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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

Zhifa Wang, Yukun Cao, Qiang Yin, Yuehu Han, Yunya Wang, Guocheng Sun, Hailong Zhu, Ming Xu, Chunhu Gu
Recent years, studies have demonstrated that hyperglycemia is one of the main manifestations after cardiac surgeries, which contributes to myocardial injuries and increases the chance of subsequent complications and mortality in such patients. However, strategies targeting at glucose metabolic disorder after cardiac surgeries to attenuate myocardial injuries are inadequately studied. In this study, a rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was applied to investigate the role of Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in modulating myocardial glucose metabolic induced cardiac injuries after cardiac surgery...
January 11, 2019: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Qing Liu, Zhengfen Li, Yuexin Liu, Qiuxia Xiao, Xuan Peng, Qi Chen, Rui Deng, Zhiwei Gao, Fengxu Yu, Ying Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (myocardial I/R injury) has a high disability rate and mortality. Novel treatments for myocardial I/R injury are necessary. AIM: In order to explore the protective effect of hydromorphone on myocardial I/R injury, we illuminate the underlying mechanism of the protective effect. RESULTS: Hydromorphone significantly reduced myocardial infarct size (IFN/AAR), CKMB (Creatine Kinase MB) and TN-T (Troponin T) release, and improved cardiac function compared with I/R group...
December 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Carlos Alves, Diogo Mendes, Francisco Batel Marques
INTRODUCTION: Two previous meta-analyses evaluated the risk of cataracts associated with statins, but did not include relevant studies suggesting a cataratogenic effect. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies is to evaluate such association considering the latest published evidence. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify observational, comparative studies evaluating the risk of developing cataracts in patients treated with statins...
December 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kanwal Haneef, Anwar Ali, Irfan Khan, Nadia Naeem, Siddiqua Jamall, Asmat Salim
AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold significant promise as potential therapeutic candidates following cardiac injury. However, to ensure survival of transplanted cells in ischemic environment, it is beneficial to precondition them with growth factors that play important role in cell survival and proliferation. Aim of this study is to use interleukin-7 (IL-7), a cell survival growth factor, to enhance the potential of rat bone marrow MSCs in terms of cell fusion in vitro and cardiac function in vivo...
November 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Qurat-Ul-Ain Jelani, Bhisham Harchandani, Ritchard G Cable, Yu Guo, Hua Zhong, Timothy Hilbert, Jonathan D Newman, Stuart D Katz
INTRODUCTION: Blood donation has been proposed as a potential therapy to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, but the effects of phlebotomy on vascular function in human subjects have not been well characterized. AIMS: We conducted a prospective randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of serial phlebotomy on vascular endothelial function in the brachial artery. Eighty-four iron-replete, non-anemic subjects were randomly assigned to one of three study treatment groups: (a) four serial phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion of placebo normal saline; (b) four serial phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion to replete lost iron; and (c) four serial sham phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion of placebo normal saline...
December 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Julio Núñez, Raquel Heredia, Ana Payá, Ignacio Sanchis, Susana Del Prado, Gema Miñana, Enrique Santas, Rafael de la Espriella, Eduardo Núñez, Juan Sanchis, Antoni Bayés-Genís
AIMS: Optimal diuretic treatment of patients with refractory congestive heart failure (CHF) remains to be elucidated. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the serial changes of functional class and surrogates of fluid overload (weight and antigen carbohydrate 125) after addition of oral acetazolamide in patients with refractory CHF. Likewise, serial changes in renal function, serum electrolytes and pH were evaluated. METHOD: This is an observational retrospective study in which 25 ambulatory patients with refractory CHF that received acetazolamide in addition to standard intensive diuretic strategy were evaluated...
December 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Zhiqiang Zhao, Xiaowei Niu, Zhaojie Dong, Wenwei Qi, Enzhao Liu, Tong Liu, Lifeng Li, Yingzi Liang, Guangping Li
AIM: To investigate the upstream therapeutic effects of fluvastatin and valsartan on hypertensive patients with non-permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: A total of 189 patients who were admitted to outpatient and inpatient department from eight medical centers in China, diagnosed as hypertension with non-permanent AF, were divided into four groups randomly: the CCBs group (group A, n = 45); CCB + fluvastatin group (group B, n = 48); valsartan group (group C, n = 46); valsartan + fluvastatin group (group D, n = 50)...
November 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kezhi Dai, Yaoyao Wang, Sichao Tai, Huajing Ni, Hao Lian, Yan Yu, Weifang Liao, Cheng Zheng, Qing Chen, Aarti Kuver, Jia Li
AIMS: To investigate whether there exists a cardio-protective effect of Fasudil, a selective Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, in an experimental murine model of acute viral myocarditis. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to three groups: control, myocarditis treated with placebo and myocarditis treated with Fasudil (n = 40 animals per group). Myocarditis was established by intraperitoneal injection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). Twenty-four hours after infection, Fasudil was intraperitoneally administered for 14 consecutive days...
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
AIMS: Despite the therapeutic efficacy of statins and antiplatelet agents for atherosclerosis, monotherapy with each drug alone is often insufficient to achieve the patient's therapeutic goals. We previously showed that combined statin/antiplatelet agent/anti-TNF agent therapy (pravastatin/sarpogrelate/etanercept) reduces atherosclerotic lesions by inhibiting TNF, an atherogenic cytokine that contributes to the progression of arteriosclerosis. In addition, our previous study showed that combined treatment with pravastatin and cilostazol is effective for reducing TNF-driven inflammation through anti-TNF activity...
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Ming Yuan, Gary Tse, Zhiwei Zhang, Xu Han, William K K Wu, Guangping Li, Yunlong Xia, Tong Liu
AIM: Cases of cardiotoxicity related to trastuzumab have been reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients of breast cancer treated with trastuzumab. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched until September 2017 for articles that investigated AF incidence in patients receiving trastuzumab for breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies involving 8124 patients treated with trastuzumab were included...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Harshal Deshmukh, Emma Barker, Thineshkrishna Ambarasan, Daniel Levin, Samira Bell, Miles D Witham, Jacob George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Results of interventional trials in renovascular hypertension have been disappointing and medical therapy is the current recommended gold standard. However, the comparative long-term benefits of different antihypertensive drug classes in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis are not known. We aim to assess the effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on outcomes in renovascular hypertension DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Using Tayside Health Informatics Centre database, anonymised data over a 6-year period was analysed...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Yu Zhang, Xurong Gao, Su Yuan, Jingfei Guo, Huanran Lv, Yong Zhou, Yuefu Wang, Hongwen Ji, Guyan Wang, Lihuan Li, Jia Shi
AIMS: Safety evaluations of tranexamic acid (TXA) remain sparse, especially with respect to its impact on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesized that the effects of TXA on perioperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusion and its impact on long-term clinical outcomes of patients receiving on-pump CABG are superior to those in the control group. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 210 patients undergoing primary and isolated on-pump CABG were randomly assigned to receive TXA or a corresponding volume of saline solution...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Xin Yang, Minghua Zhang, Rensheng Song, Changfu Liu, Yong Huo, Geng Qian
OBJECTIVE: In a subgroup analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, we aimed to explore the impact of folic acid supplementation on arterial stiffness and assess the modifying effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in Chinese patients with hypertension. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 2529 hypertensive Chinese patients. Participants were randomized to receive treatment with either a combination of enalapril and folic acid or enalapril...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Stefano Omboni, Massimo Volpe
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality burden related to cardio-metabolic risk. Current guidelines indicate that controlling and lowering BP promotes cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction. Among antihypertensive agents, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are characterized by an efficacy profile equivalent to other antihypertensive agents, and are provided with excellent tolerability profile and low discontinuation rates during chronic treatments. Moreover, CV outcomes are reduced by ARBs...
October 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Michal M Farkowski, Aleksander Maciag, Malgorzata Zurawska, Ilona Kowalik, Hanna Szwed, Mariusz Pytkowski
INTRODUCTION: Options for a pharmacological cardioversion (CV) of short-duration atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with a stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited to amiodarone or vernakalant. Antazoline has been reported to achieve high rates of AF conversion to sinus rhythm, but data on its effectiveness and, more importantly, safety in stable CAD patients, have been sparse. AIMS: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antazoline-based therapy in patients with a stable CAD undergoing pharmacological CV of short-duration AF in the emergency department (ED)...
October 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Zeena Eblimit, Sundararajah Thevananther, Saul J Karpen, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, David D Moore, Luciano Adorini, Daniel J Penny, Moreshwar S Desai
INTRODUCTION: Administration of cholic acid, or its synthetic derivative, 6-alpha-ethyl-23(S)-methylcholic acid (INT-777), activates the membrane GPCR, TGR5, influences whole body metabolism, reduces atherosclerosis, and benefits the cardiovascular physiology in mice. Direct effects of TGR5 agonists, and the role for TGR5, on myocardial cell biology and stress response are unknown. METHODS: Mice were fed chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid (CA) or 0.025% INT-777, a specific TGR5 agonist, or regular chow for 3 weeks...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Rong Yuan, Qiqi Xin, Weili Shi, Wei Liu, Simon-M Lee, Puiman Hoi, Lin Li, Jun Zhao, Weihong Cong, Keji Chen
AIM: It is not clear whether treatment by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer can improve myocardial ischemia through a proangiogenesis mechanism and is effective against coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared VEGF gene therapy and standard treatments in CAD. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and relevant references for RCTs (published up to May 2018; no language restrictions) and performed meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Wei Gong, Youcai Ma, Aobo Li, Han Shi, Shaoping Nie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac rupture (CR) is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). At present, there are no effective pharmacological strategies for preventing post-MI rupture. Here we investigated the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on post-MI CR. METHODS: MI models were induced by left coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6 mice. Animals allocated to the rupture incidence were closely monitored for 7 days; autopsy was performed once animals were found dead to determine the reason of death...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Anna Jonsson, Helena Norberg, Ellinor Bergdahl, Krister Lindmark
AIM: Previous studies and national assessments indicate an undertreatment of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to investigate why MRA is not used to full extent. METHODS: A complete community-based heart failure population was studied. Several variables were collected, and medical records were scrutinized to identify reasons for not prescribing MRA. RESULTS: Of 2029 patients, 812 had EF ≤40%...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Luca Zanella, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Lucia Marigo, Gentian Denas, Seena Padayattil Jose, Vittorio Pengo
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fearful side effect of oral anticoagulant therapy. It is still unclear which risk factor is involved in ICH during vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment and if commonly used bleeding risk scores are able to predict ICH. PURPOSE: Search for individual risk factors and bleeding risk scores (HAS-BLED, ATRIA and ORBIT) associated with ICHs in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with VKAs. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in a single Thrombosis Center...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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