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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

M A Soltan, R M A Dohreig, H Abbas, M Ellawa, I Yousif, A E Aly, M Wasfy, M M El-Sayed
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral disease of cloven footed animals. The disease exhibits overwhelming economic impacts and has been caused by seven antigenically distinct foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes; O, A, C, Asia1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3, all belonging to genus Aphthovirus, Family picornaviradae. Further genetic analysis of viral protein 1 (VP1 gene) classifies the strains within each serotype into topotypes, lineages and/ or genotypes; this classification is important for studying virus molecular epidemiology and tracing the source of newly emerging strains...
February 18, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G Cazeau, A Leblond, C Sala, M Froustey, C Beck, S Lecollinet, J Tapprest
Few studies about the use of quantitative equine mortality data for monitoring purposes are available. Our study evaluated the utility of monitoring emerging equine diseases using mortality data collected by rendering plants. We used approaches involving modelling of historical mortality fluctuations and detection algorithm methods to analyse changes in equine mortality in connection with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak that occurred between July and September 2015 along the Mediterranean coast of France...
February 18, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Raquel Arruda Leme, Flavia Megumi Miyabe, Alais Maria Dall Agnol, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the etiological agent of an acute, self-limiting vesicular disease in pigs characterized by the presence of fluid-filled and/or ruptured vesicles on the snout, lips, and/or hooves (Leme et al., 2015; Joshi et al., 2016), specifically on the coronary bands and/or the interdigital space (Montiel et al., 2016). SVV-associated vesicular disease in pigs closely resembles important viral vesicular infections, including foot-and-mouth disease (Leme et al., 2017). This article is protected by copyright...
February 16, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Li Mao, Leilei Yang, Wenliang Li, Panhong Liang, Shaohua Zhang, Jizong Li, Min Sun, Wenwen Zhang, Liqun Wang, Chunyan Zhong, Maojun Liu, Jieyuan Jiang, Xuepeng Cai, Xuenong Luo
Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is a new member of the Respirovirus genus in the Paramyxivirudae family, mainly causing respiratory disease. Up to now, accumulating evidence has focused on CPIV3 infection in goats, with little understood about its epidemiology in sheep. To that end, we collected 1163 sheep sera samples from 9 provinces/autonomous regions in 2012 and 1863 samples from 6 provinces/autonomous regions during 2016-2017, with serological prevalence of 50.3% (95% CI: 47.5, 53.3) and 64...
February 16, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L Marlenee, Airn E Hartwig, Richard A Bowen, J Jeffrey Root
European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) are all wild birds commonly found in large numbers in and around human dwellings and domestic livestock operations. This study evaluated the susceptibility of these species to three strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV) clade isolated in the US. Experimental infection of European starlings and rock pigeons did not result in any overt signs attributable to AIV infection and no virus shedding was detected from the oral and cloacal routes...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Bryony Armson, Jemma Wadsworth, Tito Kibona, Deogratius Mshanga, Veronica L Fowler, Nick J Knowles, Valérie Mioulet, Richard Reeve, Donald P King, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Tiziana Lembo
Under-reporting of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) masks the true prevalence in parts of the world where the disease is endemic. Laboratory testing for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is usually reliant upon the collection of vesicular epithelium and fluid samples that can only be collected from acutely infected animals, and therefore animals with sub-clinical infection may not be identified. Milk is a non-invasive sample type routinely collected from dairy farms that has been utilised for surveillance of a number of other diseases...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Joseph J Modarelli, John M Tomeček, Julie Piccione, Pamela J Ferro, Maria D Esteve-Gasent
Tick-borne diseases (TBD), caused by borrelial, rickettsial, and babesial pathogens, are common across the United States and can cause severe clinical disease in susceptible hosts, such as domestic dogs. However, there are limited TBD molecular epidemiological reports for dogs in Texas, and none for the non-Lyme borrelial pathogen responsible for causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). Therefore, data to support the prevalence of TBRF in the canine population is inadequate. This study aimed to characterize the molecular prevalence of 11 causative agents responsible for three TBD groups within domestic dogs with an emphasis on pathogen distribution within Texas ecoregions...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Liliana Cárdenas, Lina Awada, Paolo Tizzani, Paula Cáceres, Jordi Casal
This paper describes the global distribution and temporal evolution of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus during a 19-year period (1996 - 2014) using the information officially reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by veterinary services of 156 countries. Variables that can influence the health status of bovine brucellosis (i.e., year, per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), continent, and bovine population) were also analysed. Countries were classified into three categories of health situations: ENZOOTIC: countries infected, which may have been free of brucellosis but for periods of fewer than 3 years; NON-ENZOOTIC: countries where the disease was present but that had at least a 3-year period without the disease; and FREE: countries where the disease remained absent during the whole period...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Paolo Motta, Graeme Garner, Mark Hòvari, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Abdulnaci Bulut, Ilektra A Fragou, Keith Sumption
Disease reporting is an essential frontline component of surveillance systems, particularly for detecting incursions of new and emerging diseases. It has the advantages of being comprehensive and continuous, with the potential to reduce the time of disease detection and the extent of consequent spread. A number of exotic diseases, including sheep and goat pox, lumpy skin disease, peste des petits ruminants and foot and mouth disease have historically entered into south-eastern Europe through the Thrace Region, which extends across neighbouring areas of Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey...
February 7, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Wikanda Tunterak, Duangduean Prakairungnamthip, Patchareeporn Ninvilai, Supanat Bunyapisitsopa, Kanisak Oraveerakul, Jiroj Sasipreeyajan, Alongkorn Amonsin, Aunyaratana Thontiravong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L-F Zhao, J-L Yang, F-M Miao, T Chen, J-H Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mukesh Bhatt, Kaushal Kishor Rajak, Soumendu Chakravarti, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar, Vikas Gupta, Vishal Chander, Karikalan Mathesh, S Chandramohan, Anil Kumar Sharma, K Mahendran, Muthu Sankar, Muthuchelvan Dhanavelu, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Mumtaz Baig, Rabindra Prasad Singh, Raj Kumar Singh
Canine distemper (CD) is one of the highly contagious and invariably fatal viral diseases of dogs and other carnivores. Despite the widespread use of modified live vaccines to control CD, the prevalence of the disease has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. Although a number of factors may be ascribed for vaccine failure, antigenic differences among the vaccine and wild-type strains have gained the interest of researchers. Considering the high genetic variability of haemagglutinin gene (H gene) and its role in eliciting the immune response to canine distemper virus (CDV), we have generated nine full-length CDV H gene sequences from infected dogs including three vaccinated cases...
February 6, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yuko Uchida, Junki Mine, Nobuhiro Takemae, Taichiro Tanikawa, Ryota Tsunekuni, Takehiko Saito
In Japan during the 2016-2017 winter season, clade highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N6 subtype caused 12 outbreaks in chicken and Muscovy duck farms. These viruses have been circulating in Vietnam and China since 2014. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of chicken, Pekin duck, and Muscovy duck to H5N6 HPAIVs that originated in Japan, Vietnam, and China. The H5N6 HPAIVs examined in this study were highly lethal to chickens compared with their pathogenicity in Pekin duck and Muscovy duck...
February 5, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
María Gil Molino, Alfredo García Sánchez, David Risco Pérez, Pilar Gonçalves Blanco, Alberto Quesada Molina, Joaquín Rey Pérez, Francisco Eduardo Martín Cano, Rosario Cerrato Horrillo, Javier Hermoso-de-Mendoza Salcedo, Pedro Fernández Llario
The importance of wild boars as game species in Spain is well known. Their feeding habits and intrusive behaviour, together with a progressively wider spreading of populations, increases the interactions of these animals with livestock and humans. Considering that wild boars could have a potential role in the transmission of certain pathogens as salmonellae, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in wild boars hunted in central-western Spain, the occurrence of this pathogen in tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes and faeces (as markers for transmission risk), and to define the phylogenetic relationships among isolated strains, in order to investigate the circulation pathways of bacteria among tissues, animals and estates...
February 5, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Karren Prost, Harold Kloeze, Shamir Mukhi, Katie Bozek, Zvonimir Poljak, Samira Mubareka
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine is of significant importance to human and veterinary public health. Environmental sampling techniques that prove practical would enhance surveillance for influenza viruses in swine. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of bioaerosol and surface sampling for the detection of influenza virus in swine barns with a secondary objective of piloting a mobile application for data collection. METHODS: Sampling was conducted at a large swine operation between July 2016 and August 2017...
February 4, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Alberto Laddomada, Sandro Rolesu, Federica Loi, Stefano Cappai, Annalisa Oggiano, Maria Paola Madrau, Maria Luisa Sanna, Giovannantonio Pilo, Ennio Bandino, Diego Brundu, Simonetta Cherchi, Sergio Masala, Daniela Marongiu, Giuseppe Bitti, Pietro Desini, Vincenzo Floris, Luigi Mundula, Giovanni Carboni, Marco Pittau, Francesco Feliziani, José Manuel Sanchez-Vizcaino, Cristina Jurado, Vittorio Guberti, Michele Chessa, Marco Muzzeddu, Daniela Sardo, Borrello Silvio, Daniela Mulas, Gianni Salis, Paola Zinzula, Sebastiano Piredda, Alessandro De Martini, Francesco Sgarangella
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease, caused by the ASF virus (ASFV), which is a DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae, genus Asfivirus. This disease has gained importance in the last decade after its spread in several countries in Eastern and Central Europe, and more recently, in China. Despite the efforts made to eradicate it, ASF is still present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Italy) and has been since 1978. ASF risk factors on the island have been analysed in previous studies; the role of free-ranging pigs in virus persistence has been suggested, but has not been fully elucidated...
February 4, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A S M R U Alam, M R Ali, M A Hossain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Zixiang Zhu, Jijun He, Fan Yang, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Anahi S Vieira, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Roberto do Val Vilela, Diogo Loretto, Lauren H Jaeger, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a common worldwide bacterial zoonosis and has been studied in One Health approaches. Small mammals are described as the most important maintenance reservoirs of several pathogens in nature, including leptospires. The aim of this study was to identify infection by leptospires among small mammals on the Atlantic forest biome and evaluate their potential as carriers of these spirochetes. A total of 153 small mammals belonging to orders Rodentia and Didelphimorphia (distributed on 17 genera and 22 species) were captured...
January 31, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Pauline Carrié, Séverine Barry, Elodie Rousset, Renée de Crémoux, Carole Sala, Didier Calavas, Jean-Baptiste Perrin, Anne Bronner, Patrick Gasqui, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Claire A M Becker, Kristel Gache, Elsa Jourdain
Q fever is a zoonotic abortive disease of ruminants mostly transmitted by inhalation of aerosols contaminated by C. burnetii. Clusters of cases or even epidemics regularly occur in humans but, to date, there is no consensus about the best way to carry out outbreak investigations in order to identify potential farms at risk. Although environmental samples might be useful during such investigations, there are few baseline data on the presence of C. burnetii in the environment of ruminant farms. We thus investigated dust samples from cattle, sheep, and goat farm buildings in order to (1) estimate C...
January 31, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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