovative, hands-on activity for human musculoskeletal system education with the aim of improving students' level of engagement and knowledge retention. In this study, a collaborative learning intervention using the REFLECT (augmented-reality for learning clinical anatomy) system is presented...
January 16, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Thomas H Champney
The value that willed body donors provide to medical education is priceless. Their precious gift helps to teach anatomy, spatial relationships between morphological structures, anatomical variation and professionalism to medical students in a way that plastic models, podcasts and lectures cannot. They are also an important resource for medical research and a wide variety of post-graduate training opportunities. While many body donation programs throughout the world are non-profit organizations, there are body donation companies in the United States that sell donors for-profit...
December 27, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Ilan Caplan, Matthew DeCamp
Use of unclaimed bodies for anatomy teaching in undergraduate medical education continues, but is ethically controversial. The purposes of this study were to estimate the proportion of United States medical schools using unclaimed bodies in first-year anatomy laboratories, to determine whether schools inform students of this use, and to explore anatomy course leaders' attitudes toward unclaimed body use. Anatomy course leaders from 146 United States medical schools that had independent pre-clinical programs including anatomy were surveyed...
December 26, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Hannah F Koury, Carly J Leonard, Patrick M Carry, Lisa M J Lee
Histology is a visually oriented, foundational anatomical sciences subject in professional health curricula that has seen a dramatic reduction in educational contact hours and an increase in content migration to a digital platform. While the digital migration of histology laboratories has transformed histology education, few studies have shown the impact of this change on visual literacy development, a critical competency in histology. The objective of this study was to assess whether providing a video clip of an expert's gaze while completing leukocyte identification tasks would increase the efficiency and performance of novices completing similar identification tasks...
December 26, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sabine Hildebrandt
While time spent on anatomical education in medical school curricula has been diminishing over the last decades, the recognized role of anatomical dissection has expanded. It is perceived by many students and faculty not only as the means of learning the structure and function of the human body, but also as an opportunity for the acquisition of professional competencies such as team work, patient-doctor interaction, medical epistemology, self-awareness and an understanding of medical ethics. This viewpoint article proposes that this learning process can be supported effectively through studying examples from the history of anatomy, as insights from this history can help illuminate contemporary ethical issues in anatomy and medicine...
December 23, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
D Gareth Jones
New technological developments have frequently had major consequences for anatomy education, and have raised ethical queries for anatomy educators. The advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing of human material is showing considerable promise as an educational tool that fits alongside cadaveric dissection, plastination, computer simulation, and anatomical models and images. At first glance its ethical implications appear minimal, and yet the more extensive ethical implications around clinical bioprinting suggest that a cautious approach to 3D printing in the dissecting room is in order...
December 15, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sreenivasulu Reddy Mogali, Ranganath Vallabhajosyula, Chee Hon Ng, Darren Lim Meng Shun, Eng Tat Ang, Peter Abrahams
In the past, medical museums played a significant role in anatomy and pathology training. The attraction of medical museums has declined recently due to the emergence of information technology and innovative medical curricula. An innovative mobile learning platform has been developed using Quick Response (QR) codes for the museum specimens at the Lee Kong Chain School of Medicine, Singapore. High quality images of the potted specimens were captured and combined into an album and a video using Adobe Acrobat Pro 9 and Windows Movie Maker respectively...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
İlke Ali Gürses, Ahmet Ertaş, Başak Gürtekin, Osman Coşkun, Mehmet Üzel, Özcan Gayretli, Mehmet Selman Demirci
Little is known regarding the profiles of whole body donors in Muslim majority countries where donation is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to profile registered donors in Turkey by means of a survey. The explored data could be used to improve ongoing campaign efforts and ethical practices such as commemoration services. Registered donors of the donation programs at the two faculties of medicine of Istanbul University were compared with the national population and a cluster analysis was performed to reveal any concealed sub-groups...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Claire F Smith, Scott Border
Anatomy, has in history, been linked to helpful ways to remember structures, branches of nerves, structures passing through foramina, etc. Scalp is even a mnemonic in itself (Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose areolar tissue, Pericranium). There has been concern by some educators that using mnemonics or rhymes promotes a surface approach to learning and is unhelpful in establishing long-term and meaningful deep learning. This article argues that mnemonics and rhyme can be used, in the appropriate way, at the right time, by students as an important learning strategy...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
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