Journals Current Reviews in Musculoskel...

Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Christopher D Riehm, Taylor Zuleger, Jed A Diekfuss, Emilio Arellano, Gregory D Myer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present recent findings and advancements in the use of neuroimaging to evaluate neural activity relative to ACL injury risk and patellofemoral pain. In particular, we describe prior work using fMRI and EEG that demonstrate the value of these techniques as well as the necessity of continued development in this area. Our goal is to support future work by providing guidance for the successful application of neuroimaging techniques that most effectively expose pain and injury mechanisms...
December 18, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Shaheen Jadidi, Aaron D Lee, Eliza J Pierko, Haemi Choi, Nathaniel S Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute knee injuries are commonly encountered in both the clinical and sideline setting and may be treated operatively or non-operatively. This article describes an evidence-based approach to non-operative acute knee injury. This includes history, physical exam, imaging, and initial management. In addition, the non-operative management of three such injuries-ligament injury, meniscus injury, and patellar dislocation injury-will be discussed via a case-based practical approach...
December 14, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Soroush Baghdadi, Keith Baldwin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) is the preferred treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with surgical range curves. Selection of the proper upper and lower instrumented vertebrae (UIV and LIV) is essential in curve correction and achieving a successful outcome, while preventing short and long-term complications. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature lacks high-level evidence, especially on outcomes of modern surgical techniques. However, evidence seems to show that a great majority of AIS patients have excellent clinical and functional long-term outcomes after PSF...
December 14, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Tyler J Stavinoha, Kevin G Shea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update and concepts for pediatric physeal-sparing patellofemoral stabilization surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated positive results in patellofemoral stabilization in pediatric populations with physeal-sparing techniques that limit the potential for physeal damage. Comprehensive analysis remains limited by population and technique heterogeneity. Physeal-sparing patellofemoral stabilization, most significantly through physeal-sparing reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament complex remains a viable option for pediatric patients with recurrent patellofemoral instability...
December 11, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Jacob Davis, Bridget Doyle, Haruki Ishii, Neeru Jayanthi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The evaluation of a young athlete with an overuse injury to the knee involves a comprehensive approach. There are a number of elements to consider including assessments of skeletal maturity (biologic maturation), workload (training load + competition load), sport specialization status, and biomechanics. The type of injury and treatment, as well as future prognosis, may be influenced by these and other factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Calculating the percentage of predicted adult height (PPAH) is a valuable tool in assessing overuse injury patterns and diagnoses in youth athletes...
November 24, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Elizabeth O Clayton, Confidence Njoku-Austin, Devon M Scott, Jarrett D Cain, MaCalus V Hogan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition affecting many individuals worldwide and leads to billions of dollars spent within the healthcare system for its treatment and complications. Complications from diabetes include diabetic foot conditions that can have a devasting impact on quality of life. Diabetic foot ulcers and amputations occur in minority individuals at an increased rate compared to Caucasian individuals. This review provides an update examining the racial and ethnic disparities in the management of diabetic foot conditions and the differences in rates of amputation...
November 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Bradley Anderson, Bahar Shahidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal ligament is an important component of the spinal column in mitigating biomechanical stress. Particularly the posterior ligamentous complex, which is composed of the ligamentum flavum, interspinous, and supraspinous ligaments. However, research characterizing the biomechanics and role of ligament health in spinal pathology and clinical context are scarce. This article provides a comprehensive review of the implications of spinal pathology on the structure, function, and biomechanical properties of the posterior ligamentous complex...
October 23, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Nicolò Zanchi, Marc R Safran, Paul Herickhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a pathomechanical process whereby abnormal contact between proximal femur and acetabulum at end range of hip motion induces chondrolabral lesions within the hip joint. Surgery followed by a rehabilitation program or physical therapy with possible addition of an intra-articular corticosteroid injection are the two predominant treatments. The majority of authors recognize that a well-designed rehabilitation protocol is essential to achieve good outcomes with both nonoperative and surgical treatment...
October 10, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Jairo Triana, Zachary I Li, Naina Rao, Matthew T Kingery, Eric J Strauss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous cartilage restoration techniques have proven to be effective in the treatment of articular cartilage defects. The ultimate goal of these procedures is to improve pain and function, thereby increasing the likelihood of a patient's return to physical activity. Postoperative rehabilitation is a key component for a successful and expedient return to activities. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding common surgical options, rehabilitation protocols, and performance outcomes after operative treatment of articular cartilage defects...
October 7, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Arjun Gupta, Priya K Singh, Amy L Xu, Rachel S Bronheim, Claire M McDaniel, Amiethab A Aiyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First metatarsophalangeal joint sprains or turf toe (TT) injuries occur secondary to forceful hyperextension of the great toe. TT injuries are common among athletes, especially those participating in football, soccer, basketball, dancing, and wrestling. This review summarizes the current treatment modalities, rehabilitation protocols, and return-to-play criteria, as well as performance outcomes of patients who have sustained TT injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: Less than 2% of TT injuries require surgery, but those that do are typically grade III injuries with damage to the MTP joint, evidence of bony injury, or severe instability...
October 3, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Leta Ashebo, Jason B Anari, Patrick J Cahill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review the most recent advancements in the approaches to EOS diagnosis and assessment, surgical indications and options, and basic science innovation in the space of early-onset scoliosis research. RECENT FINDINGS: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) covers a diverse, heterogeneous range of spinal and chest wall deformities that affect children under 10 years old. Recent efforts have sought to examine the validity and reliability of a recently developed classification system to better standardize the presentation of EOS...
October 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Antonio M Foruria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates (ORIF-LP) has been used for decades for the surgical management of proximal humerus fractures. Despite good outcomes have been widely published in the literature, unacceptably high rates of complications (up to 40%), many of them yielding poor outcomes and requiring reoperation (up to 25%), have also been reported, especially in elderly patients. Most common complications are related to implant failure, with intra-articular screw penetration as the most frequent and devastating...
October 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Alejandro Cazzulino, Katherine Bach, Rafael Cordero, Ishaan Swarup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the current review is to analyze the current literature regarding the tools available to evaluate patient expectations and satisfaction. There have been an increasing number of tools that have been developed and validated for various orthopedic procedures. Despite the growing number of tools, there are a limited number of tools available for pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several tools have been developed in orthopedics to evaluate patient expectations...
September 20, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ucheze C Ononuju, Jakara B Morgan, Gabriella E Ode
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Across surgical specialties, residencies are incentivized to improve program diversity, most often through recruitment of underrepresented minority (URM), women, LGBTQ, and disabled applicants. However, residency attrition remains high in these groups, highlighting the need for specific inclusion initiatives to improve retention and support for these cohorts. A better understanding of previous efforts at retention is paramount. This paper reviews the existing literature on inclusion and retention efforts in surgical residencies...
September 16, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Magdalena Tarchala, Sarah Kerslake, Laurie A Hiemstra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common and biomechanically influential pathoanatomic risk factor for recurrent patellofemoral instability is trochlear dysplasia. Sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty is a procedure developed to address high-grade trochlear dysplasia in the setting of patellofemoral instability. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current classification and surgical management of trochlear dysplasia as well as to review the current literature on the clinical outcomes and complications of sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty...
September 12, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Clark Yin, Betina B Hinckel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obligatory dislocation of the patella (also known as habitual dislocation) is a rare subset of patellofemoral instability in which the patella dislocates every time the knee is flexed. The problem arises due to contracture of the quadriceps muscles. Soft tissue lengthening procedures such as quadriceps tendon lengthening are the mainstay of treatment, in contrast to medial patellofemoral reconstruction (MPFL-R) for the more common recurrent lateral patellar dislocation...
September 4, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Stefan Hanish, Maaz Muhammed, Shayne Kelly, Steven DeFroda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a common cause of hip pain that may potentially lead to osteoarthritis. Operative management of FAIS seeks to arthroscopically reshape the abnormal hip morphology and repair the labrum. For rehabilitation following operative management, a structured physical therapy program is unanimously recommended for the patient to return to their previous level of physical activity. Yet, despite this unanimous recommendation, significant heterogeneity exists among the current recommendations for postoperative physical therapy programs...
September 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Rosa M Pasculli, Elizabeth A Callahan, James Wu, Niam Edralin, William A Berrigan
PURPOSE: To serve as a guide for non-operative physicians in the management of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome and provide an algorithm as to when to refer patients for potential surgical management. RECENT FINDINGS: Supervised physical therapy programs that focus on active strengthening and core strengthening are more effective than unsupervised, passive, and non-core-focused programs. There is promising evidence for the use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid and PRP as adjunct treatment options...
August 31, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Jennifer M O'Donnell, Wei Wu, Alex Youn, Angad Mann, Ishaan Swarup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Scheuermann's kyphosis (SK) is a developmental deformity of the spine that affects up to 8% of children in the US. Although, the natural progression of SK is noted to be gradual over years, severe deformity can be associated with significant morbidity. Thorough clinical examination and interpretation of relevant imaging help differentiate and confirm this diagnosis. Treatment includes both operative and nonoperative approaches. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated overview of the current theories of its pathogenesis, as well as the principles of diagnosis and treatment of SK...
August 24, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Alexander R Markes, Nikit Venishetty, Andrew Gatto, Ishaan Swarup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of heterotopic ossification (HO) in pediatric patients, including an in-depth examination of the risk factors associated with this condition, current prophylactic measures, and available management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: HO is a medical disorder in which bone tissue inexplicably develops in soft tissues such as muscles and tendons. It involves the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extra-skeletal soft tissue, and its formation is influenced by oxygen tension, pH, the availability of micronutrients, and mechanical stimulation...
August 17, 2023: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
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