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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

Helena Lee, Jennifer Scott, Helen Griffiths, Jay E Self, Andrew Lotery
Albinism is a group of disorders characterised by pigment deficiency and abnormal retinal development. Despite being a common cause for visual impairment world-wide, there is a paucity of treatments and patients typically suffer life-long visual disability. Residual plasticity of the developing retina in young children with albinism has been demonstrated, suggesting a post-natal window for therapeutic rescue. L-3, 4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a key signalling molecule which is essential for normal retinal development, is known to be deficient in albinism...
March 9, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Jung Min Bae, Sung Hye Eun, Sang Ho Oh, Jeong Hyun Shin, Hee Young Kang, Ki-Ho Kim, Seung-Chul Lee, Chong Won Choi
A 308-nm excimer laser (EL) has been widely used to treat patients with localized vitiligo. However, data are rare on the influence of EL treatment on the risks of skin cancer. To evaluate the skin cancer risks after long-term EL treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database. A total of 5,052 patients with vitiligo were classified into three groups according to the EL treatment sessions between 2009 and 2016: no, 50 to 99, and 100 or more EL treatments after 2-year washout period (2007 and 2008)...
March 8, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Abdulnaser Alkhalil, Bonnie C Carney, Taryn E Travis, Seid Muhie, Stacy Ann Miller, Jessica C Ramella-Roman, Pejhman Ghassemi, Rasha Hammamieh, Marti Jett, Lauren T Moffatt, Jeffrey W Shupp
Although pigment synthesis is well understood, relevant mechanisms of psychologically debilitating dyspigmentation in nascent tissue after cutaneous injuries are still unknown. Here, differences in genomic transcription of hyper- and hypopigmented tissue relative to uninjured skin were investigated using a red Duroc swine scar model. Transcription profiles differed based on pigmentation phenotypes with a trend of more upregulation or downregulation in hyper- or hypopigmented scars, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of significantly modulated genes in both pigmentation phenotypes showed pathways related to redox, metabolic, and inflammatory responses were more present in hypopigmented samples, while those related to stem cell development differentiation were found mainly in hyperpigmented samples...
March 8, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Chieko Hosaka, Makoto Kunisada, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Taro Masaki, Chihiro Takemori, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Takashi Aoi, Chikako Nishigori
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a novel approach for conversion of human primary fibroblasts into melanocytes. During attempts to explore various protocols for differentiation of iPSCs into melanocytes, we found a distinct and self-renewing cell lineage that could differentiate into melanocytes, named as melanocyte precursor cells (MPCs). The MPCs exhibited a morphology distinctive from that of melanocytes, in either lacking the melanosomal structure, or the melanocyte-specific marker genes MITF, TYR and SOX10...
March 6, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Eric T Domyan, Jeremy Hardy, Tanner Wright, Cody Frazer, Jordan Daniels, Joshua Kirkpatrick, Jacob Kirkpatrick, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Jonathon T Hill
The domesticated rock pigeon (Columba livia) has been bred for hundreds of years to display an immense variety of ornamental attributes such as feather color and color patterns. Color is influenced by multiple loci that impact the type and amount of melanin deposited on the feathers. Pigeons homozygous for the "recessive red" mutation, which causes downregulation of Sox10, display brilliant red feathers instead of blue/black feathers. Sox10 encodes a transcription factor important for melanocyte differentiation and function, but the genes that mediate its promotion of black vs...
March 6, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Alain Patrick Algazi, Julia Rotow, Christian Posch, Susana Ortiz-Urda, Alyson Pelayo, Pamela N Munster, Adil Daud
Single or dual agent inhibition of the MAPK pathway can induce objective responses in up to 70% of BRAF mutant melanoma patients, but these responses are transient in most patients (e. g. Long et al., 2015). Aberrant signaling in the PI3K pathway has been implicated in both melanoma oncogenesis and in BRAF inhibitor resistance (e. g. Dankort et al., 2009; Goel et al., 2006). PTEN loss, which leads to increased PI3K activity, is common in patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (McArthur et al...
February 24, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Gabriel E Bertolesi, John Zhijia Zhang, Sarah McFarlane
Different camouflages work best with some background matching colour. Our understanding of the evolution of skin colour is based mainly on the genetics of pigmentation ('background matching'), with little known about the evolution of the neuroendocrine systems that facilitate 'background adaptation' through colour phenotypic plasticity. To address the latter, we studied the evolution in vertebrates of three genes, pomc, pmch and pmchl, that code for α-MSH and two Melanin Concentrating Hormones (MCH and MCHL)...
February 21, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Ines Pires da Silva, Isabella C Glitza, Lauren E Haydu, Romany Johnpulle, Patricia D Banks, George D Grass, Simone Ma Goldinger, Jessica L Smith, Ashlyn S Everett, Peter Koelblinger, Rachel Roberts-Thomson, Michael Millward, Victoria G Atkinson, Alexander Guminski, Rony Kapoor, Robert M Conry, Matteo S Carlino, Wei Wang, Mark J Shackleton, Zeynep Eroglu, Serigne Lo, Angela M Hong, Georgina V Long, Douglas B Johnson, Alexander M Menzies
BACKGROUND: Brain radiotherapy is used in the management of melanoma brain metastases (MBM), and can result in radionecrosis. Anti-PD-1 is active in the brain and may increase the risk of radionecrosis when combined with radiotherapy. We studied the incidence, associated factors and management of radionecrosis in longer-term survivors with MBM treated with this combination. METHODS: Patients with MBM treated with radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 who survived greater than 1-year were identified to determine radionecrosis incidence (cohort A, n=135)...
February 15, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Arthur Kammeyer, Karin J Willemsen, Wouter Ouwerkerk, Walbert J Bakker, Danielle Ratsma, Sebas D Pronk, Nico Pm Smit, Rosalie M Luiten
Monobenzone is a 4-substituted phenol that can induce vitiligo and antimelanoma immunity. We investigated the influence of the chemical structure on the biological activity of a series of structurally-related 4-substituted phenols. All phenols inhibited cellular melanin synthesis, and eight of ten phenols inhibited tyrosinase activity, using the MBTH assay. These phenols also induced glutathione (GSH) depletion, indicative of quinone formation and protein thiol binding, which can increase the immunogenicity of melanosomal proteins...
February 14, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Ashley M Hopkins, Madele Van Dyk, Andrew Rowland, Michael J Sorich
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of early adverse events on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response within a pooled secondary analysis of participants treated with first-line vemurafenib or vemurafenib plus cobimetinib in the clinical trials BRIM3 and coBRIM. The study included 583 participants who received vemurafenib monotherapy and 247 who received vemurafenib plus cobimetinib. Adverse events requiring vemurafenib/cobimetinib dose adjustment within the first 28 days of therapy were significantly associated with OS (Hazard Ratio (HR) [95%CI]: Dose reduced/interrupted = 0...
February 13, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Robert Ballotti, Eugene Healy, Corine Bertolotto
The high incidence of keratinocyte cancers globally makes a chemopreventive approach to inhibit development of new skin cancers attractive. Chen and colleagues reported the results of a phase III double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial showing that nicotinamide (NAM), an amide form of vitamin B3, leads to a reduction in the rates of new keratinocyte cancers in patients who previously had skin cancer (Chen et al., 2015) (Figure 1). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
February 11, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Zeynep Eroglu, Sheri L Holmen, Qing Chen, Nikhil I Khushalani, Ravi Amaravadi, Reena Thomas, Kamran A Ahmed, Hussein Tawbi, Sunandana Chandra, Joseph Markowitz, Inna Smalley, James K C Liu, Yian Ann Chen, Yana G Najjar, Florian A Karreth, Daniel Abate-Daga, Isabella C Glitza, Jeffrey A Sosman, Vernon K Sondak, Marcus Bosenberg, Meenhard Herlyn, Michael B Atkins, Harriet Kluger, Kim Margolin, Peter A Forsyth, Michael A Davies, Keiran S M Smalley
In February 2018, the Melanoma Research Foundation and the Moffitt Cancer Center hosted the Second Summit on Melanoma Central Nervous System (CNS) Metastases in Tampa, Florida. In this white paper, we outline the current status of basic science, translational, and clinical research into melanoma brain metastasis development and therapeutic management. We further outline the important challenges that remain for the field and the critical barriers that need to be overcome for continued progress to be made in this clinically difficult area...
February 3, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Kriti Mishra, Raymond Lann Barnhill, Lisa Erin Paddock, Judith Ann Fine, Marianne Berwick
We evaluated clinical, phenotypic, behavioral and histopathologic variables in relationship to melanoma-specificsurvival by age at diagnosis among 650 population-based melanoma patients in Connecticut, with 20years of follow up. Only one variable, skin awareness, was significantly associated with melanoma mortality in both groups. The variables that differed between the age groups were anatomic site, Breslow thickness, histologic subtype, mitoses, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and solar elastosis. Head and neck melanoma, Breslow thickness, nodular melanoma and solar elastosis were all significantly more likely to be associated with mortality among the older subjects; among the younger subjects, the presence of mitoses was associated with an increased probability of dying and TILs were associated with a reduced risk of mortality...
January 31, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Kim R M Blenman, Jake Wang, Shawn Cowper, Marcus Bosenberg
We evaluated the spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced histological changes in the tumor microenvironment of a mouse melanoma regression model consisting of immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice implanted with syngeneic YUMMER1.7 melanoma cells. We focused on tumor regression phenotypes and spatial relationships of melanoma cells with B cells and neutrophils since this was not previously described. We found common themes to the host response to cancer irrespective of the mode of tumor regression. In nonregression tumors, melanoma cells were epithelioid shaped and tightly packed...
January 31, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Nihal Kenawy, Helen Kalirai, Joseph J Sacco, Sarah L Lake, Steffen Heegaard, Ann-Cathrine Larsen, Paul T Finger, Tatyana Milman, Kimberly Chin, Carlo Mosci, Francesco Lanza, Alexandre Moulin, Caroline A Schmitt, Jean Pierre Caujolle, Célia Maschi, Marina Marinkovic, Azzam F Taktak, Heinrich Heimann, Bertil E Damato, Sarah E Coupland
Relatively little is known about the genetic aberrations of conjunctival melanomas (CoM) and their correlation with clinical and histomorphological features as well as prognosis. The aim of this large collaborative multicenter study was to determine potential key biomarkers for metastatic risk and any druggable targets for high metastatic risk CoM. Using Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays on 59 CoM, we detected frequent amplifications on chromosome (chr) 6p and deletions on 7q, and characterized mutation-specific copy number alterations...
January 23, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Michael R Sargen, Jeffrey M Cloutier, Kavita Y Sarin, Kerri E Rieger, Pauline Chu, Susan M Swetter, Roberto A Novoa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Inbal Rachmin, David E Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Pauline Salis, Thibault Lorin, Victor Lewis, Carine Rey, Anna Marcionetti, Marie-Line Escande, Natacha Roux, Laurence Besseau, Nicolas Salamin, Marie Sémon, David Parichy, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Vincent Laudet
Actinopterygian fishes harbor at least eight distinct pigment cell types, leading to a fascinating diversity of colors. Among this diversity, the cellular origin of the white color appears to be linked to several pigment cell types such as iridophores or leucophores. We used the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris, which has a color pattern consisting of white bars over a darker body, to characterize the pigment cells that underlie the white hue. We observe by electron microscopy that cells in white bars are similar to iridophores...
January 11, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Dareen M Mikheil, Kirthana Prabhakar, Ayyan Arshad, Carlos Rodriguez, Michael A Newton, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri
The role of Notch signaling in melanoma drug resistance is not well understood. In this study, we show that although NOTCH proteins are upregulated in metastatic melanoma cell lines, Notch signaling inhibition had no effect on cell survival, growth, migration or the sensitivity of BRAFV600E-melanoma cells to MAPK inhibition (MAPKi). We found that NOTCH1 is downregulated in melanoma cell lines with intrinsic and acquired resistance to MAPKi. Forced expression of NICD1, the active form of Notch, caused apoptosis of the NOTCHlo , MAPKi-resistant cells, but not the NOTCHhi , MAPKi-sensitive melanoma cell lines...
January 7, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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